Articles

IMPACT OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUHTORS
*1Bhuyan Nadugopal, 1Swain Sabhya Sampada, 1Ojha Sudip Kumar, 2Meher Chaitanya Prasad
1Gayatri Institute of Science and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada,765022, Odisha
2 The Pharmaceutical College,Tingipali,Barapali,Dist-Bargarh,Odisha
*nadugopal.1997@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:- The radioactive agents used in the nuclear medical field are called radiopharmaceuticals. A radiopharmaceutical is a drug, that contains a radionuclide in the form of a simple salt or a complex.  It may exist as a solid, liquid, gas or a pseudo gas. It is used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. The chemical and physical identity and a form of a radiopharmaceutical are very important because in each case, once administered the radiopharmaceutical is intended to target certain tissues, binding sites, biochemical pathways. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. Many of the radiopharmaceuticals used for the diagnostic purpose, like C14 for pancreatic study and breath test, Cr51used for red cell volume and GFR measurement, Co57 used for gastrointestinal absorption. In radiopharmaceuticals, technetium has a versatile activity due to its large usage.  This review article describes the production of radiopharmaceutical, types of radiation source used in healthcare, diagnostic imaging technique, therapeutic application as well as advantage and disadvantage of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation therapy. The main aim of this review article is to describe how radiation source or radiopharmaceuticals affect the healthcare system.


GENERALIZE CHEMOMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR AQUAMETRY BY KARL FISCHER TITRATION

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Deepak Chowrasia* Dr. Nisha Sharma
University Institute of Pharmacy, CSJM University,
Kanpur, U.P.-208024, India
*chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Moisture content affects not only the physiochemical property of an organic or inorganic compound but also markedly deviate its stability if present beyond a specific concentration. Numerous methods were available and has been hand-to-hand adopted to determine the water content among which Karl Fischer titration hold a distinct position owing to its simplicity, accuracy, and cost effective measurement. The following paper presented here precisely defines some of the aspects of same.


A NOVEL TRANSDERMAL PATCH OF LAMIVUDINE: IN VITRO- IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION

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About Authors:
*R. Natarajan., Abirami. M, , Pavan kumar J, G. Murugananthan
Department of Pharmaceutics & research
Swamy Vivekanandha College of pharmacy
Tamil Nadu,  India

*svcpnatarajan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The work was carried out to formulate and evaluate the matrix transdermal patches of Lamivudine for the controlled delivery of drug in the body. The transdermal patches were prepared by the solvent casting method using Span-80 as a permeation enhancer and were prepared in different drug: polymer (Lamivudine: HPMC and Lamivudine: EC) ratios of 1:2.5, 1:5, without permeation enhancers and with permeation enhancers. The prepared transdermal patch were found to be good physicochemical properties, shows no skin irritation on the rat skin and  subjected to in vitro drug permeation study by using rat skin in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for 24 hours. The comparative statistical analytical data (ANOVA) showed ‘p’ value < 0.0001 which suggest that the prepared formulation are extremely significant for transdermal delivery. The formulation (FPE2) ratio 1:5 of (Lamivudine: HPMC) patch with permeation enhancer showed best result among all the formulation. This formulation (FPE2) was subjected to in-vivo studies by using rat. The in-vivo studies of the patches were administrated transdermally to rat skin and while a standard solution of 10μg/ml was used as a control, and collected the plasma drug sample at different time interval and analyzed by HPLC. The in-vitro in-vivo correlation studies shows the regression value (R) 0.863 and correlated and to be linear.


RECENTLY USED TECHNOLOGIES IN PELLET FORMULATION -A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Utkranti D. Aher, *Tushar T. Shelke, Ekta P. Patel
JSPM’S Charak College of Pharmacy and Research,
Wagholi,  Pune

*tts.ccopr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Now a day’s medication systems that need frequent dosing are always with problems. So there is thrust in the area of pharmaceutical research to develop novel formulations, which will enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the existing drug. The goal of this study is to provide detailed and different techniques of pelletization such as powder layering, suspension and solution layering, globulation, freeze, extrusion - spheronization, cryopelletization etc. It has some merits, demerits and its characterization as a tool in the multipariculate drug delivery system.etc. It also gives brief idea about the evaluation of pellets and application of pelletization technique. Evaluation of quality of the pellets is discussed with reference to the size distribution, shape, surface morphology, specific surface area, friability and  tensile strength.


A STUDY ON ROLE OF DOCTOR OF PHARMACY IN IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN AN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY WARD OF A TERITARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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About Authors:
M. Manasa Rekha,
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya college of Pharmacy,
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh,  India.
manasarekharoyal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics. Clinical pharmacists often work in collaboration with physicians, nurse practitioners and other healthcare professionals. The Clinical Pharmacist Stating explicitly that the clinical pharmacist cares for patients in all health care settings emphasizes two points: that clinical pharmacists provide care to their patients and that this practice can occur in any practice setting. The clinical pharmacist’s application of evidence and evolving sciences points out that clinical pharmacy is a scientifically rooted discipline the application of legal, ethical, social, cultural, and economic principles serves to remind us that clinical pharmacy practice also takes into account societal factors that extend beyond science.


A REVIEW ON CLINICAL PHARMACIST CARE FOR MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

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About Authors:
M.S.Umashankar, K.S.Lakshmi, A.Bharath Kumar*, A.Porselvi
Department of PharmacyPractice SRM College of Pharmacy,SRM University. Kattankulathur.Tamilnadu.India.
abharatpharma@gmail.com*

ABSTRACT :  Diabetic nephropathy is a type of progressive kidney disease that may occur in people who have diabetes. It affects people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and risk increases with the duration of the disease and other risk factors like high blood pressure and a family history of kidney disease.Kidney is made of hundreds of thousands of small units called nephrons.These structures filter the blood and helps to remove waste from the body, and control fluid balance.Clinical conditions we can investigate the symptoms like Persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/d or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months and Progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate,severe tiredness,headaches,general feeling of  illness,frequent voiding, lack of appetite, itchy skin, and leg swelling.Diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed after a routine urinalysis and screening for microalbuminuria and fasting,random blood sugar level,glomeluar filteration rate,serum creatinine,creatinine clearance is used to confirm the disease.Reduction of  kidney damage by controlling blood sugar levels,controlling blood pressure through the eating healthy foods and getting regular exercise.The evidence suggest that  approaching early treatment,regular Patient follow-up will delays and prevents the onset of diabetic nephropathy.Clinical Pharmacist having significant role in providing education on disease related issues and he work with both the patient and physician to ensure that patient is to achieve optimal blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid control, and that other risk factors and lifestyle  modifications are being addressed.Appropriate control of their diabetes with nephropathy can be influenced through proper education and counselling by the clinical Pharmacists in clinical care.


DRUG TARGETS IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS BY METABOLIC PATHWAY ANALYSIS:INSILICO PROCESS

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Amiya Kumar Ghosh*1,Saptarshi Samajdar2, Shiladitya Palit3,  Rupchand Pandit4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UTKAL UNIVERSITY, Bhubaneswar- 751004,Odisha, India.
2Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences and Natural Products, CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF PUNJAB, Bathinda-151001, Punjab, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, IITBHU, Varanasi, India
4Department of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra Ranchi-835215, Jharkhand, India
*amiyaghosh94@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: 
Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared as a global health emergency by the World Health Organization(WHO). This has been mainly due to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains and the synergy between tubercle bacilli and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a pathogenic bacteria species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in the world from a bacterial infectious disease. This antibiotic resistance strain lead to development of the new antibiotics or drug molecules which can kill or suppress the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.The need for new antiTB is persistent due to the emergence of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we aimto identify new drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by phylogenomics among the Mycobacterium tuberculosisandcomparative genomics to Homo sapiens. The proposed target discovery pipeline is largely independent of experimental data and based on the assumption that Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins are likely to be essential if (i) there are no similar proteins in the same proteome and (ii) they are highly conserved across the Mycobacterium tuberculosisof mammals. We have performed an in silicocomparative analysis of metabolic pathways of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv). Novel efforts in developing drugs that target the intracellular metabolismof M. tuberculosis often focus on metabolic pathways that are specific to M. tuberculosis. We have identified five unique pathwaysfor Mycobacterium tuberculosis having a number of 60 enzymes, which are nonhomologous to Homo sapiens protein sequences,and among them there were 55 enzymes, which are nonhomologous to Homo sapiens protein sequences.These enzymes were alsofound to be essential for survival of theMycobacteriumtuberculosisaccording to the DEG database. Further, the functional analysis using Uniprot showed involvement of all the unique enzymes in the different cellular components.


PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SESBANIA SESBAN LINN.: AN OVERVIEW

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Saptarshi Samajdar1, Amiya Kr. Ghosh2
1Centre for Pharmaceutical Sc. And Natural Products, Central University of Punjab
2Dept. of Pharmacy, Utkal University, Orissa

*saptarshisamajdar20@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: SesbaniaSesban Linn. (Family: Fabaceae) found all through the fields of India and ordinarily called as Jayanti. Herbals which shape a piece of our nourishment and give us an extra helpful impact are sought after and SesbaniaSesban Linn. is one of such plant. The plant has got great restorative significance. Blooms contain cyanidin and delphinidinglucosides, Pollen and dust tubes contain alphaketoglutaric, oxaloacetic and pyruvic acids. The leaves of Sesbania is additionally found to have hepatoprotective and powerful hostile to oxidant and against urolithiatic action. The ethanolic and fluid extraction of various parts of Sesbania. The present survey outlines the different pharmacological activities of Sesbaniasesban Linn.


ADVANCEMENTS IN PHARMACOLOGY AND ITS EFFECT ON 'HEALTH-CARE' INDUSTRY

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Neha Bala, Naresh Mali
*
Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Rajasthan,  India
malinaresh888@gmail.com

The tremendous pharmacological advances witnessed during the last few decades have revolutionize virtually all aspects of modern life,including our understanding of disease.New drugs have contributed significantly to the economic impact of new developments in health care.With recognition that the pace of pharmacological development and acquiring of new knowledge will certainly accelerate in the coming years,let us consider what these advances might hold for Pharmacological advancement,Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism


FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF KETOPROFEN: EFFECT OF DISINTEGRANTS ON DRUG RELEASE

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Kambham Venkateswarlu*,
Department of Pharmaceutics,
JNTUA-Oil Technological and Pharmaceutical Research Institute
Andhra Pradesh,  India
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
The objective of the present investigation was to formulate and evaluate the mouth dissolving tablets (MDTs) of ketoprofen (KPN) using disintegrants like Crospovidone (CP), Croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and the effect of disintegrants on drug release was also studied. The powder blend was evaluated for flow properties and found acceptable flow properties. The prepared MDTs were evaluated for post compression parameters such as hardness, friability, weight variation, dispersion time, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Tablets possessing sufficient strength supported by hardness and friability results. The formulation KP6 showed lease dispersion time of 14 sec and it was selected for drug release studies. KP6 showed 99.9% of drug release in 5 min and time taken for 70% of the drug is 2.8 min. Based on the results obtained from the dispersion time and in-vitro dissolution studies, it could be concluded that the concentration of disintegrant is indirectly proportional to the dispersion time and directly proportional to the amount of drug release respectively.


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