Articles

MANAGING RATIONAL USE OF DRUGS IN BANGLADESH

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Despite substantial progress in drug manufacturing, irrational drug use, inappropriate prescribing, inadequate access to essential drugs are major problems affecting the total health care system badly of Bangladesh. Virtually, all the drugs are available without prescriptions and self-medications are highly common. Access to essential medicines is significantly less than that mentioned in the official documents. Price of essential medicines is not consistent and the drugs regulating authority does not have any control over pricing of drugs. In short, the economical development and educational flourishment doesn’t represent the health sector of Bangladesh.

Purpose: Discussion and projection of drug use and monitoring status in Bangladesh. The pharmacists have a vital role to play which is thoroughly discussed.

SOME NATURAL ISOLATED COMPOUNDS AS ANTICANCER AGENTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
R. Mishra1, P. Barad1, N. Patel2, N. Patel3*
1Department of Pharmacy,

Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

2Department of Pharmacognosy,

Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

3Department of Pharmacology,
Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

ABSTRACT
Worldwide cancer is the major cause of death. Almost 8.8 million people died due to different types of cancer such as lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, blood cancer etc. in 2015. Government of various countries and some private organizations are spending trillions dollars for the research in cancer.  According to report of WHO treatment cost of cancer is approximately US$ 1.16 trillion per year and this amount is increasing per year. Despite of huge work the exact cause of genesis is still unknown. Couples of therapies like chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and targeted therapy are available with some detrimental effect. Now scientists are seeking lead molecule from naturally occurring substances due to high safety margin as compared to current approaches. Natural phytochemicals are prominent strategy for prevention, treating, and curing cancer. There are many phytochemicals from herbs having potent anticancer property. Generally these phytochemicals treat cancer by different mechanisms like augmenting apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, targeting to some specific cancer inducing proteins, increasing cytotoxicity etc. This is our little attempt to gather information of phytochemicals having anticancer property such as Etoposide, Curcumin, Vincristine, etc. with postulated mechanism. Etoposide is effective in lung cancer, ovarian cancer by inhibiting type II Topoisomerase. Various research revealed that Curcumin is effective in different types of cancers by increasing apoptosis and targeting specific gene such as MDM2 oncogene is inhibited through the ETS2 transcription factor by modulation of signaling pathway PI3K/mTOR in breast cancer. Vincristine shows anticancer property by oncogenic EWS-FLI1 fusion protein inhibition which cause G2-M phase cell cycle arrest & reduce tumor. This review depicts few phytochemicals having anticancer property such as Etoposide, Curcumin, vincristine, etc. with possible mechanism.

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER AND ITS CARE AN REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
1Anjani Srivarsha G , 3Nagavamsidhar M , 4Sai Teja D, 2Qadrie ZL.
1,3,4Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suryapet, Hyderabad, Telangana
2 Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suryapet, Hyderabad, Telangana

ABSTRACT:
Actually 14 to 16th century in Europe some people have experienced that sexual or other thoughts were by devil then the journey start. 1910, Sigmund Freud said that obsessions and compulsive behaviours are symptoms of OCD. Obsessive compulsory disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder. Obsessive compulsive disorder causes the brain stuck on a particular thought or urge. Actually  these  patients  are  having  a obsessive thoughts  means  they  always  occurring  of  images, several  thoughts or pictures over and over in the  mind. These thoughts or rituals can triggered more anxiety. These OCD patients can find out by the facts like washing, cleaning, checking and repeating. The  American  psychiatric  association said  that the females  are  more  affected  then  the  men. The  OCD is  a common , chronic  (long  lasting  disorder)  the  people  with  OCD can  feel  the  temporary  relief  from  the  anxiety if  the  person  can  untreated  then  they  cause  the  more  stress  and  the  effects  seen  on the  work, school  and  lead  to  serious  effects  on personal  relationships. Actually  obsessive compulsive disorder is a brain  injury , it involves  basal  ganglion (Eg: encephalitis  or  trauma) usually  there  is  no  neurologic  precipitant. The  evidence  suggesting  a selective  and  potent  serotonin(5-HT) reuptake  blocker drugs  are  successful  treatment in biological  basis of OCD. The drugs with the other mechanism of action have not been effective more. The neurotransmitter plays an important role in pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder.

AN INCISIVE REVIEW OF NANOSENSORS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Inderjeet Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Maninder Kaur
Department of Biotechnology, CT institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shahpur, Jalandhar, Punjab

ABSTRACT
Nanosensors are increasing expanding consideration because of the need to distinguish and measure chemical and physical properties in hard to achieve biological and industrial systems that are in the nano-scale locale. An option is given in the fast improvement of nanosensors which have favorable position to recognize sustenance segments in a simple and brisk way. Different kinds of nanosensors are being produced to meet the diverse necessities in food inspection (nanosensors for identification of outside and interior conditions in food packaging, carbon nanotubes based electrochemical sensors for recognition of cations, anions and organic compounds in nourishment, different aptamers for identification of pesticides, anti-microbials, overwhelming metals, microbial cells and poisons).

UPDATES ON THE AMENDMENTS MADE ON THE DRUGS AND COSMETICS RULE 1945 (AMENDMENT RULES 2018) ON LABELING OF MEDICINES RULES 96 & 97

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Godiyal Shrikant*, Panwar Sonu, Singh Lucky
Regulatory Affairs Department, Tirupati Medicare Limited, Paonta Sahib, HP, India

ABSTRACT:
Context: To update the amendments made in Gazette Notification for changes in the Manner of Labeling of Medicine as specified in Rule 96 & 97, which shall be required to be displayed on the inner most container and every outer in which the medicines are packed on the basis of Pharmacological Category of the product under which it falls. The label of OTC medicines plays an important role in conveying valuable information to the  patient for safe and effective use of OTC.
Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the labelling of OTC  drugs in India as per the guidelines of US FDA. Objective: To prepare label of the medicines as per the mandatory information to be displayed on the label of the container so that the text matter on the label is clear, readable as shall fulfill the necessary requirements of Drug & cosmetic Act.

MUNTINGIA CALABURA (JAMAICA CHERRY ) : AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
S.Sarojini1, B.Mounika,2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shri Venkateshwara College of Pharmacy, Ariyur, Puducherry, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Nalanda College of Pharmacy, Nalgonda, Telangana,
India

ABSTRACT
Muntingia, or JamaicaCherry, is a small, fast growing tree that can reach up to 40 ft. tall at full maturity. The soft leaves are evergreen and have an alternate phyllotaxy. Leaves are dark green on top and light green underneath. The small, white flowers feature yellow stamens in the center. The small, round fruits are abundant, and depending on the variety, have a red or yellow color. Fruits are edible raw or made into jam. The fruit possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity. The flowers have antiseptic and antispasmodic qualities, and are made into medicinal teas. The M. calabura leaves exhibited potential anti-proliferative and antioxidant activities. The present study on Muntingia is to give an overview on traditional uses and pharmacological activity
.

EXTRACTION AND CHEMICAL TESTS ON Cicer arietinum SEED COLLECTED FROM NORTH BENGAL REGION OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Mrinmoy Nag*1, Souvik Mukherjee2, Deepronil Roy3, Rakesh Kumar Paul4, Mir, Saidul Ali5
1School of Natural Product Studies,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department Of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Natural Products,
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab, India
3 Department of Zoology,
Chandernagore College, Chandernagore, Hooghly, West Bengal, India
4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Chemical Technology,
Central University Tripura, India

ABSTRACT:  Chickpea is the seed of the chickpea plant, Cicer arietinum, which belongs to the family fabaceae. It offers a range of health benefits which includes lowering cholesterol, regulating blood sugar level, aiding weight loss, improving heart health, fighting nervous system disorders, improving digestion and relieving constipation. So in this article we emphasis on the different solvent extraction and its chemical tests have been shown from the seeds collected from local market of Siliguri district of West Bengal, India.

THE KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, ATTITUDE AND RESPONSE ABOUT RATIONAL DRUG THERAPY ON COMMON PEOPLE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
SUMAN A*,QADRIE ZL, SAI  TEJA, ALTAF M, NAGAVAMSIDHAR M, SRIKANTH J
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Pratishta Institute of  Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Suryapet, Telangana, India

ABSTRACT
The definition Rational drug therapy is the use of drugs, which are efficient, safe, low-cost and easy to administer. It requires that health practitioners have adequate medical knowledge and appropriate skill for correct diagnosis and treatment. Rational drug therapy one of the major part in treatment to give accurate treatment to patient. It is very important for underdeveloped and developing countries, not only these both it is important factor too developed countries. The rational drug therapy should be followed in each and every treatment it gives efficacy and effective treatment to patients and common people. The common people sometimes fallow over counter drugs (OTC) it is an unrationalised way not only OTC but also doctor prescribed treatment. Rational drug therapy shows main impact on treatment duration of patient and healthy life common people. The study was mainly done on common people to know about rational drug therapy procedure, how much knowledge about rational way of treatment and drugs intake. This pattern of study is about how much they skipped doses and treatment taken on which references. The patient and people how they misuse the drugs for their treatment.

GENERIC VERSUS BRANDED MEDICINES AVAILABLE ON THE LOCAL MARKET

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Hanan. M. El Bsir1,  Mokhtar. M. El-Baseir2, Abdulrhman  .A . Akasha2*,  Somaia.A . Elsaedi3  and Abdrheam Eluzy2.
1National Medical Research Center,
Zawia, Libya
2Department of Pharmaceutics,
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli, Libya
3Minstry of Health,
Tripoli, Libya

ABSTRACT 
This paper presents a survey study of generic and branded medicines available on the local market. The study was carried out on solid dosage forms (Tablets and capsules) for 53 medications available at the time of study in 69 pharmacies located in Tripoli, Libya. Physical specifications (generic name, batch number, manufacture date, expiry date and the manufacturer) as appeared on the package for each product were recorded in a designed form. The retail price at the time of study for each innovator brand and the counterpart generic was also recorded and compared. Results showed that 234 (89%) generics and 29 (11%) branded medicines were available for the studied medicines. The generics medicines were antibiotics (28%), cardiovascular (24.36%), analgesics and antipyretics (12.5%), gastrointestinal (12.8%), for respiratory tract (0.85%), anti-Anthistamin (7.26%), for adiabatic (3%), for vitamins and minerals (6%) and corticosteroid (1%) medicines. The original suppliers of the generics were European countries (42%), Arabian countries (41%) and other region of the world (17%). The retail prices for the generics were significantly (p > 0.05) lower compared to the price of innovator brand counterpart. The study suggests post-marketing surveillance studies for the available generics in comparison to the innovators especially in terms of therapeutic efficiency.

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT TO CALCIUM IN DRINKING WATER OF RURAL RESIDENTS LIVING IN BHUSAWAL CITY, MAHARASHTRA (INDIA)

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Sanjay A. Nagdev*1, Mayur R. Bhurat2, Dr. Upendra B. Gandagule2 and Dr. Krishna R. Gupta3
1 Department of Quality assurance, K.Y.D.S.C.T’s College of Pharmacy, Sakegaon-Bhusawal, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, K.Y.D.S.C.T’s College of Pharmacy, Sakegaon-Bhusawal, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar college of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
The Present study was designed for the estimation of essential trace element Calcium in drinking water from natural sources like well, bore-well and river (Tapti) of Bhusawal (Maharashtra) (21.0455° N, 75.8011° E). Samples were evaluated as per Bureau of Indian standards 10500 for Calcium, Concentration of Calcium in water samples of River, well and Bore well was found within the safe limits of World Health Organization guidelines for Calcium and also study finding suggest that well is the better and rich source of Calcium as compared to Bore Well and river and population residing in the region and consuming water from well would be less prone to Calcium deficiency and risks associated with it, as compared to Population consuming water from other sources like Bore well and river.

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