There is a need to be sure about our career when we join in any industry. Here, we are providing information on top paying pharmaceutical jobs in private sector.
The medicines used for common ailments are stored by many household for medical emergency use. Many times these medicines expire despite being stored under prescribed conditions. It is important to dispose these medicines that are date expired and unused in an appropriate manner. The guidelines for disposal for medicines are prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Food and Drugs Administration (USFDA). Some of the methods suggested to dispose date expired and unused medicines include returning to manufacturer, landfill, and waste immobilization: encapsulation/ inertization, flushing it down the Sewer and incineration.
Acid base titration is one of the simple and highly useful volumetric analysis techniques. An acid-base titration (or neutralization titration) is based upon the chemical reaction between an acid and a base; also known as neutralization reaction.
H+ + OH- --> H2O
(From acid) (From Base) (Neutralization of Ions)
High-performance liquid chromatography is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify and quantify each component in a mixture.
The method relies on pumps to pass a high pressure liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.
Comparison of MBBS and Pharm.D, MBBS Vs Pharm.D,
MBBS/MD : 6.5 Years/ 3 years
Pharm.D/Pharm.D (Post Baccalaureate) : 6 Years/ 4+3 Years
An online pharmacy, internet pharmacy, mail-order pharmacy or E-Pharmacy is a pharmacy that operates over the internet and sends the orders to customers through mail or shipping companies. An E-Pharmacy model is required to have two operating components for dispensing prescription medicines.
Importance of Data Integrity
The scientific community has been a witness to some of the worst tragedies in the history of clinical trials data integrity. From the year 2015 till date, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and the JAMA network journals have published at least 18 notices citing concern over data error and/or falsification of data.(Bauchner H et ael., 2018) For instance, the trials conducted by a Japanese anesthesiologist and researcher, to treat post-operative nausea and vomiting, were reviewed by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA) in the year 2012 to find startling revelations. The data obtained from the trials were either totally fabricated or fraudulent and approximately 210 papers published by the anesthesiologist had falsified data.(George SL et al., 2015) Lapses in data integrity causes significant loss of revenue with the direct costs estimated to be close to 525,000 US dollars while indirect costs amounting to approximately 1.3 million US dollars.(Michalek AM et al., 2018)
Such scientific misconducts served as a wake-up call to tighten regulations and laws to monitor drug development and drug use. Scientists acknowledged the need for data integrity at every stage to safeguard human subjects, starting from pre-clinical development to pharmacovigilance.
The National Health Policy 2017 had defined the vision of ‘health and wellbeing for all at all ages’. Continuum of Care is a concept strongly advocated by the Policy. These lofty ideals are sought to be achieved by refactoring the existing schemes and introducing several new schemes including some digital initiatives.
“There are four ways, and only four ways, in which we have contact with the world. We are evaluated and classified by these four contacts: what we do, how we look, what we say and how we say it”
- Dale Carnegie (1888-1955), An Educator