BN College of Pharmacy, Udaipur-Raj. 313001

Liposomes are concentric bilayer vesicles, which were first developed by Bangham and his colleagues in 1961. They are highly efficient having high drug entrapment capacity. Due to their size, hydrophobic and lipophilic character they are most widely used vehicles for drug delivery. The main aim of this drug delivery system is to target the drug directly to the site of action in order to prolong and enhance the drug effect. Liposomes are biocompatible and stable and are able to entrap both hydrophilic and lipophilic drug within its compartment. The size range varies from 0.05-5.0µ in diameter. Various convectional techniques used for liposomal preparation and size reduction are mechanical dispersion methods, solvent dispersion methods and detergent removal method. Due to difference in method of preparation and composition of lipids, liposomes can be characterized according to size, charge, lamellarity etc. This article provide an overview of liposomes, advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action, classification, structural composition, preparation as well as evaluation parameters, applications and future aspects.

Merging Religious Holistic and Scientific Aspect of Basic infection control practices Isolation Hand washing and Bathing to assist infection control in COVID - A Union Therapy Initiative

1Kanishk Kala, 2Dr Rupinder Kaur Sodhi

1Research Scholar Pharmacy Chandigarh College of Pharmacy IK Gujral PTU Punjab
2Guide Pharmacology Chandigarh College of Pharmacy IK Gujral PTU Punjab

At present time COVID-19 has become a global threat.  In spite of modern technology The medical management of the said disease is not yet accomplished. The only strategy being used for this is in the preventive measures. This documents that still there is need of ancient method for management. This review highlights is based on the Union therapy view / Sayojya Chikitsa  which respects all treatment modality and tries to integrate scientific mythological and religious role of basic hygiene practices like Isolation hand washing and bathing spiritual techniques to combat the physical psychological and mental aspects of this COVID-19.

Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) : The epidemic and the challenges

Disha Chouhana*1, Dr. Rajesh Mujariya2
1*Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Research , Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics,  School of Pharmaceutical Science and Research , Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh, India

There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d.

Six Sigma in Pharmaceutical Industry

Faculty of Pharmacy, BN University, Udaipur- Raj.313001*

Six Sigma is a highly disciplined activity that focuses on growing and giving near perfect product and services. Six Sigma focuses what is important to customer. It reduces defects in process variation so that virtually all the products or services provided meet customer expectations. Six Sigma has been used by some of the world’s most successful companies leading to savings of billions of dollars, increases in speed and capacity in their processes and achieving new, stronger customer relationships. The pharmaceutical industry is noticing diminishing promotes due to the competition from generic brands and errors within the manufacturing process. To improve this, many companies are attempting to increase efficiency within the manufacturing and operational processes by reducing waste and errors. By applying six sigma and lean manufacturing, many pharmaceutical companies are able to reduce waste and bring about effective change within the manufacturing process. The pharmaceutical industry rules and regulations are mainly alarmed with the quality, safety as well as efficacy of the products at the higher levels. This is the need to accomplish the best quality in the various processes in the pharmaceutical industry. The requirement of the business strategy such as six sigma arises in this condition.


Gouranga Sundar Roy 1*, Sangita Biswas2 
Department of Pharmacy, Bengal School of Technology
(A College of Pharmacy),
Sugandha, Delhi Road Near Chuchura, Hooghly - 712102,
West Bengal, India

Scott Craniodigital syndrome is a situation that has best been found in families. The manifestations consist of uncommon head shape, boom and developmental delay, and mild webbing between the arms and toes. Less than 10 cases have been described within the literature so far. Clinical description strange dermatoglyphic patterns, boom retardation and brachycephalic have additionally been reported. Scott Craniodigital Syndrome with Mental Retardation is a very uncommon inherited disorder this is fully expressed in male best. Mental retardation (MR) is a widely used term but a contentious one. There is still a quest for appropriate terminology that doesn't companion with negative perception of affected character ad but is correct in phrases of nosology. Also debatable is the most appropriate methodology. Scott Craniodigital syndrome is believed to be inherited as an X-connected recessive genetic trait, based totally on the presence of the circumstance in males most effective. Carrier ladies have very moderate manifestation. The motion disorder related with can be managed by way of pharmacological treatment of thru physical remedy and occupational therapy to reduce disability. Some drug remedy which have been used to control.


1Charles Owusu-Aduomi Botchwey*, 2Yaa Kusi-Ameyaa, 1Isaac Adom-Konadu,  1Ebenezer Dzinpa Effisah
1 University of Cape Coast
2 University of Professional Studies-Accra

Healthcare provision aims at ensuring that clients who visit a healthcare facility are provided with affordable and quality healthcare aimed at promoting the well-being of the people in the catchment areas of the healthcare facility. Considering the pivotal role played by nurses in helping deliver quality healthcare, one of the most pertinent issues has been the question of how nurses perceive motivation and how best to motivate them. The study aimed at empirically evaluating the current perception of nurses in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital on motivation and job satisfaction and how to improve the motivation of nurses aimed at promoting quality healthcare. The study adopted a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews of a total of twenty (20) respondents including seven key informants purposely selected due to their role in the implementation of motivation policies in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Community. This study employed the case study design. The study found that mismanagement of the hospital’s resources was one of the challenges of motivation at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Again, the study found that inability of nurses to express their worries and issues concerning their welfare affected motivation and job satisfaction largely. Furthermore, the study found that the hospital did not have any medical plan for nurses at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital.  The study recommends that employees’ views must be sought when it comes to motivation to find out exactly what their needs are but not to impose anything on them in the name of motivating them. The study also recommends that nurses’ preferences for different benefits vary with their ages, marital status and so on. It is important for the hospital to “customise” their benefit packages and use them to their best advantage. It is important to mention that for motivation to be able to achieve its intended purpose, there is the need for the hospital to identify the individual needs in order to satisfy them accordingly to promote job satisfaction.


*Tinku Kumar Singh1, Satish Kumar1, Purna Tiwari2
1 Indchemie health Specialities Pvt. Ltd
2 Alkem health science Ltd


ABSTRACT : The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic. In January 2020, a previously unknown new virus was identified subsequently named the 2019 novel corona virus, and samples obtained from cases and analysis of the virus’ genetics indicated that this was the cause of the outbreak. Corona viruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Corona viruses are large pleomorphic spherical particles with bulbous surface projections. Isolation remains the most effective measure for containment of COVID-19. Moreover unnecessary administration of antibiotics should also be avoided. Critically ill patients require high flow oxygen, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), glucocorticoid therapy, and convalescent plasma. Therapeutically, aerosol administration of alpha-interferon (5 million units twice daily), chloroquine phosphate, and lopinavir/ritonavir have been suggested.

Pharmacovigilance at Glance :- Safety Monitoring

Girjesh Vishwakarma*, Dr.Surendra Kumar Jain  
Sagar Institute of Research & Technology - Pharmacy
Opp. Sagar Estate, Ayodhya By Pass Road, Bhopal - 462 041 (MP)

Now a day’s usage of drugs has been increasing day by day and pharmaceutical companies are developing new drug products and humans begin taking more and effective drugs also as investigational drugs. Safety and efficacy are the two major predominant considerations about any drug. In each and each phase of a products life cycle pharmacovigilance plays a critical role. Thus, significance of pharmacovigilance is developing and have become vital and inseparable a part of clinical research.

Need of online pharmacy during covid-19 lockdown

The global Online Pharmacy market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate. The consumers are preferring to purchase medicine online due to covid-19 lockdown.  Governments are taking all essential steps for protecting lives by imposing lockdowns, testing, segregation, and treatment. At the same time also restricting outdoor movement except for supplying and procuring essential goods and services. The role of e-commerce in both wholesale and retail trade is continuously growing. According to industry insiders, e-commerce companies have witnessed about 20-30 per cent spike in orders as customers are avoiding visiting crowded places.


P.Tulasi, M.Akshara, M.Manisha Reddy, M. Hiranmai, M. Anusha Reddy.
Sarojini Naidu Vanita Pharmacy Maha Vidyalaya,

We aimed to explore on different effects of ingestion of caffeine. We mainly focused on the advantages and disadvantages of caffeine ingestion along with healthy dosage and alternative for caffeine. We conclude that ingestion of caffeine may acutely improve muscle strength and provide significant health benefits for training men (Athletes).