Pharmacognosy Articles

BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND TRADITIONAL USES OF RUDRAVANTI (CRESSA CRETICA): A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nishant Verma 1*, K.K. Jha1, Rajesh Sharma1, Sudhir Chaudhary2, Ajai Kr. Singh3, Arvind Kumar 4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, T. M. College of Pharmacy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, MIET, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Karnal, Haryana, India
4Department of Quality Assurance, Onco Therapies Limited (A Mylan Company), Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

* nishantvermamiet@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Since long, the ayurvedic period, the herbal drugs were the sole source of medication for majority of population pertaining to the holistic approaches consisting of easier method of uses and better results. Despite vast continuous developments in the drug therapy, herbal sources are still of great importance and nearly 60% of the world’s population continuously using such drugs. These are not only used for primary healthcare in rural areas in developing countries, but also in developed countries as well where modern medicines are predominantly available. In spite of industrious and versatile unbroken advancements in ayurvedic medicines of the present therapeutic arena, still a huge number of herbal origins leading to a vast variety of flora remains unexplored that could be utilized in the treatments for several afflictions i.e. diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, inflammation, cirrhosis of lever, cancers etc. Hence the satisfactory and safer solution to these problems of the public health care requires tremendous attention of the researchers to explore out medicinally efficacious plants and isolate potent molecules from them. Evaluation of such molecules could generate broader spectrum of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters with least toxicity. Cressa cretica (Linn) belonging to family Convolvulaceae. It is commonly known as Rudravanti. Traditionally root and leaves of Cressa cretica are commonly used as expectorant and antibilious agent. It is a holophytic dwarf shrub used in folklore medicine. This article gives the updated information on its properties.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION ON FRUITS OF GMELINA ARBOREA

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Daya L. Chothani1, N. M. Patel2
1B. K Mody government pharmacy college, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2Sri B.M. Shah College of Pharmacy, Modasa, Gujarat, India
daya.herb@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of present study was to carry out pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of fruits of Gmelina arborea. Fresh fruits and dried powder of the fruits were studied by morphology, microscopy, qualitative chemical test and florescence analysis of powdered drug. Other physicochemical parameters were also performed as per WHO guide lines. The detailed microscopy revealed the presence of stone cells, vascular strand and pitted parenchyma. Physicochemical parameters and florescence analysis were also studied. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, saponins, sterols, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. The result of these studies could be useful for identification and standardization of Gmelina arboreafruits.

Inviting B.Pharm, M.Pharm for Research Fellowships in the subject of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy & Pharmacology @ Panjab University

The University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Panjab University is a premier institution of Pharmaceutical Education and Research in the country. The institute has covered a long and glorious journey of 76 years starting from Lahore in 1944 and finally settling to the present campus in Chandigarh at the foothills of Himachal. In its travelogue, the institute crossed multiple milestones and continue to head ahead towards the well-defined goals. The elevation of the status from department to the level of an institute i.e. University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in 1994, and hosting of Indian Pharmaceutical Congress in the same year, two presidential honors of the Indian Pharmaceutical Congresses to its faculty members, a special recognition by the UGC by granting SAP in 1993 and COSIST in 1981 establishment of ICMR Advanced Centre for standardization of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine are some of the major hallmarks on the path treaded so far.

Applications are invited from meritorious students for 1+1=2 (One seat is for ST and second is for Single Girl Child) Research Fellowships in the subject of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy & Pharmacology for pursuing Ph.D. Degree in University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS) under Research Fellowship for Meritorious Students (RFMS) Scheme of UGC awarded to the UIPS for 2013-14, as per the following terms and conditions:

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LAWSONIA INERMIS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Himangshu Sekhar Maji*, Debdutta Banerjee, Sushomasri Maji
Department of Pharmacy, Bengal School of Technology,
Sugandha, Delhi Road, Hooghly,
West Bengal, India
hsmaji77@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Lawsonia inermis(Henna Plant) has been used as herbal medicine for ages. In this study the antibacterial effect of ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis root against bacterial cultures of Vibrio cholera 156, Salmonella typhi 102, Shigella dysenteriae 2, Staphylococcus aureus ML 281, Escherichia coli Row, Shigella Flexneri  6430 Bcy, Bacillus polymyxa NCTC 4747, Vibrio cholera 2080, Salmonella typhi 642. The alcoholic extract was found to be more effective according to NCCLS agar dilution method.

MICROSCOPICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ‘Piper betel’

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About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1, N.Devanna2, N.B.L.Prasad3
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director of JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
3Head of Examination branch-JNTUA-OTRI
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to develop the microscopical authentication for the selected leaf of piper betel from the literature were the microscopical evidence is not available earlier and also to develop the pharmacognostic evaluation for the leaf of the crude drug and to evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the piper betel leaf. This work has clearly shown that the microscopical evidence for the leaf and what are the phytoconstituents present in the leaf.

A CRITICAL INSIGHT INTO THE INTRICATE ROLE OF PLANT HORMONES IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PHASE

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About Authors:
Puneet Sudan*, Swati Sudan, Tapan Behl, Monika Sharma, Rashi Wanchoo Misri
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Doaba College of Pharmacy, Kharar, Punjab
*puneetsudan22@gmail.com

Abstract:
Plant hormones are specialized and very vital chemical substances produced by plants. The chemicals are each grouped together into one of these classes based on their structural similarities and on their effects on plant physiology. Plant stress hormones activate cellular responses, including cell death, to diverse stress situations in plants.

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF DRY FRUITS AND THEIR VITAL SIGNIFICANCE - A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Pooja Dhiman, Kanika Soni, Sandeep Singh
Chitkara University,
Kalujhanda, Barotiwala,
Solan, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA
pooja.dhiman@chitkarauniversity.edu.in

ABSTRACT:
As a snack, dried fruit is drastically superior to junk foods, such as potato chips, pretzels, candy bars, and other unhealthy indulgences people reach for when they are hungry between meals. Dry fruits are small but are extremely rich sources of minerals and proteins. Every diet specialist always recommends a handful of dry fruits in our diet in order to keep us healthy and fit. There are just umpteen varieties in dry fruits such as raisins, cashew nuts, almonds, pistachios, walnuts, dates, plums and the list goes on.

AFRICAN HERBAL PLANTS USED AS ANTI-MALARIAL AGENTS - A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by single-celled obligate parasite known as Plasmodiumand is transmitted to man through the vector Anophelesmosquito. It has persistently been a major public health problem to the global community. As estimate has shown that globally, about 3.3 billion people were at risk of malaria in the year 2011. It has now been ranked among the world's top killer infectious diseases and remains the most prominent cause of death and illness in Africa particularly among pregnant women and children under the age of five years. Due to the development of drug-resistance by the malaria parasites and also the development of resistance to various insecticides by the vector, development of new antimalarial agents is imperative and herbal plants have for long been a major source of new drug discovery. Consequently, in various African countries, several plants have been reported to be having antimalarial effects and are being applied traditionally as antimalarial agents. The purpose of this review article therefore, is to collate and document different plants used traditionally as antimalarials in six African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Ethopia, Benin, Cameroon and Togo). One hundred and fifteen herbal plants from the six African countries have been captured in this article due to their local usage as antimalarial agents. The array of medicinal plants employed as antimalarial agents in Africa, unveils a promising source for the development of new and better antimalarial drugs. Scientific investigations should therefore be carried-out on them.

MEDICINAL VALUE OF CAROM SEEDS – AN OVERVIEW

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The carom seeds botanical name Trachy spermumammi belong to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), of the genus; Trachyspermum. The Umbellifers are the members of carrot or parsley family, which includes many herbs and spices such as dill, fennel, anise seed, and caraway, is an annual herbal plant growing up to 3 feet in height.  Some of the common names for the seeds are Bishop’s Weed, Ajowan, carom, Caraway and thymol seeds.etc. Carom seeds are ovoid, light brown colour seeds. They have narrow green leaves and small delicate flowers. The fruits pods of these plants are often called seeds for their seed-like appearance. The Carom plants are believed to have originated from Egypt in Middle East. They are widely grown in India, Afghanistan and Iran. These plants can be grown easily from the seeds.Well drained loam soil with a pH between 6.5 and 8.2 is ideal for their cultivation. They grow well in cold temperatures ranging from 15 °C to 25 °C. The plants can grow both in direct and partial sunlight. Relative humidity between 65% and 70 % are required for their proper growth. The umbels are harvested after they are properly matured. Harvesting is done during the later parts of winter or earlier in spring. These seeds are used as a spice in cooking. The umbels of the plant mature and produce the seeds. Ajwain is renowned for their medicinal value. Ajwain seeds are strongly pungent and aromatic in its taste.

HERBS & SPICES: TO EMBELLISH THERAPEUTICALLY FOR HEALTHCARE

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About Authors:
Priyanka Singh1, Nidhi Gauba Dhawan2, Raaz K Maheshwari*3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharishi Dayanand University,
 Rohtak, Haryana, India
2Amity Institute of Environmental Sciences, Amity University, Noida, UP, India
3Department of Chemistry, SBRM Govt PG College, Nagaur, Rajasthan, India
*rkmgreenchemacs.jaipur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Throughout many periods of history, spices have claimed attention for their mystical properties, either through ingesting or inhaling. What mankind has done throughout time to creatively enhance or elevate the perception of his existence is a fascinating subject. Historically spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior.  
Since time immemorial, spices have played a vital role in world trade, due to their varied properties and applications. We primarily depend on spices for flavor and fragrance as well as color, preservative and inherent medicinal qualities. Spices are botanically classified as fruits and vegetables. And since they no longer contain the water that makes up a significant part of the fresh produce, spices offer an even higher level of antioxidants. In addition, spices also are rich in phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, flavonoids and other phenolics, all of which possess health-promoting properties. In this article, therapeutic significance of exotic herbs and spices, due to antioxidants and various other phytochemicals occurring in them, is delineated precisely.

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