Articles

MIGRAINE & MIGRAINE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Muthyala Nagavamsidhar*1, Qadrie ZL.2, Suman A.1
*1 Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Suryapet, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

nagavamsi.muthyala@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:  Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. The WHO has rated migraine amongst the top 20 most disabling life time conditions. Migraine is a pervasive and debilitating, chronic neurological painful disorder, affecting from 15% to 29% of the general population. It is the second most common cause of headache characterized by recurrent episodes of headache and associated symptoms i.e. nausea, sensitivity to light and noise that typically last from 4 to 72 hours which is divided into four phases. Migraine is well explained with three hypothesis i.e., vascular, platelet, central nervous system. It affects people of all groups, sexes, races and social classes around the globe. Migraine can occur due to various trigger factors and can be managed with both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment.

RESISTANCE OF SERRATIA MARCESCENS (SPKD15) TO VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CONDITIONS: EFFECT ON CELL VIABILITY AND PRODIOGISIN PRODUCTION

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1PRATYUSH KUMAR DAS*, 2SMRUTIPRAGNYA SAMAL, 3RATIKANTA SAHOO, 4PRASANT KUMAR SABAT
1,2,3Centre for Biotechnology, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India – 751003
4School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India – 751003
*pratyushdas@soa.ac.in

ABSTRACT
Serratia marcescens, a gram negative bacillus is generally related to hospital acquired infections. Production of red pigment (Prodiogisin) by the bacterium is an important characteristic feature and has been reported to exhibit certain antimicrobial property. The resistance of the bacteria towards several classes of antibiotics makes it one of the most notorious pathogen. The work aimed to evaluate the resistance of Serratia marcescens (SPKD15) under various environmental stress conditions (temperature, pH, Salt concentration and UV). Effect of these stress conditions on the cell viability and production of prodiogisin was analysed. The strain was able to sustain up to temperature of 40°C, Salt (NaCl) concentration of 7%, pH up to 10 and could withstand UV radiations up to 2 minutes. However, the prodiogisin production was negatively affected and finally inhibited at all the conditions of environmental stress(Temperature = 35°C, pH = 4 and 9, Nacl concentration = 4% and UV exposure of 15 seconds). This indicates that prodiogisin may act as a protective mechanism for the bacterium under stress. Further, intracellular antimicrobial was obtained from the UV exposed culture and compared with the antimicrobial obtained from the normal culture. The antimicrobial obtained from UV exposed culture showed decreased antimicrobial effect with inhibition diameter ranging between 2 mm to 13 mm (± S.D) as compared to the antimicrobial obtained from the normal culture. An inhibition diameter ranging between 4 mm to 22 mm (± S.D) was obtained in case of the normal culture which may be attributed to the loss of pigmentation. The study highlights the resistance of the bacterium to various environmental stresses. Keeping the degree of pathogenicity of the bacterium in mind, eradication of the same is quite difficult and must be looked upon seriously.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLUCONAZOLE GEL BY USING SYNTHETIC POLYMER

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Sachin G. Dhandore*1,
Kalyani B.Wagh2
1 Department of Pharmaceutics,
Shivnagar Vidya Prasarak Mandal’s College of Pharmacy,
Malegaon(Bk), Baramati, Pune Maharashtra, India
2 Jalna Education Society’s Institute of Pharmacy,
J.E.S. College Campus, Jalna Maharashtra, India

*sachindhandore5@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Fluconazole is an imidazole derivative and used for the treatment of local and systemic fungal infection. The oral use of Fluconazole is not much recomanded as it has many side effects. Thus these formulations are made for better patient compliance and to reduce the dose of drug and to avoid the side effects like liver damage and kidney damage. The gel was formulated by using the synthetic polymer like carbapol 934 and HPMC by changing the polymer ratio. Gel formulations were characterized for drug content, pH determination, viscosity measurement, in-vitro diffusion. Among the six formulations F2 was selected as the best formulation as its %CDR after four and half hour was 99.01%. The viscosity of the F2 formulation was within the limit. Efficient delivery of drug to skin application was found to be highly beneficial in localizing the drug to desired site in the skin and reduced side effects associated with conventional treatment.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL AQUEOUS GEL OF POWDERED GUAVA LEAVES FOR MOUTH ULCER TREATMENT

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Sabir Shaikh*1, Amol Shete2, Rajendra Doijad3
1S. Kant Health care R&D Centre, 
Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra-400705.
2Department of pharmaceutics,
Krishna institute of Pharmacy
Krishna institute medical sciences Deemed university, Karad. MS, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics and Quality Assurance,
Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy Ghogaon, Karad, MS, India

*sabirmshaikh17@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The objectives of present investigation were to formulate and evaluate herbal gel for mouth ulcer treatment of dried powdered guava leaves.
Herbal gel was prepared by using different concentration of powdered guava leaves and Carbopol 934, Propylene glycol as a gel base. Formulations were evaluated for various parameters
Infrared spectroscopy revealed that there was no interaction between powdered Guava leaves and Polymer. The formulated gel was transparent, homogeneous and pH ranges from 7 to 7.5. Formulation showed acceptable rheological behaviour with applicable Spreadability and Extrudability properties. Anti-fungal studies of formulations showed excellent efficacy against Aspargiliousaureus, Candida albicans.
From the experimental evidence of invitro studies it was observed that powdered guava leaves contain flavonoids so it showed significant antioxidant effect.
Developed herbal formulation was stable, safe and effective over to synthetic formulations for the treatment of mouth ulcer.

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ISONIAZID MICROBEADS BY USING DIFFERENT MEMBRANE

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Narinder Singh*, Raminder kaur
Department of Pharmaceutics
CT institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jalandhar, Punjab, India

*Pharmacist.narinder@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Current experimental investigation is dedicated to formulated alginate floating microbeads of Isoniazid as a model drug by ion cross-linking method or ion gelation technique using calcium chloride as cross-linking agent. Drug effectiveness might be influenced by blood plasma protein binding. The less bound drug is more viable it can cross cell membrane and diffuse. Protein binding can impact the drug’s biological half-life in the body. Isoniazid was first generation antibiotic which are used for the resistance is an obstacle to the treatment of tuberculosis disease and latent tuberculosis infection. The permeability of Isoniazid study using different membrane (Egg membrane and cellophane membrane). The IN VITRO drug release studies showed the optimized formulation of drug release 91 % in cellophane membrane and 88 % in egg membrane at 60 mins. The percentage buoyancy and swelling index of microbeads F1-F4 respectively 53-72% and 56-76%. The drug entrapment efficiency of the microbeads prepared from sodium alginate alone were found to be in the range of 52-71%.Experimental report revealed that Isoniazid loaded microbeads may act as ideal nano formulation with elaborated studies.

NEXUS BETWEEN MEDICAL HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS AND PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES : BOON OR BANE FOR PATIENTS

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BALVINDER SINGH*1, PAWAN JALWAL 1, VIKASH KUMAR RUHIL 2
1Shri Baba Mastnath Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research,
Baba Mastnath University, Asthal Bohar, Rohtak, Haryana, India
2P.D.M. College of Pharmacy, P.D.M. University, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India

*balvindersinghpharmaco@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
What started as imparting education to medical healthcare professionals, regarding pharmaceutical products by various pharmaceutical companies, has now become a grave, giant problem in the category of bribery and to be more precise, corruption in this 21st century. Now detailing of pharmaceutical company product has included giving free physician’s sample packs, prescription pads, pen and includes an entire range of latest electronic gazettes of mobile phones, laptops, tablets, AC, Refrigerator, LED TV, sponsoring a conference, refreshment to all expenses like return air ticket with free boarding and lodging in national or international tourist spot or hilly area. The real problem is that nothing comes free; all these expenses will add to cost of medicines and medical fraternity will heed least to quality of medicine. Now the market is flooded with abundant, spurious, sub-standard medicines; as pharmaceutical companies have the confidence of selling these products by shelling huge, attractive offers/gifts to some of greedy doctors, who fall prey to their lucrative offers. In this article, the aim is to probe this association or rather; we can call nexus between the medical healthcare professionals and various pharmaceutical companies. Various aspects are covered in this article, like….How this association works? What is the modus operandi and rationale of this association? Various angles of this association; from medical healthcare professionals, medical councils, pharmaceutical companies and society point of views are covered.

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY STUDY OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI (MYRTACEAE) SEED EXTRACTS

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Abdul Aziz*, Sabyasachi Banerjee
Department of Pharmaceutics, Gupta College of Technological Sciences,
Ashram More, G.T. Road, Asansol 713301, West Bengal, India

*abdulaziz_94@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Syzygium cumini is commonly known as jamun, jambolan, Java plum or black plum, is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant from family Myrtaceae, and is one of the most popular fruits. It is planted in various regions spontaneous. It is native of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Nepal, China, Australia, Thailand, Kenya, Colombia, Mexico, United States of America, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The entire part of the plants has been widely used in the treatment of various diseases in the traditional and folk medicine. The edible part of fruits (jamun) contain vitamin C, gallic acid, tannins, anthocyanins, includes cyanidin, petunidin, malvidinglucoside and other components. The seeds of Syzygium cumini possess anti-diabetic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidaemic, psychopharmacological, anti-diarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
In this present study, the phytochemical investigation and antibacterial activity studies were carried out with using methanol, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of the seeds of Syzygium cumini from the family Myrtaceae. Preliminary the phytochemical screening of all extracts revealed the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids and absence of anthraquinone glycosides. The antibacterial activity of all three extracts was tested against some pathogenic bacteria using the Cup-Plate method. The different extracts of Syzygium cumini seeds showed inhibitory activity over Gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the methanolic extract was slightly more potent than the other two.

A NEW TYPES OF POLYMORPHIC FORM OF 10-PROPARGYL-10-DEAZAAMINOPTERIN, FROM SL: AS A REFRACTORY PERIPHERAL T-CELL LYMPHOMA DRUG

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J. Y MANURE *, N. S NAIKWADE, P. J SHIROTE, S.A BAGWAN AND K. M KULKARNI
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy,
South Shivaji Nagar, Sangli- 416416, Maharashtra, India.

*javeedmanure.98600@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT 
A new crystal form of 10-Propargyl-10-Deazaaminopterin, form SL, was discovered which is thermodynamically stable, shows long term stability and is applicable for using in final dosage forms. Form SL was characterized by several analytical methods such as thermal analysis by DSC, IR, X-ray powder diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), Digital optical microscopy and solubility/dissolution measurements. Active pharmaceutical ingredients should be stable during technological processes for the preparation of a final dosage form and must also remain stable during storage. The morphology of long needle and plate shaped crystals was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. Form SL was compared to other forms of 10-Propargyl-10-Deazaaminopterin such as form A, B, C and to the amorphous form. The thermodynamic stability of form SL is supported by its long-term stability. Form SL is a pharmaceutically applicable crystal form.

EVALUTION OF IN VITRO ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES CARRIED OUT FOR MELIA AZEDARACH LEAF EXTRACTS

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Lagu surendra babu*, Prof. Y. Rajendra Prasad, D. Geetha mounika
Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry,
AU college of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, AP, India

*ysbabu033@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Investigation of phytochemical and biological activities was performed by Antioxidant (DPPH, H2O2, Nitric oxide) free radical scavenging methods against three gradient polarity solvents extracts of leaves of Melia azaradach Linn with different concentraions. MA species of three different assay (DPPH, H2O2, Nitric oxide) of anti-oxidant activity were showed to be IC50 values of 20.14, 35.98, 36.43 with methanolic extract of leaves were have higher concentration possess more antioxidant potential than MALEoC IC50 42.85, 54.18, 30.56 and MALEoH IC50 values of 44.68, 52.71, 48.05 when compare to reference standard ascorbic acid IC50 values of 17.87, 18.91, 25.83. They exhibited strong antioxidant DPPH, H2O2, Nitric oxide radical scavenging activities with IC50 value reference ascorbic acid, MALoME, MALoCE and MALoHE respectively. Phytoconstituents like carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, saponins and tannins etc. An antioxidant activity of methanol extract could be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenols The results suggest that methanol and chloroform extracts from leaf melia azedarach tree have strong antioxidant potential.

INTERACTION STUDIES BETWEEN SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE AND ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED CHRONIC TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS RAT MODEL

ABOUT AUTHORS
Ms. Swati Dhande*, Mr. Parikshit Gandhi
Bharati Vidyapeeth's College of Pharmacy
Navi Mumbai, 400614, Maharashtra, India.
*dswatir@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Diabetes Mellitus describes a metabolic disorder which is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion. Various combination therapies are used to treat metabolic syndrome and includes an antidiabetic drug to control the blood glucose levels, anti-hyperlipidemic drug to control cholesterol and lipid levels. In this study interaction between Sitagliptin phosphate, drug from antidiabetic class i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor and Atorvastatin calcium other from antihyperlipidemic class i.e. HMG-COA reductase inhibitor was evaluated in Streptozotocin and High-fat diet induced type II diabetic rat model. The combination was selected since Sitagliptin phosphate and Atorvastatin Calcium share a common metabolizing enzyme, CYP3A4, there might be chances of interaction taking place due to the co-administration of the same. Bioanalytical method was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters. Pharmacodynamic parameters such as Serum glucose, Serum cholesterol, Serum triglyceride levels and other related tests were performed to evaluate interaction at pharmacodynamic level. Results suggest that, at pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic level, this combination treatment can have good application in managing blood glucose level and lipid level as well. Being not affected by the CYP450 metabolisms as when correlated with plasma levels at their particular half-life, we suggest that Sitagliptin phosphate and atorvastatin calcium on simultaneous administration will not lead to cause any toxic effect.

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