Articles

IN SILICO MOLECULAR DOCKING OF ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH AGAINST GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE

ABOUT AUTHORS
Nazmul Islam Prottoy*, Aisha Siddiqua Boby, Md. Asad Ullah, Bishajit Sarkar1, Sohana Hossain
Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which affects the people of all groups around the world. Although medication is available in the market but plant derived compounds are often preferable to everyone due to their less toxicity and side effects. This study has been designed to investigate the interaction between medicinal plant derived antidiabetic agents (Arjunic acid, Quercetin and Gallic Acid) and regulatory target enzyme, Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta (GSK3B). Quercetin showed the strong interaction with the target molecule among the all compounds. However, further in vitro study is required to find out the best remedy of diabetes.

THE INDIVIDUAL EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON THE PENETRATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES USING DIBUTYLPTHALATE AS A PLASTICIZER

ABOUT AUTHORS
P.Mounika,
Dr Rinku mathappan, Sukriti Vishwas
Gautham College of Pharmacy, Bangalore – 560032

ABSTRACT

Objective
Glimepiride is an anti-diabetic drug with shorter half-life of 5 hrs. Glimepiride penetration into skin is difficulty. To study effects the penetration of glimepiride using different surfactants using dibutylpthalate.

Methods
Glimepiride transdermal Patches are prepared by using solvent casting method.  Eudragit E -100, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 60 are used as a penetration enhancers. Dibutylpthalate acts as a plasticizer for the penetration enhancement.

Results
The present study was to formulate and evaluate transdermal drug delivery system of Glimepiride. Results were evaluated for Thickness, Tensile strength, Folding endurance, and Drug content and In vitro penetration study was performed by using Franz diffusion cell. The drug content in transdermal patch F-1 shows 98,F-2 shows 93, F-3 shows 92.the drug permeation through matrix membrane shows good release with Eudragit E-100 copolymer and surfactant SLS. In comparison with three surfactants SLS gives good release for glimepiride with Eudragit E-100 matrix membrane.

Conclusion
From the results glimepiride with SLS anionic surfactant shows good penetration. Dibutylpthalate acts a plasticizer which improves the penetration of glimepiride.

DEVELOPMENT OF IBUPROFEN-LOADED EMULSION FROM EUTECTIC MIXTURE AND EUDRAGIT RL 100

ABOUT AUTHORS
T. Raja Sekharan1*, Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan2, S. Rajadurai1, S. Mohammed Ibrahim1 and K. Kavipriya
1 Sankaralingam Bhuvaneswari College of Pharmacy, Anaikuttam-626130, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India.
2National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)‑Guwahati, C/O NETES Institute of Technology and Science, NH‑37, Shantipur, Parli Part, Mirza, Assam 781125, India

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to formulate an Ibuprofen loaded emulsion from the eutectic mixture and Eudragit RL 100. The eutectic mixture was formed with camphor and menthol which was approved by the FDA. A eutectic mixture is defined as a combination of two or more components at a certain ratio intermingle to form a new chemical compound resulting in a system having a lower melting point than either of the components. The formulated emulsion from the eutectic mixture was evaluated for various studies like pH checking, stability checking by centrifugation, viscosity, particle size analysis, quantitative drug analysis, thermodegradation and in-vitro drug release studies. Neutral pH values resulted in the formulations. The formulation was stable even after it was centrifuged for 5000 rpm for 30 min. Viscosity results showed the formulation was less viscous results in good spreadability. Particle size was determined with particle size analyzer. Drug analysis results revealed about 96 % of drugs are incorporated into the formulation. Thermodegradation results proved that there was no spillage of drugs from the formulations even when the drug was stored at different temperatures. In-vitro drug release study was performed by varying drug concentrations. The results showed there was no change in the drug release even after varying the drug concentration. From the results it was concluded that Ibuprofen was successfully formulated as an emulsion with the help of eutectic mixture a Eudragit RL 100.

PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PAEDIATRIC WARDS OF A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

ABOUT AUTHORS
A.H Ahmed (1), Y.I Alkali (2) U.M Danmusa (3)
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
3Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna-Nigeria

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis of patients with bacterial infections admitted into the Paediatric Wards over a period of 3months. Files of 100 patients were randomly selected and included in this study. A proforma was used for data collection, information retrieved from patients records include: Demographic Data, Culture and Sensitivity pattern, Clinical Information, Duration of Hospital Stay, Outcome, type, Class and Route of administration of antibiotics. Out of the 100 patients included in this study, 35(35%) were below one year, 50(50%) were between 1-5years and 15(15%) were between 6-12years.  More patients between the ages of 1-5years were admitted with bacterial infections. Out of the 100 patients included in this study 63 (63%) were males and 37(37%) were females. Out of the 100 patients, 27(27%) had septicemia, 48(48%) bronchopneumonia, 6(6%) osteomyelitis, 14(14%) had mixed infections. The remaining patients had urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection and typhoid enteritis. In a total of 229 prescriptions, only 38 (16.6%) were prescribed based on culture result. Most of the antibiotic prescriptions were based on clinical diagnosis, not on culture and sensitivity pattern. In present study 83% of antibiotics were administered by parenteral route and 17% by oral route. The Cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotics. Cefuroxime 63(27%) was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Ampicillin with Sulbactam was found to be the most frequently prescribed drug combination

PHYTOSOMES : A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN NOVEL HERBAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

ABOUT AUTHORS
V. Anitha*, Dr. P Dwarakanadha Reddy, Dr. S Ramkanth
Department of Pharmaceutics, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet,
Andhra Pradesh, India-516126

ABSTRACT : 
Herbal medicine is an essential part of the health care system all over the world. However, some of the bioactive principles have poor bioavailability and less absorption in gastro intestinal tract due to long side chains in their structure and high polarity. The challenge for herbal medicine practicenors is to enhance the bioavailability of these bioactive principles. With the advances in technology, a novel herb drug delivery system called phytosome improve absorption and bioavailability of bioactive principles and gained a substantial importance in health care system. The present review highlights the method of preparation, properties, advantages, characterization, and applications of phytosomes.

PHYTOCHEMICALS AND METABOLITES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH: A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Md. Asad Ullah*, Bishajit Sarkar, Sohana Hossain, Mohammad Nafi-Ur-Rahman, Md. Shariful Islam
Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering,

Jahangirnagar University,
Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Microbial infection and contamination have become major concern during last few decades. A vast array of microorganisms is responsible for devastating consequences like- human and other animal infection, food poisoning, resource contamination etc. Beyond this, antimicrobial resistance against many natural, synthetic and semi synthetic compounds has raised our concern about the possible way to get rid of such complication. All classes of people are not accessible to the commercially available antimicrobials due to their expensiveness. Moreover, commercially available antimicrobials are not preferable to everyone due to their toxicity and other side effects. Many phytochemicals and secondary metabolites from plants such as, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, essential oil, saponins have been shown to have in vitro antimicrobial activities with less toxicity and side effects. Many of these compounds are even effective against a range of resistant strains. Bangladesh is an agricultural country and tremendous variety of medicinal plants with antimicrobial property is available here. This study has been designed to find out the medicinal plants from Bangladesh with antimicrobial activity, their effective antimicrobial bioactive compounds and the range of microorganisms upon which these compounds are active. Hopefully, this study will raise research interest among researchers about the active antimicrobial agents from medicinal plants.

A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL USES OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN

ABOUT AUTHORS
Amandeep Singh1, 2*, Narinder Singh3, Dilrose Pabla3

1Department of Pharmaceutics, I.S.F.College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda- 151001, Punjab, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shahpur, Jalandhar-144001, Punjab, India

ABSTRACT
Bauhinia variegata Linn (Mountain Ebony) is a medium-sized, deciduous tree, found all through India, climbing to a height of 1,300 m in the Himalayas. The plant is generally utilized by the tribals all through India and mainstream in different indigenous frameworks of drug like Ayurveda, Unani what's more, and Homeopathy. Taking after the different conventional claims on utility of this plant in curing number of sicknesses, significant endeavors have been made by scientists to confirm its utility through pharmacological screenings. The medicate has been depicted as Grahi, Krimighna, Kushtaghna, Gandamalanashaka, Vranaropaka, Mehaghna and Raktapittashamak. Impressive endeavors have been made by specialists to concentrate the concoction and organic capability of the plant. The detailed pharmacological exercises of Bauhinia variegata Linn. are hostile to diabetic, against ulcer, hostile to oxidant, nephroprotective, hostile to growth, hepatoprotective, calming, immunomodulatory, hostile to microbial, hostile to bacterial. Kanchanara is one of the real element of numerous essential plans utilized as a part of Ayurveda arrangement of pharmaceutical, for example, Kanchanara Guggulu, Kanchan gutika, Gandamala kundan rasa, Gulkand Kanchanara and Kanchanaradi Kwatha,Ushirasava, Chandanasava, Vidangarishta, Kanchanara drava, Kanchnara Varuna Kwatha.

AN OVERVIEW OF EBOLA VIRUS - IT'S PATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT AND VACCINATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Naga Subrahmanyeswari, Srinivasa Babu, Gajula. Supriya, Bandi . Srilekha
Vignan Pharmacy College,  Vadlamudi, Andhra Pradesh

ABSTRACT:
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever. It is a serious fatal illness to human. EVD is caused by the Ebola virus. The outbreak of Ebola virus began in the Republic of Guinea in February 2014.The 2014 West Africa outbreak is believed to be most severely recorded in medical history. Around 1440 cases with 826 deaths have been reported. But around 16,000 people survived in West Africa. A cellular protein acts as a receptor for Ebola virus and Marburg virus. TIM-1 acts as a receptor for Ebola virus which is a cellular protein.  It is transmittable disease which occurs by the contact with the blood or body fluids of a person who was infected or died from EVD, contaminated objects like needles and infected animals or meat. Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also major role in transmission of Ebola. EVD has an incubation period of about 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. At present, there is no particular type of treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine in public health measures have been taken to reduce the smack of EBD on individuals and communities. Treatment for Ebola virus involves early, truculent, supportive care with rehydration. Typical symptoms of Ebola virus disease include fever, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting for about 3-5 days and may lasts up to one week, abdominal pain. Upon increase in severity of the virus the patient may suffer from confusion, dehydration, and hypotension. These conditions eventually may lead to death. Ebola virus may be spread due to insufficient medical facilities, poor sanitation, unsafe burial practices. Ebola virus does not replicate through cell division. There is no definitive cure and management is mainly supportive ensuring adequate hydration and symptomatic treatment.

SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO TREAT TOBACCO ADDICTION – A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Pooja A.M* . Apsari Anjum , Shashank Nayak N , Shwetha Kamath KS
Bapuji pharmacy college, Davangere, Karnataka

ABSTRACT
In this current review , we have gathered the information regarding the various aspects of tobacco. The propagation &  measures taken like the climatic condition for instance temperature ,soil texture are discussed in this review. The different methods of isolation using fungal pectinase to release mesophilic cells & its further process are reviewed in this work .Attempts have been made to gather information on the side effects of tobacco & the various measures to treat nicotine addiction are highlighted in this article.

FOODS CONTAINING NITROSOAMINES CAUSES CARCINOGENESIS – AN INSIGHT REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Sai Kushal Gunturu*, Tulasi Ram Nayak Menavath, Ramadoss Karthikeyan
Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi-522213, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Nitrosamines belongs to a family of potent carcinogenic substances that have been rigorously stidie dover the past decades due to its extreme carcinogenic nature to animals as well as humans. It is generally found as an industrial contaminant but can also the exposure to the substance maybe due to soil, water or food contamination. The carcinogenicity to humans is caused by the metabolised product of nitrosamines especially, N-nitroso compounds.

One of the most extensively studied compound of this fami.ly is N-Nitroso dimethylamine due to its potency in the formation of cancers. N-Nitroso dimethylamine induces cancers in the stomach due to its metabolism in the gut and the production of toxic metabolites. Frequently N-Nitroso dimethylamine exposure is via skin absorption and also via ingestion.

Under extensive researches in mice, in oral administration it is found to induce cancers of lung, kidney and stomach. It was proposed that the toxic nature of N-Nitroso dimethylamine is due to the highly – oxygen reactive species forming metabolite nature and also altering the activity of liver microsomal enzymes.

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