Articles

PHYTOCHEMICALS AND METABOLITES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH: A REVIEW

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Md. Asad Ullah*, Bishajit Sarkar, Sohana Hossain, Mohammad Nafi-Ur-Rahman, Md. Shariful Islam
Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering,

Jahangirnagar University,
Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Microbial infection and contamination have become major concern during last few decades. A vast array of microorganisms is responsible for devastating consequences like- human and other animal infection, food poisoning, resource contamination etc. Beyond this, antimicrobial resistance against many natural, synthetic and semi synthetic compounds has raised our concern about the possible way to get rid of such complication. All classes of people are not accessible to the commercially available antimicrobials due to their expensiveness. Moreover, commercially available antimicrobials are not preferable to everyone due to their toxicity and other side effects. Many phytochemicals and secondary metabolites from plants such as, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, essential oil, saponins have been shown to have in vitro antimicrobial activities with less toxicity and side effects. Many of these compounds are even effective against a range of resistant strains. Bangladesh is an agricultural country and tremendous variety of medicinal plants with antimicrobial property is available here. This study has been designed to find out the medicinal plants from Bangladesh with antimicrobial activity, their effective antimicrobial bioactive compounds and the range of microorganisms upon which these compounds are active. Hopefully, this study will raise research interest among researchers about the active antimicrobial agents from medicinal plants.

A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL USES OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN

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Amandeep Singh1, 2*, Narinder Singh3, Dilrose Pabla3

1Department of Pharmaceutics, I.S.F.College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda- 151001, Punjab, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shahpur, Jalandhar-144001, Punjab, India

ABSTRACT
Bauhinia variegata Linn (Mountain Ebony) is a medium-sized, deciduous tree, found all through India, climbing to a height of 1,300 m in the Himalayas. The plant is generally utilized by the tribals all through India and mainstream in different indigenous frameworks of drug like Ayurveda, Unani what's more, and Homeopathy. Taking after the different conventional claims on utility of this plant in curing number of sicknesses, significant endeavors have been made by scientists to confirm its utility through pharmacological screenings. The medicate has been depicted as Grahi, Krimighna, Kushtaghna, Gandamalanashaka, Vranaropaka, Mehaghna and Raktapittashamak. Impressive endeavors have been made by specialists to concentrate the concoction and organic capability of the plant. The detailed pharmacological exercises of Bauhinia variegata Linn. are hostile to diabetic, against ulcer, hostile to oxidant, nephroprotective, hostile to growth, hepatoprotective, calming, immunomodulatory, hostile to microbial, hostile to bacterial. Kanchanara is one of the real element of numerous essential plans utilized as a part of Ayurveda arrangement of pharmaceutical, for example, Kanchanara Guggulu, Kanchan gutika, Gandamala kundan rasa, Gulkand Kanchanara and Kanchanaradi Kwatha,Ushirasava, Chandanasava, Vidangarishta, Kanchanara drava, Kanchnara Varuna Kwatha.

AN OVERVIEW OF EBOLA VIRUS - IT'S PATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT AND VACCINATION

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Naga Subrahmanyeswari, Srinivasa Babu, Gajula. Supriya, Bandi . Srilekha
Vignan Pharmacy College,  Vadlamudi, Andhra Pradesh

ABSTRACT:
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever. It is a serious fatal illness to human. EVD is caused by the Ebola virus. The outbreak of Ebola virus began in the Republic of Guinea in February 2014.The 2014 West Africa outbreak is believed to be most severely recorded in medical history. Around 1440 cases with 826 deaths have been reported. But around 16,000 people survived in West Africa. A cellular protein acts as a receptor for Ebola virus and Marburg virus. TIM-1 acts as a receptor for Ebola virus which is a cellular protein.  It is transmittable disease which occurs by the contact with the blood or body fluids of a person who was infected or died from EVD, contaminated objects like needles and infected animals or meat. Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also major role in transmission of Ebola. EVD has an incubation period of about 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. At present, there is no particular type of treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine in public health measures have been taken to reduce the smack of EBD on individuals and communities. Treatment for Ebola virus involves early, truculent, supportive care with rehydration. Typical symptoms of Ebola virus disease include fever, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting for about 3-5 days and may lasts up to one week, abdominal pain. Upon increase in severity of the virus the patient may suffer from confusion, dehydration, and hypotension. These conditions eventually may lead to death. Ebola virus may be spread due to insufficient medical facilities, poor sanitation, unsafe burial practices. Ebola virus does not replicate through cell division. There is no definitive cure and management is mainly supportive ensuring adequate hydration and symptomatic treatment.

SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO TREAT TOBACCO ADDICTION – A REVIEW

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Pooja A.M* . Apsari Anjum , Shashank Nayak N , Shwetha Kamath KS
Bapuji pharmacy college, Davangere, Karnataka

ABSTRACT
In this current review , we have gathered the information regarding the various aspects of tobacco. The propagation &  measures taken like the climatic condition for instance temperature ,soil texture are discussed in this review. The different methods of isolation using fungal pectinase to release mesophilic cells & its further process are reviewed in this work .Attempts have been made to gather information on the side effects of tobacco & the various measures to treat nicotine addiction are highlighted in this article.

FOODS CONTAINING NITROSOAMINES CAUSES CARCINOGENESIS – AN INSIGHT REVIEW

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Sai Kushal Gunturu*, Tulasi Ram Nayak Menavath, Ramadoss Karthikeyan
Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi-522213, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Nitrosamines belongs to a family of potent carcinogenic substances that have been rigorously stidie dover the past decades due to its extreme carcinogenic nature to animals as well as humans. It is generally found as an industrial contaminant but can also the exposure to the substance maybe due to soil, water or food contamination. The carcinogenicity to humans is caused by the metabolised product of nitrosamines especially, N-nitroso compounds.

One of the most extensively studied compound of this fami.ly is N-Nitroso dimethylamine due to its potency in the formation of cancers. N-Nitroso dimethylamine induces cancers in the stomach due to its metabolism in the gut and the production of toxic metabolites. Frequently N-Nitroso dimethylamine exposure is via skin absorption and also via ingestion.

Under extensive researches in mice, in oral administration it is found to induce cancers of lung, kidney and stomach. It was proposed that the toxic nature of N-Nitroso dimethylamine is due to the highly – oxygen reactive species forming metabolite nature and also altering the activity of liver microsomal enzymes.

AN UPDATED OVERVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF BORASSUS FLABELLIFER LINN

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Saranya K*, Sivakumar G, Gopalasatheeskumar K, Arulkumaran G
KMCH college of Pharmacy, The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University,
Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT
Plants plays a major role in health as medicine since the human era began. The Palmyra tree is the official tree of Tamil Nadu state in India. All of its parts could be used for medicinal properties. This magnanimous tree is found with gums, albuminoids, steroidal glycosides, fats, and carbohydrate like sucrose, spirostane type steroids like borassosides and dioscin. The aim of this review was the updated research of this plant for its pharmacological screening. This review article is focused attentively on medicinal property of the plant Borassus flabellifer linn belongs to the family of Arecaceae. In this review was concluded that the plants are having various pharmacological actions like anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-nociceptive, anti-bacterial, wound healing, anti-convulsant, and anti-microbial properties.

RECEPTOR TARGETING LIPOSOMAL NANO FORMULATIONS FOR DRUG DELIVERY IN BREAST CANCER

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Jigar Vyas*, Juhi H. Patel, Riya N. Patel, Daxini kapil, Kumar vinodbhai
Sigma Institute of Pharmacy,
Ajwa-Nimeta road, Bakrol, Vadodara, Gujarat

ABSTRACT
Recently, incidences of breast cancer are increasing and it has become a leading cause of cancer related deaths of women globally. Though pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are developing, and researchers are working to find a better treatment of breast cancer patients to improve the effectiveness of current therapy, the survival rate is very low. A lot of research is going on based on lipid particulate systems which has versatile applications for the treatment of life-threatening diseases such as breast cancer. Out of various lipid particulate systems, liposomes have been studied and explored widely as they have many applications such as improving solubility of antitumor drugs, reduces the side effects, long circulation in blood, possibility of passive and active targeting to tumor cells. Liposomal system is most popular because of its biocompatibility, capability to encapsulate hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drugs, ease of surface modification and wide range of applications.   Thus, a thorough research is ongoing for upgradation of liposomes as multipotential carriers and its effective therapeutic. Therefore, this review article includes the recent development and techniques of liposomal nano formulations drug delivery system. This review majorly focuses on the breast cancer and its therapy, current challenges in experimental and clinical studies in liposomal formulations. 

DYE INDUCED REACTION IN GERIATRIC PATIENT WITH COMORBID CONDITIONS AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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Byreddy sowmya*, Gandluri sravani, Hari Priya Mullamuri.
Sri Padmavathi School of pharmacy,
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,
Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Any medication used for diagnosis, prophylaxis or treatment of the patient is capable of producing an adverse reaction. Allergy is the most common unexpected adverse reaction; encountered with antibiotics, salicylates, ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors and dye agents. Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical substance that is widely used as a permanent hair dye. PPD is used in hair dye because it is a permanent dye that gives a natural look, and the dyed hair can also be shampooed or permed without losing its colour. Fully oxidized PPD is not a sensitiser, but the intermediate, partially oxidised form of PPD may cause contact allergic dermatitis in sensitive individuals.In this case report we discuss about the ppd allergy in the older person who are having diabetes ,hypertension and heart diseases. The case is being reported to bring attention of the medical fraternity towards importance of sound pharmaco-vigilance and prepare them to with efficient preventive measures before using of these dyes. This case can also provide a vital data regarding anaphylactic reaction to a dye.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYERED TABLETS OF NIFEDIPINE AS IMMEDIATE RELEASE AND ATENOLOL AS SUSTAINED RELEASED TABLET

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P.Mounika*, Sanjit, Abhishek pandey, Dilraj Yadav
Gautham College of Pharmacy,
Bangalore – 560032

ABSTRACT
Objective: The objective of the present study was to develop Bilayered tablets of Nifedipine and atenolol. Bilayered tablet contains two layers. We can formulate first layer into immediate release and second layer into sustained release for desired action. Nifedipine have half-life 2hrs make the drug suitable for immediate release. Atenolol have half-life 6-7hrs make the drug suitable for sustained release.
Methods: In this formulation using super disintegrants for immediate release, acacia and ethyl cellulose as a polymers for sustained release. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. In this study Bilayered tablets of Nifedipine and Atenolol tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, thickness, drug content and In-vitro studies.
Results: Bi-layer tablet is suitable for sequential release of two drugs in combination, separate to incompatible substances and also for immediate release as initial dose and sustained release as maintenance dose. In Immediate release formulation, IR-F-3 formulation gives 98% release within 15min. For sustained effect SR-F-3, SR-F-1 gives 98% release within 8-9hrs. SR-F-2 gives 99% release within 10-11hrs for a longer period of time.
Conclusion: The combination of IF-3 and SR-F-2 suitable for formulation. This formulation is used for Bilayered tablet to combine with sustained released tablet. The evaluation parameters were estimated.

QUALITY BY DESIGN - A REVIEW

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Manohar D. Kengar*, Jameer A. Tamboli, Chandrakant S. Magdum
Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Dist – Sangli, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
Pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QBD) is a systematic approach to development that begins with predetermined objectives and emphasizes the understanding of production and processes and process control, based on sound science and quality risk management. Quality purchasing design (QBD) is emerging to increase the promise of providing safe and effective medicines to customers and promises to improve the efficiency of product quality. Quality means eligibility for use. The quality of the medication means that the product provides therapeutic benefits to the label reproducible and free from contamination on the label. In vivo or in vitro performance test can be evaluated for drug production. Dietite by Quality guarantees the performance of the product in vitro and the performance of the in vitro product in the in vivo product. "So the quality design is related to the product."

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