Pharmacognosy Articles

HERBAL PLANTS A RELIABLE SOURCE FOR DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT

About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria.
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Though remarkable success have been achieved in the discovery and development of various drugs for the treatment and management of several ailments, there is still need for more discoveries. This is due to the reason that some of the drugs currently in use posseses one or more of the following drawbacks (i) high toxicity level (ii) increase lose of effectiveness or low efficacy (iii) costly or (iv) inaccessable. Herbs have now become the main stream for drug discovery and development. Conservative estimate have revealed that there are over 250,000 higher plant species, and only a minute proportion have been screened exhaustively for their possible therapeutic properties. Atleast, over 120 unique pharmacological substances derived from plants are currently being used as drugs in various countries in the world. Apart from the direct use of plant derivatives as therapeutic agents, they can also serve as models for the design, synthesis or semisynthesis of other therpeutic agents. In conclusion, herbs are a reliable source for more discovery and development of new drugs. The scientific community should therefore harness this resource by improving research on it.

NEED FOR EFFICACY, SAFETY, QUALITY CONTROL AND REGULATORY GUIDELINES FOR PHYTOPHARMACEUTICALS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Khandelwal Pankaj, Chirag Sudani*, Parmar Jatin, Prashant Sanghavi, Shifalee Magazine
Mahatma Gandhi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur.
*patel_chirag75@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This review paper highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control and regulatory aspects of Phytopharmaceuticals. The growing use of Phytopharmaceuticals (drug and other products derived from plants) by the public is forcing moves to evaluate the health claims of these agents and to develop standards of quality and manufacture. At present there is almost no policy worth its name to regulate the procurement and sale of medicinal plants in developing countries. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.It is clear that the herbal industry needs to follow strict guidelines and that regulations are needed. This paper presents the element of methods of different aspects on efficacy, safety, quality control and standardization of herbal drugs and formulation. It is followed by international guidelines of WHO for manufacture quality control and evaluation of botanicals. Herbal drugs regulations in India is discussed in detail, followed by an overview of regulatory status of herbal medicine in USA, China, Australia, Brazil, Canada and Germany.

A SHORT REVIEW ON- COMMON PLANTS WITH THEIR EXTRAORDINARY BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

About Authors:
Sumana Majumdar
M.Pharm(Pharmacology)
Department of Pharmacology
NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata Group of Institution,
124 B.L. Saha Road, Kolkata –700053, West Bengal, India.
sumana.majumder03@gmail.com

Abstract
Herbal medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on some medicinally rich plants used in the treatment of diabetes worldwide. Diabetes is an important metabolic disorder and at present, approximately 18-20 million people are diabetic in India. Diabetic complications  like nephropathy, retinopathy, coronary artery disease, stroke, Peripheral vascular disease etc are affected more rapidly not in mega-city but also urban area in India. Cost of the treatment of these complications are also hiked day by day. Insulin and Oral hypoglycemic agents which are marketed for diabetes are costly than herbal medicine and it is very difficult to bear for urban people. In this paper medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects used in treatment of diabetes are discussed. These Plants are Emblica officinalis ,Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Annona squamosa, Aegle marmelos, Elephantopus scaber, Musa Paradisiaca, Andrographis Paniculata, Mangifera indica.

IN VITRO ANTITUBERCULAR SCREENING OF CERTAIN MEDICINAL PLANTS

About Authors:
Sarepaka a.*1, Dhamodaran p.1, Singh a.2, Nilani P.1, Duraiswamy B1
1Department of Pharmacognosy, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamilnadu, India 643001
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, Tamilnadu, India 643001
*sarepaka.aparna@yahoo.in

Abstract:
World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends The Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) strategy of tuberculosis (TB) treatment which includes a course of first line as well as second line antibiotics. Unfortunately, from nearly the moment drugs became available for the treatment of TB, resistance became a problem.[1] Also, the price of these medications is high; thus poor people in the developing world have no or limited access to these treatments.[2] Herbal treatment, however, presents the potential to provide an affordable, available, culturally relevant method to manage tuberculosis. Currently, botanicals are the most competent way to bridge the gap between isolated developing cultures and modern science.[3] As botanicals attain a more prominent role in modern health care, the quality, safety and activity of these products must be assessed. The tribal medicinal men of Nilgiris district use commonly available plants for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this study, we evaluated five such plants for their antitubercular activity in vitro, namely,Withania somnifera, Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza glabra andAsparagus racemosus, individually as well as in combination. The results revealed that the combination of these extracts have significant inhibitory effect Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth.

A POTENTIAL MEDICINAL HERB: CORDYCEPS SINENSIS

About Author:
Buddhi Bal Chidi
Department of Pharmacy,
Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Institute of Medicine,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
buddhibal_chidi@iom.edu.np

Abstract:
Demand of herbal medicine had increased incredibly now a days. Medicine from part of herbal product is found highly efficacious and potent for curing diseases. These products are considered significantly for particular purpose as they show good pharmacological activities. This article gives an idea of basis of Cordyceps sinensis. It is a well known valued traditional medicine which perform nourishing tonic. To date, it is believe that it possesses potential pharmacological action on human body like Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Hyperglycaemia, Sexual dysfunction, Immunomodulating effects, Asthemia, Heart ailment, Hepatoprotective, Immunoresponse, Hyperlipidemia / Hypercholesterolemia, Anti-cancer, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti-hypertensive, Anti-spasmodic, Adaptogenic, Adreno-tonic. This article contains more generalization about O. sinesis which would be better informative.

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FICUS GLOMERATA FRUIT

About Authors:
Gurvinder Pal Singh
Senior Lecturer, Department of Pharmacognosy,
Adesh Polytechnic College, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab
gp_singh352000@yahoo.com

Introduction
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols, although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells (Sies H., 1997).

PHYTO PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ISOLATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LEAF EXTRACT

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Sudheer kumar Kandibanda
Biju Patnaik University of Technology & Sciences(BPUT)
Orissa
sudheer.y2k8@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The pharmaceutical sector is focused on development of new drugs and plant based drugs through investigation of leads from traditional system of medicine Ayurveda which is being practiced for thousands of years. Bauhinia variegata is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. Bauhinia variegata is native to southeastern Asia, from southern China west to Pakistan and India. The major chemical constituents of the plant was found to beflavone, 5,7-dimethoxy-30, 40-methylenedioxy flavone and a new dihydrodibenzoxepin,5,6-dihydro-1,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy-methyldibenzoxepin, flavonolglycoside, triterpene saponin, phenanthraquinone, flavonoids.

ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ZEA MAYS (CORN SILK)

About Author:
Supriyo Karmakar
Department of Pharmacy
Bengal School Of Technology, Hooghly, India
Supriyo.karmakar92@gmail.com

Abstract
Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide varity of human ailments due to increase cost of treatments, side effects of several allopathic drug and development of resistance to currently used drug for infectious disease. Cornsilk (Zea mays) is an herbal remedy made from stigmas, the yellowish thread-like strands found inside the husks of corn. Cornsilk is used to treat urinary tract infections and kidney stones in adults. Cornsilk also served as a remedy for heart trouble, jaundice, malaria, and obesity.

ANTI-HISTAMINIC AND ANTI-SPASMODIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (Linn.) PERS. AERIAL PARTS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Paresh Lallubhai Gajera*, Dalal Mittal V.
Department of Pharmacology, ROFEL,
Shri G. M. Bilakhia College of Pharmacy,
Vapi (Gujarat)
*paresh.gajera@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of present study was to evaluate anti-histaminic and anti-spasmodic potential of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) against experimental animal models. In this study ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) was prepared and anti-histaminic and anti-spasmodic activity evaluated on isolated goat tracheal chain and rat ileum preparation by dose response curve of histamine and acetylcholine in absence and in presence of ethanolic extract was plotted respectively. The results of present study revealed that EETP inhibits moderately significant (*p <0.05) percentage contraction at 50µg/ml while EETP inhibits significantly (**p<0.01) percentage contraction at 100µg/ml induced by histamine (10µg/ml) and acetylcholine (1µg/ml) in isolated goat tracheal chain and rat ileum preparation respectively. To, concluded, EETP possesses dose dependent antihistaminic and antispasmodic potential. However, future studies are required to focus on the molecular mechanism of responsible phytochemical constituents and establish exact mode of action involved in it.

ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF MORUS ALBA LINN

About Author:
Namrata Sahu
Gayatri Collage Of Pharmacy,
Sambalpur, Orissa
12.nammu@gmail.com

Abstract
Present study was carried out to scientifically evaluate the anthelmintic potential of the methanolic extract of leaves of the plant morus alba(L) as it is used by the tribal community of different states and this is also highlighted in traditional uses of the plant. Activity was performed using adult earthworms and albendazole was used as a standard. Various doses (2.5, 5, 10 mg/ml) of methanolic extracts of leaves  were used for the study. From results of the study it is clear that potency of the extracts is inversely proportional to the time taken for paralysis and death of worms. All the tested doses showed significant activity (P<0.01) compared to the standard and activity also confirms dose dependant nature of the extracts.

Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES