Articles

EXTRACTION AND CHEMICAL TESTS ON Cicer arietinum SEED COLLECTED FROM NORTH BENGAL REGION OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

ABOUT AUTHORS
Mrinmoy Nag*1, Souvik Mukherjee2, Deepronil Roy3, Rakesh Kumar Paul4, Mir, Saidul Ali5
1School of Natural Product Studies,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department Of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Natural Products,
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab, India
3 Department of Zoology,
Chandernagore College, Chandernagore, Hooghly, West Bengal, India
4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Chemical Technology,
Central University Tripura, India

ABSTRACT:  Chickpea is the seed of the chickpea plant, Cicer arietinum, which belongs to the family fabaceae. It offers a range of health benefits which includes lowering cholesterol, regulating blood sugar level, aiding weight loss, improving heart health, fighting nervous system disorders, improving digestion and relieving constipation. So in this article we emphasis on the different solvent extraction and its chemical tests have been shown from the seeds collected from local market of Siliguri district of West Bengal, India.

THE KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, ATTITUDE AND RESPONSE ABOUT RATIONAL DRUG THERAPY ON COMMON PEOPLE

ABOUT AUTHORS
SUMAN A*,QADRIE ZL, SAI  TEJA, ALTAF M, NAGAVAMSIDHAR M, SRIKANTH J
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Pratishta Institute of  Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Suryapet, Telangana, India

ABSTRACT
The definition Rational drug therapy is the use of drugs, which are efficient, safe, low-cost and easy to administer. It requires that health practitioners have adequate medical knowledge and appropriate skill for correct diagnosis and treatment. Rational drug therapy one of the major part in treatment to give accurate treatment to patient. It is very important for underdeveloped and developing countries, not only these both it is important factor too developed countries. The rational drug therapy should be followed in each and every treatment it gives efficacy and effective treatment to patients and common people. The common people sometimes fallow over counter drugs (OTC) it is an unrationalised way not only OTC but also doctor prescribed treatment. Rational drug therapy shows main impact on treatment duration of patient and healthy life common people. The study was mainly done on common people to know about rational drug therapy procedure, how much knowledge about rational way of treatment and drugs intake. This pattern of study is about how much they skipped doses and treatment taken on which references. The patient and people how they misuse the drugs for their treatment.

GENERIC VERSUS BRANDED MEDICINES AVAILABLE ON THE LOCAL MARKET

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Hanan. M. El Bsir1,  Mokhtar. M. El-Baseir2, Abdulrhman  .A . Akasha2*,  Somaia.A . Elsaedi3  and Abdrheam Eluzy2.
1National Medical Research Center,
Zawia, Libya
2Department of Pharmaceutics,
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli, Libya
3Minstry of Health,
Tripoli, Libya

ABSTRACT 
This paper presents a survey study of generic and branded medicines available on the local market. The study was carried out on solid dosage forms (Tablets and capsules) for 53 medications available at the time of study in 69 pharmacies located in Tripoli, Libya. Physical specifications (generic name, batch number, manufacture date, expiry date and the manufacturer) as appeared on the package for each product were recorded in a designed form. The retail price at the time of study for each innovator brand and the counterpart generic was also recorded and compared. Results showed that 234 (89%) generics and 29 (11%) branded medicines were available for the studied medicines. The generics medicines were antibiotics (28%), cardiovascular (24.36%), analgesics and antipyretics (12.5%), gastrointestinal (12.8%), for respiratory tract (0.85%), anti-Anthistamin (7.26%), for adiabatic (3%), for vitamins and minerals (6%) and corticosteroid (1%) medicines. The original suppliers of the generics were European countries (42%), Arabian countries (41%) and other region of the world (17%). The retail prices for the generics were significantly (p > 0.05) lower compared to the price of innovator brand counterpart. The study suggests post-marketing surveillance studies for the available generics in comparison to the innovators especially in terms of therapeutic efficiency.

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT TO CALCIUM IN DRINKING WATER OF RURAL RESIDENTS LIVING IN BHUSAWAL CITY, MAHARASHTRA (INDIA)

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Sanjay A. Nagdev*1, Mayur R. Bhurat2, Dr. Upendra B. Gandagule2 and Dr. Krishna R. Gupta3
1 Department of Quality assurance, K.Y.D.S.C.T’s College of Pharmacy, Sakegaon-Bhusawal, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, K.Y.D.S.C.T’s College of Pharmacy, Sakegaon-Bhusawal, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar college of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
The Present study was designed for the estimation of essential trace element Calcium in drinking water from natural sources like well, bore-well and river (Tapti) of Bhusawal (Maharashtra) (21.0455° N, 75.8011° E). Samples were evaluated as per Bureau of Indian standards 10500 for Calcium, Concentration of Calcium in water samples of River, well and Bore well was found within the safe limits of World Health Organization guidelines for Calcium and also study finding suggest that well is the better and rich source of Calcium as compared to Bore Well and river and population residing in the region and consuming water from well would be less prone to Calcium deficiency and risks associated with it, as compared to Population consuming water from other sources like Bore well and river.

FORMULATION, EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL SOLID DOSAGE FORM AND STUDY OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

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*Ramasamy M, Suresh Kumar S, Vishali M, Swetha M, Yuvarani S, Gopala sathees kumar K
KMCH college of Pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatti Road,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT 
Aim and objective: The primary aim of the study is to formulate, standardize and evaluate the polyherbal (Murraya koenigii, Zingiber officinale,n Syzygium cumini, Phyllanthus emblica, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica, Citrous limon) solid dosage form for systemic diseases. Methodology: The polyherbal solid, Dosage form was formulated by filling the polyherbal powder mixture into the hard gelatin capsules, standardized as per WHO guidelines of quality standardization. It was evaluated for antioxidant parameters (DPPH and ABTS assays) and Antimicrobial activity. Results: Pharmaceutical parameters i.e. weight variation; moisture analysis and drug content are within I.P limit. Dissolution studies reveal that the release of maximum drugs (91%) at 120 minutes. The DPPH assay and ABTS assay activity of the polyherbal extract is found to be close to the standard drugs. Antimicrobial activity of polyherbal extract showed zone of inhibition 34mm for E-coli and 12 mm for Aspergillus Niger. The polyherbal drugs are less effective against rest of the microorganisms.

IN SILICO DRUG DESIGNING STUDIES ON DENGUE VIRUS NS1 PROTEIN

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Balasubramanian Sathyamurthy*, Sushmitha.H.S
Department of Biochemistry,
Ramaiah College of Arts, Science and Commerce,

Bangalore, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT:
The key proteins involved in causing dengue are seven major proteins, which are considered as major therapeutic targets for dengue drug development. Recent studies have reported positively for NS1 protein in dysregulation of causing dengue process in humans. Dragon fruit seed phytochemicals are reported to have antioxidant and antiviral properties. In the present study we studied binding efficiency of 11 compounds that are present in the dragon fruit seeds with NS1 Protein through Insilico methods. By our virtual screening and docking result, we found that the Compound A, Compound B and Compound C have highest binding affinity with the NS1 Protein and also we predicted the binding site amino acid residues and the nature of hydrogen bonding. However more invivo experimental validation of our results with animal models will enlighten the development of more potent drugs from these compounds for treatment of dengue.

A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF KASHMIR

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Nyira Shafi*1, Mohd Akbar Dar1, Mubashir Hussain Masoodi1, Urfan Nabi2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
School of Applied Sciences and Technology,
University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, India
2 Department of Pharmacology,
Govt. Medical College Srinagar, J&K, India

ABSTRACT
Purpose: To study the adverse drug reactions (ADR’s) reported from Dermatology ward in SMHS hospital of Srinagar. The adverse drug reactions were analyzed by Naranjo’s causality assessment scale and the outcomes were studied.

Methods: This observational and cross-sectional study was conducted for one month of July 2018 in an inpatient setting of Dermatology ward of SMHS hospital. The data collection was done only in Dermatology ward. Patients of all age groups and either sex were included in this study. The adverse drug reactions were assessed for their causality by performing the Naranjo’s algorithm scale. The outcomes were studied.

A REVIEW ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR IVABRADINE DETERMINATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

ABOUT AUTHORS
Tabassum I. Hangad *, Rani S. Potawale
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
M. C. E. Society's Allana College of Pharmacy, Azam Campus ,Camp, Pune 411001.

ABSTRACT
Ivabradine is a specific heart rate lowering agent, acting by reducing the rate of pacemaker
activity in the sinoatrial node. Ivabradine is a novel heart rate lowering medicine for the symptomatic management of stable angina pectoralis and symptomatic chronic heart failure. In multicenter clinical trials, it has been proved that Ivabradine is superior to beta-blocking agents during complex therapy of chronic heart failure accompanied with its beneficial effects related to cardiac remodeling, improvement of the currency of heart failure and diminution of patients rehospitalisation. It is suggested that Ivabradine as a newer agent is a valuable perspective drug for the treatment of congestive heart failure. This review is useful for the future study for researcher involved in formulation development and quality control of Ivabradine.

This review article represents the various analytical methods which have been reported for estimation of Ivabradine in pharmaceutical dosage form. The spectrophotometric techniques and Q-absorbance ratio method were reported by the various authors. Many researchers also worked in chromatographic areas like Thin layer chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, and High performance thin layer chromatography. Ivabradine is also studied by various hyphenated techniques .We reviewed and reported almost all analytical methods with more emphasis on chromatographic mrthodsfor Ivabradine. 

UNDERSTANDING THE CAREER OPPORTUNITIES OF CLINICAL PHARMACY IN INDIA

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Abhimanyu Prashar *, Anushruti
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Maharishi Markandeshwar College of Pharmacy,

Maharishi Markandeshwar University,
Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India

 

ABSTRACT
This review highlighted on understanding the career opportunities available in India for Clinical Pharmacy practitioners. Clinical pharmacy is a health science discipline which deals with providing patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, and disease prevention. To improve the status of this field in India a new course, Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D) was introduced a decade ago. The students pursuing this course are uncertain and misled about the career options of clinical pharmacy. Due to lack of awareness and skills among the budding pharmacists as well as the lack of guidance by academicians and academic institutions, it is really becoming difficult for the students to understand the areas where they can pursue their career. There are diverse fields in which Pharm.D students can pursue their career such as pharmacovigilance, health economics and outcome research, clinical research, medical writing, academics and research. However, clinical pharmacy and its practitioners have fewer acceptances in the healthcare system and among the general public. Due to lack of awareness among the Indian population, dominance of the clinicians in the healthcare field, lack of initiatives by the governing authorities to mandate the role of clinical pharmacist in the government sector this field is not well established. Therefore, it is high time for the budding pharmacists to focus on such an embrasure of the healthcare scenario and to understand and utilize the available opportunities. The present situation might be discouraging for the individuals pursuing their study in clinical pharmacy but, there is a wide scope and demand for the graduates in clinical pharmacy and no opportunity is small.

OUTPATIENT INTRAVENOUS ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY: REDUCES ECONOMIC BURDEN OF PATIENTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Mohd Altaf S*, Qadrie ZL, M Nagavamsidhar ,suman A,Saiteja D, Shivani P
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Suryapet, Hyderabad, Telangana

ABSTRACT:
OPAT it is a frequent source of questions and formal infectious diseases consultations. OPAT is always less expensive than inpatient therapy. Financial savings have been found with OPAT when compared with in hospital stays. The use of intravenous (IV) antibiotics for the treatment of serious infections has become common around the world. It is accepted as the standard treatment for many infectious diseases including other chronic infection like sepsis, meningitis, endocarditis etc. The goals of OPAT program are to provide expert care to patients on IV antibiotics, manage side effects and infections, reduces the need for hospital readmissions. The OPAT having a series of   program patient care team includes doctors, nurses, and clinical and hospital pharmacists who are skilled in management of infectious diseases. Intravenous therapy outside the hospital, has only recently become possible, with the introduction of new Antibiotics, better catheters for vascular access, and improved infusion devices. Health care professionals have pioneered the development of OPAT and worked together to  develop safe and effective programs. The antibiotics used for OPAT care are chosen for safety, effectiveness and ease of administration and money saving. The IV delivery system needed in the home is much simpler than the large, complicated IV pumps you see in the hospital. OPAT allows suitable patients on intravenous (IV) antibiotics to be discharged early from hospital and treated in their home or community setting by a team of specialist nurses.

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