Articles

SKIN AGING & MODERN AGE ANTI-AGING STRATEGIES

ABOUT AUTHORS
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin, Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh

Background
Skin is the barrier that segregates the body from the outer environment. Besides protecting the body from water loss and microorganism infection, it has an important cosmetic role. Young and beautiful appearance may have a positive influence on people’s social behavior and reproductive status. Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen is said to have indulged in daily donkey-milk baths, a practice which apparently required over 700 donkeys to accomplish. The alpha hydroxy acids in the milk is believed to be anti-aging and skin-softening agents. Tang-dynasty ruler and sole female emperor of China, Wu Zetian, maintained a lifelong interest in skincare formulas. She mixed her “fairy powder” (made of carefully harvested and prepared Chinese motherwort) with cold water in order to wash her face each morning. The empress was a famed beauty well into her old age. The most hair-raising entrant in this list, 16th century Hungarian countess Elizabeth Báthory is infamous for being one of the world’s first documented female serial killers. Most of her life is shrouded in mystery and legend—the most famous story being that she would regularly bathe in the blood of her female victims. Mary, Queen of Scots, the ill-fated and attractive adversary of Elizabeth I, spent her sixteenth-century happier days on her estate in Edinburgh, Scotland, where her beauty regimen was said to include white-wine baths. In addition to wine’s antiseptic alcohol content, it was also was thought to improve complexion in general. Crème Céleste, a favorite product of empress Elisabeth (Sisi) of Austria, was a concoction of spermaceti (a wax found in the head of sperm whales), sweet almond oil, and rosewater. She would apply this daily and at night, she was known to coat her face in raw veal and crushed strawberries, kept in place with a custom-made leather mask. The skin folds are indicative of an aged personality, but not youthfulness. So, everyone wants to look younger for whole of the life, which lead to the discovery of many surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities to improve the youthfulness. Since the introduction of Botox in 2002 after FDA approval more aesthetic procedures using Botox were performed by aestheticisms involving plastic surgeons and dermatologists. However, many scientists are now starting to view physical aging as a disease process. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in aging reveal an intricate series of signals, markers, and pathways, all of which are programmed to monitor and control the lifespan of a cell as it ages. By studying these molecular events and pathways, the field of anti-aging will be furthered by the use of more and more cosmetics.

ABSTRACT
As the most voluminous organ of the body that is exposed to the outer environment, the skin suffers from both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors. Skin aging is characterized by features such as wrinkling, loss of elasticity, laxity, and rough-textured appearance. This aging process is accompanied with phenotypic changes in cutaneous cells as well as structural and functional changes in extracellular matrix components such as collagens and elastin. With intrinsic aging, structural changes occur in the skin as a natural consequence of the biological changes over time and produce a certain number of histological, physiological, and biochemical modifications. Intrinsic aging is determined genetically (influence of gender and ethnic group), variable in function of skin site, and also influenced by hormonal changes. Visually it is characterized by fine wrinkles. By comparison, “photoaging” is the term used to describe the changes occurring in the skin, resulting from repetitive exposure to sunlight. The histological, physiological, and biochemical changes in the different layers of the skin are much more drastic. From a mechanical point of view, human skin appears as a layered composite containing the stiff thin cover layer presented by the stratum corneum, below which are the more compliant layers of viable epidermis and dermis and further below the much more compliant adjacent layer of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Upon exposure to a strain, such a multi-layer system demonstrates structural instabilities in its stiffer layers, which in its simplest form is the wrinkling. These instabilities appear hierarchically when the mechanical strain in the skin exceeds some critical values. Their appearance is mainly dependent on the mismatch in mechanical properties between adjacent skin layers or between the skin and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, on the adhesive strength and thickness ratios between the layers, on their bending and tensile stiffness as well as on the value of the stress existing in single layers. Gradual reduction of elastic fibers in aging significantly reduces the skin’s ability to bend, prompting an up to 4-fold reduction of its stability against wrinkling, thereby explaining the role of these fibers in skin aging. Anti-aging medicine is practiced by physicians, scientists, and researchers dedicated to the belief that the process of physical aging in humans can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed through existing medical and scientific interventions. This specialty of medicine is based on the very early detection and prevention of age-related diseases. Physicians practicing anti-aging medicine seek to enhance the quality of life as well as its length, limiting the period of illness and disability toward the end of one’s life. Anti-aging medicine encompasses lifestyle changes (diet and exercise); hormone replacement therapies, as needed, determined by a physician through blood testing (DHEA, melatonin, thyroid, human growth hormone, estrogen, testosterone); antioxidants and vitamin supplements; and testing protocols that can measure not only hormone levels and blood chemistry but every metabolic factor right down to the cellular level.

AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF PATIENT BEHAVIOR

ABOUT AUTHOR
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
The most frequent causes of death in the United States and globally are chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, lung diseases, and diabetes. Behavioral factors, particularly tobacco use, diet and activity patterns, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, and avoidable injuries are among the most prominent contributors to mortality. Projections of the global burden of disease for the next two decades include increases in noncommunicable diseases, high rates of tobacco-related deaths, and a dramatic rise in deaths from HIV/AIDS. Worldwide, the major causes of death by 2030 are expected to be HIV/AIDS, depressive disorders, and heart disease. At the same time, in many parts of the world, infectious diseases continue to pose grim threats, especially for the very young, the old, and those with compromised immune systems. Malaria, diarrheal diseases, and other infectious diseases, in addition to AIDS, are major health threats to the poorest people around the world. And, like chronic diseases, their trajectory may be influenced by the application of effective health behavior interventions. Substantial suffering, premature mortality, and medical costs can be avoided by positive changes in behavior at multiple levels. Most recently, there has been a renewed focus on public health infrastructure to plan for emergencies, including both human-made and natural disasters. During the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in public, private, and professional interest in preventing disability and death through changes in lifestyle and participation in screening programs. Much of this interest in disease prevention and early detection has been stimulated by the epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases as leading causes of death, the aging of the population, rapidly escalating health care costs, and data linking individual behaviors to increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection of behavior pattern, health seeking behavior and monitoring status in both developed and under-privileged countries. The pharmacists have a vital role to play which is discussed along with comparison.

Findings: Developed or under developed country, patients have a separate behavior pattern which develops and worsen with disease progression mostly. So many factors are behind but one thing clearly understood that the handling of such situation is a provider’s function, a challenge they have to face along with treatment intervention.

Research Limitations: Very few articles found in matters regarding along with a very less interest paid by general people to talk about healthcare matters. It was very difficult to bring out facts of irrational patient behavior, giving it a substantial figure to discuss in this article. However, the major limitation is the article could be a comparison of behaviors of developed and under-privileged countries which requires an enormous exposure and financial support. However, the sole focus was to detail mysterious patient behavior and a greater part is covered.

Practical Implication: The soul of this article was to detail about patient behavior, both in Bangladesh and developed countries. Along with students, researchers and professionals of different background and disciplines, eg. Pharmacists, marketers, doctors, nurses, hospital authorities, public representatives, policy makers and regulatory authorities have to acquire much from this article.

Social Implication: Patient behavior is the Sole of healing system and a scope for pharmacists and other healthcare providers to work with in both developed or under developed countries. The article should contribute an integrated guideline for patient compliance, demand rational behavior and last but not the least a silvery lining to better pharmacists’ dealings with them in near future

DERMAL DELIVERY OF PROTEIN AND PEPTIDES: RECENT ADVANCES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Khushbu Patel1, Divya chauhan1, Rabiya Sodha1, Kinjal Vadhwani1, Kapil Daxini2
Department of pharmacy
1Parul Institute of Pharmacy, Waghodiya, Limda, Vadodara, Gujarat
2Sigma Institute of Pharmacy, Bakrol, Vadodara, Gujarat

ABSTRACT
Proteins and peptides are mostly desirable in many diseased states. Most widely employed method of administration for therapeutic proteins and peptides is Parenteral route. Requirement of repeated injections is because of short in vivo half-life response in poor patient compliance. Non-invasive drug delivery routes such as nasal, transdermal, oral, and pulmonary offer several benefits over parenteral administration. Low permeability and intrinsic physicochemical properties across biological membrane limits protein delivery via adjective routes. Delivering through nanostructured delivery carriers is one of the method to improve protein and peptide absorption. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have illustrated significant benefits over other delivery systems. This article summarizes the application of polymeric NPs for protein and peptide drug delivery following nasal, oral, ocular, pulmonary, transdermal, and parenteral administrations. The aim of review is to highlight and explore technological developments in the field of soft matter nanocarriers for the delivery of proteins and peptides via the eye, the nose, the skin, and the lungs and to provide insights in advantages, practicability and limitations of recent advances.

THE INDIVIDUAL EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON THE PENETRATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES USING DIBUTYLPTHALATE AS A PLASTICIZER

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ABOUT AUTHORS
P.Mounika,
Dr Rinku mathappan, Sukriti Vishwas
Gautham College of Pharmacy, Bangalore – 560032

ABSTRACT

Objective
Glimepiride is an anti-diabetic drug with shorter half-life of 5 hrs. Glimepiride penetration into skin is difficulty. To study effects the penetration of glimepiride using different surfactants using dibutylpthalate.

Methods
Glimepiride transdermal Patches are prepared by using solvent casting method.  Eudragit E -100, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 60 are used as a penetration enhancers. Dibutylpthalate acts as a plasticizer for the penetration enhancement.

Results
The present study was to formulate and evaluate transdermal drug delivery system of Glimepiride. Results were evaluated for Thickness, Tensile strength, Folding endurance, and Drug content and In vitro penetration study was performed by using Franz diffusion cell. The drug content in transdermal patch F-1 shows 98,F-2 shows 93, F-3 shows 92.the drug permeation through matrix membrane shows good release with Eudragit E-100 copolymer and surfactant SLS. In comparison with three surfactants SLS gives good release for glimepiride with Eudragit E-100 matrix membrane.

Conclusion
From the results glimepiride with SLS anionic surfactant shows good penetration. Dibutylpthalate acts a plasticizer which improves the penetration of glimepiride.

DEVELOPMENT OF IBUPROFEN-LOADED EMULSION FROM EUTECTIC MIXTURE AND EUDRAGIT RL 100

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ABOUT AUTHORS
T. Raja Sekharan1*, Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan2, S. Rajadurai1, S. Mohammed Ibrahim1 and K. Kavipriya
1 Sankaralingam Bhuvaneswari College of Pharmacy, Anaikuttam-626130, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India.
2National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)‑Guwahati, C/O NETES Institute of Technology and Science, NH‑37, Shantipur, Parli Part, Mirza, Assam 781125, India

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to formulate an Ibuprofen loaded emulsion from the eutectic mixture and Eudragit RL 100. The eutectic mixture was formed with camphor and menthol which was approved by the FDA. A eutectic mixture is defined as a combination of two or more components at a certain ratio intermingle to form a new chemical compound resulting in a system having a lower melting point than either of the components. The formulated emulsion from the eutectic mixture was evaluated for various studies like pH checking, stability checking by centrifugation, viscosity, particle size analysis, quantitative drug analysis, thermodegradation and in-vitro drug release studies. Neutral pH values resulted in the formulations. The formulation was stable even after it was centrifuged for 5000 rpm for 30 min. Viscosity results showed the formulation was less viscous results in good spreadability. Particle size was determined with particle size analyzer. Drug analysis results revealed about 96 % of drugs are incorporated into the formulation. Thermodegradation results proved that there was no spillage of drugs from the formulations even when the drug was stored at different temperatures. In-vitro drug release study was performed by varying drug concentrations. The results showed there was no change in the drug release even after varying the drug concentration. From the results it was concluded that Ibuprofen was successfully formulated as an emulsion with the help of eutectic mixture a Eudragit RL 100.

PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PAEDIATRIC WARDS OF A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
A.H Ahmed (1), Y.I Alkali (2) U.M Danmusa (3)
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
3Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna-Nigeria

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis of patients with bacterial infections admitted into the Paediatric Wards over a period of 3months. Files of 100 patients were randomly selected and included in this study. A proforma was used for data collection, information retrieved from patients records include: Demographic Data, Culture and Sensitivity pattern, Clinical Information, Duration of Hospital Stay, Outcome, type, Class and Route of administration of antibiotics. Out of the 100 patients included in this study, 35(35%) were below one year, 50(50%) were between 1-5years and 15(15%) were between 6-12years.  More patients between the ages of 1-5years were admitted with bacterial infections. Out of the 100 patients included in this study 63 (63%) were males and 37(37%) were females. Out of the 100 patients, 27(27%) had septicemia, 48(48%) bronchopneumonia, 6(6%) osteomyelitis, 14(14%) had mixed infections. The remaining patients had urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection and typhoid enteritis. In a total of 229 prescriptions, only 38 (16.6%) were prescribed based on culture result. Most of the antibiotic prescriptions were based on clinical diagnosis, not on culture and sensitivity pattern. In present study 83% of antibiotics were administered by parenteral route and 17% by oral route. The Cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotics. Cefuroxime 63(27%) was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Ampicillin with Sulbactam was found to be the most frequently prescribed drug combination

PHYTOSOMES : A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN NOVEL HERBAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS
V. Anitha*, Dr. P Dwarakanadha Reddy, Dr. S Ramkanth
Department of Pharmaceutics, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet,
Andhra Pradesh, India-516126

ABSTRACT : 
Herbal medicine is an essential part of the health care system all over the world. However, some of the bioactive principles have poor bioavailability and less absorption in gastro intestinal tract due to long side chains in their structure and high polarity. The challenge for herbal medicine practicenors is to enhance the bioavailability of these bioactive principles. With the advances in technology, a novel herb drug delivery system called phytosome improve absorption and bioavailability of bioactive principles and gained a substantial importance in health care system. The present review highlights the method of preparation, properties, advantages, characterization, and applications of phytosomes.

PHYTOCHEMICALS AND METABOLITES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Md. Asad Ullah*, Bishajit Sarkar, Sohana Hossain, Mohammad Nafi-Ur-Rahman, Md. Shariful Islam
Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering,

Jahangirnagar University,
Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Microbial infection and contamination have become major concern during last few decades. A vast array of microorganisms is responsible for devastating consequences like- human and other animal infection, food poisoning, resource contamination etc. Beyond this, antimicrobial resistance against many natural, synthetic and semi synthetic compounds has raised our concern about the possible way to get rid of such complication. All classes of people are not accessible to the commercially available antimicrobials due to their expensiveness. Moreover, commercially available antimicrobials are not preferable to everyone due to their toxicity and other side effects. Many phytochemicals and secondary metabolites from plants such as, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, essential oil, saponins have been shown to have in vitro antimicrobial activities with less toxicity and side effects. Many of these compounds are even effective against a range of resistant strains. Bangladesh is an agricultural country and tremendous variety of medicinal plants with antimicrobial property is available here. This study has been designed to find out the medicinal plants from Bangladesh with antimicrobial activity, their effective antimicrobial bioactive compounds and the range of microorganisms upon which these compounds are active. Hopefully, this study will raise research interest among researchers about the active antimicrobial agents from medicinal plants.

A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL USES OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Amandeep Singh1, 2*, Narinder Singh3, Dilrose Pabla3

1Department of Pharmaceutics, I.S.F.College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda- 151001, Punjab, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shahpur, Jalandhar-144001, Punjab, India

ABSTRACT
Bauhinia variegata Linn (Mountain Ebony) is a medium-sized, deciduous tree, found all through India, climbing to a height of 1,300 m in the Himalayas. The plant is generally utilized by the tribals all through India and mainstream in different indigenous frameworks of drug like Ayurveda, Unani what's more, and Homeopathy. Taking after the different conventional claims on utility of this plant in curing number of sicknesses, significant endeavors have been made by scientists to confirm its utility through pharmacological screenings. The medicate has been depicted as Grahi, Krimighna, Kushtaghna, Gandamalanashaka, Vranaropaka, Mehaghna and Raktapittashamak. Impressive endeavors have been made by specialists to concentrate the concoction and organic capability of the plant. The detailed pharmacological exercises of Bauhinia variegata Linn. are hostile to diabetic, against ulcer, hostile to oxidant, nephroprotective, hostile to growth, hepatoprotective, calming, immunomodulatory, hostile to microbial, hostile to bacterial. Kanchanara is one of the real element of numerous essential plans utilized as a part of Ayurveda arrangement of pharmaceutical, for example, Kanchanara Guggulu, Kanchan gutika, Gandamala kundan rasa, Gulkand Kanchanara and Kanchanaradi Kwatha,Ushirasava, Chandanasava, Vidangarishta, Kanchanara drava, Kanchnara Varuna Kwatha.

AN OVERVIEW OF EBOLA VIRUS - IT'S PATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT AND VACCINATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Naga Subrahmanyeswari, Srinivasa Babu, Gajula. Supriya, Bandi . Srilekha
Vignan Pharmacy College,  Vadlamudi, Andhra Pradesh

ABSTRACT:
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever. It is a serious fatal illness to human. EVD is caused by the Ebola virus. The outbreak of Ebola virus began in the Republic of Guinea in February 2014.The 2014 West Africa outbreak is believed to be most severely recorded in medical history. Around 1440 cases with 826 deaths have been reported. But around 16,000 people survived in West Africa. A cellular protein acts as a receptor for Ebola virus and Marburg virus. TIM-1 acts as a receptor for Ebola virus which is a cellular protein.  It is transmittable disease which occurs by the contact with the blood or body fluids of a person who was infected or died from EVD, contaminated objects like needles and infected animals or meat. Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also major role in transmission of Ebola. EVD has an incubation period of about 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. At present, there is no particular type of treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine in public health measures have been taken to reduce the smack of EBD on individuals and communities. Treatment for Ebola virus involves early, truculent, supportive care with rehydration. Typical symptoms of Ebola virus disease include fever, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting for about 3-5 days and may lasts up to one week, abdominal pain. Upon increase in severity of the virus the patient may suffer from confusion, dehydration, and hypotension. These conditions eventually may lead to death. Ebola virus may be spread due to insufficient medical facilities, poor sanitation, unsafe burial practices. Ebola virus does not replicate through cell division. There is no definitive cure and management is mainly supportive ensuring adequate hydration and symptomatic treatment.

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