Vemavarapu Satish kumar*, Shahin1 , Saarangi Ramesh2
*IPQC team member at GRANULES INDIA LIMITED, M.Pharmacy (pharmaceutics) Deevena college of pharmacy.
1Shadan women’s college of pharmacy. khairtabad, Hyderabad. A.P
2asst.prof.pharmaceutical chemistry, Prasad institute of pharmaceutical sciences. jangaon, warangal. A.P
1 GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING
1.1 Ficus religiosa
Origin of the tree is not really known to anybody, but, there are also some interesting legends associated with the Peepal tree. The peepal is the first-known depicted tree in India. A seal discovered at MohenjDaro, one of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation (c. 3000 BC - 1700 BC), shows the peepal being worshipped. Excavations are suggestive of the fact that even in those times; the peepal tree was worshipped by Hindus.
Peepal is native from India to southeast Asia and it is found wild and cultivated upto 5000 feet. Ficus religiosa is cultivated in various tropical areas of the world. It is grown in southern California, Florida and Hawaii, Homestead and Miami in the United States.
Regardless of its origin, the tree needs lots of space, and the soil must be deep enough to let the roots grow down a long way. It is a large tree of about 20 m. heights with a well developed crown. It can grow in a wide variety of soils and it grows in a sub tropical climate with hot summers and frost during the monsoon season.
REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1920
1.2 The peepal Tree
Peepal tree is one of the most familiar trees in India. It grows very fast. The roots are attached to the trunk as if they are pillars supporting it. The trunk of the tree is irregularly shaped with low buttresses. Its bark is light gray and peels in patches. This is a tree that reaches very large proportions and it is the largest of our indigenous fig trees. In its younger stages it is often epiphytic, that is, it grows on other trees, which are gradually strangled by its rope-like roots. Or the tree may grow in cracks on walls, which are slowly but inexorably cracked and split open by the growing roots. The Peepal tree in Sri Lanka is believed to be 2147 years old. It is one of the longest living trees of the world. The peepal is resistant to drought and frost.
The leaves and young branches are smooth, shiny, somewhat leathery, and broadly oval in shape and suddenly narrowed at the apex into a long tail and the base is rounded or heart-shaped. The leaf has a solid middle nerve, which deserves attention. In addition there are 5—9 lateral pairs which unite at their ends to form a wavy line near the margin of the leaf. The leaves are generally pendulous, that is, hanging down. The long pointed leaf tips help to drain water off the leaves and dry the tree after rainfall. They are shed in March and April and in some areas in the autumn months. When the new leaves appear they are often pink and darken to copper and then green in colour.
The flowers are hidden within the figs. Figs come out in pairs at the angle between the leaf stalk and the branch; at first they are green and smooth, finally they turn purple when ripe; each fig contains a few male flowers near the opening at the apex; each flower consists of a single stamen supported by three minute colourless ‘petals’. The female flower consists of five ‘petals’ enclose a pistil.
The fruits are known as figs. These figs ripen in May and June generally, but one can find this fruit throughout the year depending on the areas. The fig wasp is a visitor to these fruits as well as the Banyan figs. Birds and bats are rather fond of the Peepal fruit and the seeds pass out undigested and are scattered all over the country and start growing from a gutter or the wall of a house. Under conditions of sufficient moisture, such seeds germinate in the most unlikely places. The tiny plant gets all its food from the air and water but uses the wall or gutter as a support.
1.3 common names in various languages
Typical shape of the leaf of the Ficus Religiosa
The Ficus religiosa tree is known by a wide range of vernacular names in different locales and languages, including:
1.4 nomenclature & classification
The peepal tree belongs to the Moraceae commonly known as fig family – one of the most well-known members of the plant families. It belongs to the dicot order. Members of the genus Ficus are usually treated as separate tribe within the family Moraceae because of their unique inflorescence and wasp-dependent system of pollination. There are about 40 genera and 1000 species that have been described in this family, nearly all with milky sap and mostly found in tropical and subtropical regions, less common in temperate climates. Ficus religiosa Linn. is the Latin name or binomial name of peepal tree.
This tree which reaches very large proportions; it is in fact about the largest of our indigenous fig trees. Peepal grows in northern and central India, in forests and alongside water. It is also widely cultivated throughout the subcontinent and south-east Asia, especially in the vicinity of the temples.
Species: F. religiosa
Binomial name: Ficus religiosa
Found In: Ranthambore Wildlife Sanctuary
1.5 taxonomy & morphology
Latin name: Ficus religiosa L
Synonyms: None known.
Common names: Bo tree, beepul tree, sacred tree
Nomenclature: This sacred tree is associated with Buddha and is planted beside temples, hence the species name, religiosa.
"Small tree, or taller strangling climber, with wide-spreading branches, semi- or fully deciduous in monsoon climates, and broadly ovate, glossy, leathery, dark green leaves, 5- 7 in (12-18 cm) long, with unusual tail-like tips. Bears pairs of rounded, flat-topped green figs, to 1/2 in (1.5 cm) across, ripening to purple with red dots" .
Morphology and microscopy
F. religiosa is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is often epiphytic with the drooping branches bearing long petioled, ovate, cordate shiny leaves. Leaves are bright green, the apex produced into a linear-lanceolate tail about half as long as the main portion of the blade. The receptacles occurring in pairs and are axillary, depressed globose, smooth and purplish when ripe. The bark is flat or slightly curved, varying from 5 to 8 mm in thickness, outer surface is grey or ash with thin or membranous flakes and is often covered with crustose lichen brown or ash coloured, surface has shallow irregular vertical fissures and uneven due to exfoliation of cork, inner surface smooth, yellowish to orange brown and fibrous.
An external features of bark of F. religiosa showed that bark differentiated into outer thick periderm and inner secondary phloem. Periderm is differentiated into phellem and phelloderm. Phellem zone is 360 mm thick and it is wavy and uneven in transection. Phellem cells are organized into thin tangential membranous layers and the older layers exfoliate in the form of thin membranes. The phelloderm zone is broad and distinct. Phelloderm cells are turned into lignified sclereids. Secondary phloem differentiated into inner narrow non-collapsed zone and outer broad collapsed zone. Non-collapsed zone consists of radial files of sieve tube members, axial parenchyma, and gelatinous fibres. Outer collapsed phloem has dilated rays, crushed obliterated sieve tube members, thick walled and lignified fibres, and abundant tannin filled parenchyma cells. Laticifers are fairly abundant in the outer secondary phloem zone. Phloem rays are both uniseriate and multiseriate.
Physical constants: Total ash 7.86 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 0.41 % w/w, alcohol soluble
Extract 7.21 % w/w and water soluble extractive 15.76 % w/w.
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MICROSCOPICALLY FICUS RELIGIOSA CONSIST OF FOLLOWING CHARACTERS :-
1. STARCH GRAINS
2. CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALS
3. OIL GLOBULES
5. CORK CELLS
6. PHLOEM FIBRES
7. VASCULAR BUNDLES
8. PARENCHYMATOUS CELLS
9. BISERIATE MEDULLARY RAYS.
1.6 BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
Ficus religiosa is an evergreen or deciduous tree, 20 m tall and 1.5-2 m dbh, irregularly-shaped, with wide-spreading branches and without aerial roots from the branches. The trunk is regularly shaped, often with low buttresses. Bark is grey with brownish specks, smooth, exfoliating in irregular rounded flakes. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged and broadly ovate, glossy, coriaceous (leathery), dark green leaves, 10-18 by 7.5-10 cm, with unusual tail-like tips, pink when young, stipulate, base-cordate. Petioles is slender and 7.5- 10 cm long. Galls on leaves. Flowers axillary sessile, unisexual. Figs in pairs, rounded, flat-topped green, to 1.5 cm across, axillary, sessile, smooth, ripening to purple with red dots, basal bracts 3 and broad. The specific epithet ‘religiosa’ alludes to the religious significance attached to this tree. The prince Siddhartha is said to have sat and meditated under this tree and there found enlightment from which time he became a Buddha.The tree is therefore sacred to Buddhists and is planted beside temples.
1.7 BIOLOGY & ECOLOGY
Cultivation: F. religiosa is widely planted in the tropics (Bailey and Bailey 1976). The tree is very long lived and one tree near Bombay is reported to be over 3,000 years old (Neal 1965). F. religiosa are mostly planted near Buddhist temples. They are steeped in legends associated with Buddha and are also sacred to Vishnu who is also said to have been born beneath a bo tree. Hindus associate the bo tree with fertility in women. It is also cultivated as an ornamental, for medicinal uses, such as toothaches, and in the making of shellac.
Invasiveness: This species reported to be able to set viable seeds in two places, Israel and Florida. In Israel, the pollinator wasp successfully invaded and established allowing the tree to begin to spread. In Florida, sporadic seeding events have been documented; though have not persisted, perhaps due to an unsuccessful colonization of the associated pollinator wasp or an intrusion from a pollinator wasp of the native Ficus aurea (Nadel et al. 1992).
Pollination: The fruit (syconium or fig) and reproduction systems of species in the genus Ficus are unique. Each species of Ficus has an associated species of agaonid wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcoidea: Agaonidae). Ficus species can only be pollinated by their associated agaonid wasps and in turn, the wasps can only lay eggs within their associated Ficus fruit. The pollinator wasp for F. religiosa is Blastophaga quadraticeps.
Propagation: In places where the pollinator wasp is not present, trees are propagated from cuttings.
Dispersal: In Hawai'i, plants are spread mainly through horticulture trade. Various birds observed foraging and roosting in Ficus spp. trees on Maui that could be potential dispersal agents of F. religiosa seeds should they become viable include mynah birds (Acridotheres tristis tristis), blue faced doves (Geopelia striata), lace necked doves (Streptopelia chinensis), Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus), Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), and house sparrows
(Passer domesticus), though there are probably more. Other animals, such as bats, pigs, rodents, parrots, and monkeys may be capable of spreading fruit.
Pests and Diseases: Nadel et al. (1992) report several pests including various ants which were seen carrying off pollinator wasps from Ficus fruits, Hymenoptera and mites that may be parasites of the pollinator wasps, and staphylinids which were seen entering Ficus fruits and eating the pollinator wasps.
2. IMPORTANCE OF FICUS RELIGIOSA
Peepal tree is of great medicinal value. Its leaves serve as a wonderful laxative as well as tonic for the body. It is especially useful for patients suffering from Jaundice. It helps to control the excessive amount of urine released during jaundice. The leaves of Peepal are highly effective in treating heart disorders. It helps to control the palpitation of heart and thereby combat the cardiac weakness. Ayurveda makes an extensive use of the leaves of peepal due to the numerous benefits it provides.
For constipation problem, there can be no better remedy than the consumption of leaves of Peepal. Dry the Peepal leaves in sun and powder them. Add a solution of jaggery and anise to it. Mix it with waterand consume it. This concoction will ensure proper bowel movement. The Indian basil peepal works wonders in treating dysentery. Prepare a mixture of grinded coriander leaves, peepal leaves and sugar and chew it slowly
Pipal leaves are of great use in getting rid of mumps. All one needs to do to avail the benefits of peepal plant is smear the leaves of Peepal with ghee and then warm it on low flame. After that, bandage it over the swollen inflamed part of the body. It is surely going to provide the patient with a great relief. Even for boils, this remedy will prove to be quite effective. In case of formation of pus, bandaging the leaves of Peepal will ensure that the growth subsides. But, it will give beneficial results only if the problem is in its preliminary stage
Alternative and Complementary Medicinal Uses:
The barks of F. religiosa is an important ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations, such as
Nyagrodhadi churna and
Figure-1.1 Pharmacological activities of Ficus religiosa
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Figure-1.2Possible targets of Ficus religiosa involved in the management of various disorders.
2.2 TRADITIONAL USES
Ficus religiosa has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Its bark, fruits, leaves, roots, latex and seeds are medicinally used in different forms, sometimes in combination with other herbs (Aiyegoro and Okoh, 2009).
The leaves alone are used to treat constipation. The leaves used together with young shoots are act as strong laxative. In Nepal leaf juice with honey is used for multipurpose such as for diarrhoea, asthma, cough, earache, toothache, and migraine, in gastric problems and in haematuria (Kunwar and Bussmann, 2006). In addition, the leaves of Ficus religiosa have also shown significant memory enhancing activity (Devi et al., 2011).
The Bark is cooling and astringent and is useful in inflammation and glandular swellings of neck. The paste of powdered bark is used in cases of anal fistula and as absorbent for inflammatory swellings and also used in burns (Nadkarni, 1954,
Warrier et al., 1995). The bark of Ficus religiosa is reported to possess antiulcer and wound healing activities (Khan et al., 2011, Kalyon et al., 2009). It is used in diabetes, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, anxiety, for vaginal and other urinogenital disorders and to improve the complexion (Pandit et al., 2010, Ratnasooriya et al., 1998).
The seeds and fruits are digestive, laxative and refrigerant. The dried fruit, pulverized and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. The ripe fruit is cold in potency and good for burning sensation. It act as cardiac tonic and is useful to cure the diseases of Vagina. It also cures vomiting, anorexia and edema (Singh, 2006). The fruit extract of plant have anti tumour and antibacterial activity (Sirisha et al., 2010).
2.3 PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
The Whole parts of the plant exhibit wide spectrum ofactivities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti diabetic,antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antiulcer,antiasthmatic, anti amnesic etc.
The term ‘peptic ulcer’ describes a condition in whichthere is a discontinuity in the entire thickness of the gastric or duodenal mucosa that persists as a result of acid and pepsin in the gastric juice. The principal pathological condition in which it is useful to reduce acid secretion is peptic ulceration (both duodenal and gastric) & reflux oesophagitis. Therapy of peptic ulcers with commercially available antiulcer drugs is usually overshadowed by various side effects. Thus there is a need to find new antiulcerogeniccompound(s) with potentially less or no side effects. One of theplants that have been traditionally used in the India and Malaysfolklore medicine to treat gastric ulcer is Ficus religiosa, The ethanol extract of stem bark of Ficus religiosaextract exhibited potential antiulcer activity. The antiulceractivity of Ficus religiosa was evaluated in vivo againstindomethacin and cold restrained stress induced gastric ulcers andpylorus ligation assay. The determination of antiulcer effect wasbased upon the reduction of ulcer index. The extract (100, 200 &400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcer index in all assay used.The hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ficusreligiosa also exhibited antiulcer activity. The activity of extract was evaluated against pylorusligation-induced ulcers, ethanol-induced ulcers and aspirin-Inducedulcers
Anti - inflammatory activity
Inflammation is the body’s immediate response to damage to its tissue & cells by pathogens, noxious stimuli such as chemicals or physical injury. It is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and initiate the healing process. The various mediators involved in inflammation include cytokines & chemokines, PG’s, platelet activating factor (PAF), NO and histamine etc. PG’s are generally considered to be potent pro inflammatory mediator. Further, evidence suggests that during inflammation there is increased generation of ROS. It has been found that Mast cell degranulation also imparts a role in inflammation due to release of several mediators like Histamine, which are implicated in the inflammation and allergy. Ficus religiosa has found to be potential anti-inflammatory & analgesic property.
The mechanism underlying the effect is the inhibition of PG’s synthesis. It was found that the leaf extract of Ficus religiosa has potential anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema. The inhibitory activity was found due to inhibition of release of histamine, serotonin (5HT), Kinins and PG’s. The methanol extract of stem bark of Ficus religiosa has inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats due to the inhibition of the enzyme cycylooxygenase (COX) leading to inhibition of PG’s synthesis. Further, various studies revealed that tannin present in the bark possess anti-inflammatory effect.As already discussed mast cell degranulation cause inflammation and Ficus religiosa extract significantly reduced the percentage Of degranulation.
Ficus religiosa have been used to treat the parasitic infections in man and animals. Iqbal el al investigated the anthelmintic effect of methanolic bark extract of F. religiosa on the adult Haemonchus contortus Worm. Adult motile H. Contortus was collected from the gastrointestinal tract of sheep slaughtered at Faisalabad slaughterhouse. It was found that ficin is responsible for the anthelmintic effect in the methanolic extract of F. religiosa (Akhatar et al., 2000). Further, studies show that the aqueous extract of fruit of F. religiosa has shown potent Anthelmintic activity as compared to other species of Ficus against Pheretima posthuma (earthworms) Stem and bark extract of Ficus religiosa was also found lethal to Ascaridia galli (Parasitic worm belonging to phylum nematoda) . Anticonvulsant activity It is well recognised that serotonergic neurotransmission modulates a wide variety of experimentally induced seizures in the brain and is involved in seizure protection by altering various GABAergic and glutamatergic functions. In Ayurveda it is claimed that leaves of Ficus religiosa also possess anticonvulsant activity.
The anticonvulsant effect of the extract obtained from the leaves of Ficus Religiosa was evaluated against PTZ (60mg/kg, i.p) induced convulsion in albino rats. The extract was evaluated against strychnine-induced convulsions and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions animal models. It was found that figs of the plant contain a high serotonergic content. it was investigated that ethanol extract of leaves of Ficus religiosa have memory enhancing activity. The preliminary phytochemical screening and TLC analysis of the leaf extract of F. religiosa showed the presence of sterols, glycosides, tannins and amino acids.
According to this study the chloroform extract of the leaves of Ficus religiosa inhibited the growth of various Salmonella species, P. vulgaris, E. coli, B. Subtilis and K. Pneumonia etc which revealed the antibacterial potential of the plant. According to another study different extracts (methanol, aqueous, chloroform) of the bark of Ficus religiosa has inhibitory effect on the growth of three enteroxigenic E.coli, isolated fromthe patients suffering from diarrhea.
Preliminary phytochemical screening of F. religiosa barks, showed the presence tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. The barks of F.religiosa showed the presence of bergapten, bergaptol, lanosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, Lupen-3-one, β-sitosterol-d-glucoside (phytosterolin), vitamin k1. The bark also contains tannin, wax, saponin, β-sitosterol,leucocyanidin-3-0-β-D-glucopyrancoside,leucopelargonidin-3-0-β-glucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin-3-0-α-L- rhamnopyranoside, lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol acetate, α-amyrin acetate, leucoanthocyanidin and leucoanthocyanin. Leaves yield campestrol, stigmasterol, isofucosterol, α-amyrin, lupeol, tannic acid, arginine, serine, asparticacid, glycine, threonine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, tryosine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, n-nonacosane, n-hentricontanen, hexa-cosanol and n-octacosan. The fruit of F.religiosa contains asgaragine, tyrosine, undecane, tridecane, tetradecane, (e)-β-ocimene, α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpinene, limonene, dendrolasine, dendrolasine α-ylangene, α-copaene, β-bourbonene, β-caryophyllene, α-trans bergamotene, aromadendrene,in seeds of F. religiosa. The crude latex of F.religiosa shows the presence of a serine protease, named religiosin.
3. Review literature
Review On Ethanomedicinal And Pharmacological Properties Of Ficus Religiosa
Amandeep Kaur, A. C. Rana, Vineeta Tiwari, Ramica Sharma and Sunil Kumar
Ficus religiosa (Bo tree) is the most popular member of the genus Ficus, commonly named as Peepal. Various parts of the plant, like bark, fruit, leaves and seeds are widely used in indigenous system of medicine. F. religiosa showed a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities like, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, anti-amnesic, anti-anxiety, anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiulcer. The present review is an attempt to provide a detailed survey of the literature on traditional uses and pharmacological properties of the plant.
Phytochemistry and Pharmacological properties of Ficus religiosa
Inder Kumar Makhija*, Indra Prakash Sharma, DevangKhamar.Manipal.P.h sciences.
Ficus religiosa Linn is a large evergreen tree found throughout India, wild as well as cultivated. It is popular indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. In traditional system of medicine, various parts such as stem bark, root bark aerial roots, vegetative buds, leaves, fruits and latex are used in diabetes, vomiting, burns, gynaecological problems, dysentery, diarrhea, nervous disorders, tonic and astringent. Phytochemical investigation of plant barks, showed the presence tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine, F. religiosa (Peepal tree) is well known to be useful in diabetes. The present work is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of F. religiosa that covers its ethnobotanical, natural product chemistry, pharmacological data.
Anti-ulcer activities of Ficus religiosa stem bark ethanolic Extract in rats
Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Syed Ahmed Hussain,Malaysia
Ficus religiosa is being used in Ayurvedic and Malay traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including gastric ulcer. Considering the above claims, the present work was undertaken to validate the anti-ulcer potential of the ethanol extract of stem bark of F. religiosa against in vivo indomethacin- and cold restrained stress-induced gastric ulcer, and pylorus ligation assays. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the ulcer index in all assays used. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) and increased the pH of gastric acid while at the same time reduced the volume of gastric juice and, free and total acidities.
Wound Healing Potential of Leaf Extracts of Ficus Religiosa on Wistar albino strain rats
Kalyon Roy*, H.Shivakumar ,Sibaji Sarkar S.C.S College of pharmacy, Harpanahalli,Karnataka.
Ficus religiosa (Family- Moraceae) which is commonly known as Pepal tree, is abundantly distribute throughout in India. Ficus religiosa leaf is reported to have wound healing, inflammatory, analgesic, anti lipid- peroxidation activity. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the wound healing activity by excision and incision wound models to evaluate the wound-healing activity of Ficus religiosa extracts, prepared as ointment form (5 and 10%) and applied on Wistar albino strain rats of either sex. Povidine iodine 5% was used as Standard drug. The healing of the wound was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation, skin breaking strength. Both the extracts as ointments (5% and 10%) of Ficus religiosa leaf extract promoted the wound-healing activity significantly in all the wound models studied. High rate of wound contraction, decrease in the period for epithelialisation, high skin breaking strength were observed in animals treated with 10% leaf extract ointment when compared to the control group of animals. So leaf extracts of Ficus religiosa in the form of 10% ointment promote wound-healing activity better than the former concentration, 5%.
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4. AIM AND OBJECTIVE
Ficus religiosa have been used to treat the parasitic infections in man and animals.The Whole parts of the plant exhibit wide spectrum ofactivities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti diabetic,antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antiulcer,antiasthmatic, anti amnesic etc.
* The main aim of our study is to identify new phytochemicals by bark of ficus religiosa.
* To study the T.L.C profile of chloroform, aqueous and organic layer extracts of ficus religiosa.
* To study the pharmacognostic studies of.
A) T.S of bark B) Analysis Of Bark Powder Of Ficus Religiosa.
* To Study The Biological Activity (Analgesic activity) Of Ficus Religiosa by TAIL IMMERSION METHOD.
5. EXPERIMENTAL WORKS
5.1 introduction to chromatography
Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the "mobile phase", which carries it through a structure holding another material called the "stationary phase". The various constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate. The separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases. Subtle differences in a compound's partition coefficient result in differential retention on the stationary phase and thus changing the separation.
Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. The purpose of preparative chromatography is to separate the components of a mixture for more advanced use (and is thus a form of purification). Analytical chromatography is done normally with smaller amounts of material and is for measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture. The two are not mutually exclusive.
Chromatography can be described as the process where analytes are separated due to their varying distribution between two phases, a stationary one (stationary phase) and one that moves (mobile phase). Compounds traveling in the mobile phase interact with the stationary phase. Those that are strongly retained by the stationary phase move slowly, while those that interact only weakly move rapidly. Compounds that move rapidly are thereby separated from the compounds that move slowly. Most chromatography uses a stationary phase inside a column but the use of flat sheets of mobile phase (thin layer chromatography) are also used.
Chromatography is a powerful separation tool that is used in all branches of science, and is often the only means of separating components from complex mixtures. Many types of chromatography have been developed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an extremely versatile technique where analytes are separated by passage through a column packed with micrometer-sized particles. Gas chromatography separates compounds based on their volatility and their adsorption or solubility in the stationary phase. Size exclusion chromatography separates molecules based on their size by passing the sample through a porous structure. Ions can be separated based on their chemical charge using ion exchange chromatography. Other types of chromatography include electrophoresis and supercritical fluid chromatography.
The stationary phase can also take two forms, solid and liquid, which provides two subgroups of GC and LC, namely; gas–solid chromatography (GSC) and gas–liquid chromatography (GLC), together with liquid solid chromatography (LSC) and liquid chromatography (LLC). The different forms of chromatography are summarized bellow. Most thin layer chromatography techniques are considered liquid-solid systems although the solute normally interacts with a liquid-like surface coating on the adsorbent or support or, in some cases an actual liquid coating.
Figure1.5 Classification of Chromatography
Thin layer chromatography is used to separate components of a plant extract, illustrating the experiment with plant pigments that gave chromatogram.
A chromatograph is equipment that enables a sophisticated separation e.g. gas chromatographic or liquid chromatographic separation.
Chromatographyis a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of which is stationary (stationary phase) while the other (the mobile phase) moves in a definite direction.
The eluate is the mobile phase leaving the column.
The eluent is the solvent that will carry the analyte.
An eluotropic series is a list of solvents ranked according to their eluting power.
An immobilized phase is a stationary phase which is immobilized on the support particles, or on the inner wall of the column tubing.
The mobile phase is the phase which moves in a definite direction. It may be a liquid (LC and Capillary Electro chromatography (CEC)), a gas (GC), or a supercritical fluid (supercritical-fluid chromatography, SFC). The mobile phase consists of the sample being separated/analyzed and the solvent that moves the sample through the column. In the case of HPLC the mobile phase consists of a non-polar solvent(s) such as hexane in normal phase or polar solvents in reverse phase chromotagraphy and the sample being separated
Preparative chromatographyis used to purify sufficient quantities of a substance for further use, rather than analysis.
The retention timeis the characteristic time it takes for a particular analyte to pass through the system (from the column inlet to the detector) under set conditions. See also: Kovats' retention index
The solute refers to the sample components in partition chromatography.
The solvent refers to any substance capable of solubilizing another substance, and especially the liquid mobile phase in liquid chromatography.
The stationary phaseis the substance which is fixed in place for the chromatography procedure. Examples include the silica layer in thin layer chromatography
Paper chromatography Is an analytical method technique for separating and identifying mixtures that are or can be colored, especially pigments. This can also be used in secondary or primary colors in ink experiments. This method has been largely replaced by thin layerchromatography; however it is still a powerful teaching tool. Two-way paper chromatography, also called two-dimensional chromatography, involves using two solvents and rotating the paper 90° in between. This is useful for separating complex mixtures of similar compounds, for example, amino acids.
Figure1.6 PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY
The retention factor (Rƒ) may be defined as the ratio of the distance traveled by the substance to the distance traveled by the solvent. Rƒ values are usually expressed as a fraction of two decimal places but it was suggested by Smith that a percentage figure should be used instead. If Rƒ value of a solution is zero, the solute remains in the stationary phase and thus it is immobile. If Rƒ value = 1 then the solute has no affinity for the stationary phase and travels with the solvent front. To calculate the Rƒ value, take the distance traveled by the substance divided by the distance traveled by the solvent (as mentioned earlier in terms of ratios). For example, if a compound travels 2.1 cm and the solvent front travels 2.8 cm, (2.1/2.8) the Rƒ value = 0.75
Thin layer chromatography
TLC is a chromatography technique used to separate mixtures. Thin layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminum foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminum oxide, or cellulose (blotter paper). This layer of adsorbent is known as the stationary phase.
After the sample has been applied on the plate, a solvent or solvent mixture (known as the mobile phase) is drawn up the plate via capillary action. Because different analytes ascend the TLC plate at different rates, separation is achieve.
Figure1.7 Thin Layer Chromatogram
Thin layer chromatography can be used to monitor the progress of a reaction, identify compounds present in a given mixture, and determine the purity of a substance. Specific examples of these applications include: analyzing ceramides and fatty acids, detection of pesticides or insecticides in food and water, analyzing the dye composition of fibers in forensics , assaying the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals, or identification of medicinal plants and their constituents
A number of enhancements can be made to the original method to automate the different steps, to increase the resolution achieved with TLC and to allow more accurate quantization. This method is referred to as HPTLC, or "high performance TLC".
TLC plates are usually commercially available, with standard particle size ranges to improve reproducibility. They are prepared by mixing the adsorbent, such as silica gel, with a small amount of inert binder like calcium sulfate (gypsum) and water. This mixture is spread as a thick slurry on an unreactive carrier sheet, usually glass, thick aluminum foil, or plastic. The resultant plate is dried and activated by heating in an oven for thirty minutes at 110 °C. The thickness of the adsorbent layer is typically around 0.1 – 0.25 mm for analytical purposes and around 0.5 – 2.0 mm for preparative TLC.
The process is similar to paper chromatography with the advantage of faster runs, better separations, and the choice between different stationary phases. Because of its simplicity and speed TLC is often used for monitoring chemical reactions and for the qualitative analysis of reaction products.
Figure1.8 Ellution Of Compounds On T.L.C
To run a thin layer chromatography, the following procedure is carried out:
A small spot of solution containing the sample is applied to a plate, about 1.5 centimeters from the bottom edge. The solvent is allowed to completely evaporate off, otherwise a very poor or no separation will be achieved
- A small amount of an appropriate solvent (elutant) is poured in to a glass beaker or any other suitable transparent container (separation chamber) to a depth of less than 1 centimeter. A strip of filter paper (aka "wick") is put into the chamber, so that its bottom touches the solvent, and the paper lies on the chamber wall and reaches almost to the top of the container. The container is closed with a cover glass or any other lid and is left for a few minutes to let the solvent vapors ascend the filter paper and saturate the air in the chamber. (Failure to saturate the chamber will result in poor separation and non-reproducible results).
- The TLC plate is then placed in the chamber so that the spot(s) of the sample do not touch the surface of the elutant in the chamber, and the lid is closed. The solvent moves up the plate by capillary action, meets the sample mixture and carries it up the plate (elutes the sample). When the solvent front reaches no higher than the top of the filter paper in the chamber, the plate should be removed (continuation of the elution will give a misleading result) and dried.
Column chromatography in chemistry is a method used to purify individual chemical compounds from mixtures of compounds. It is often used for preparative applications on scales from micrograms up to kilograms.The main advantage of column chromatography is the relatively low cost and disposability of the stationary phase used in the process. The latter prevents cross-contamination and stationary phase degradation due to recycling.
The classical preparative chromatography column, is a glass tube with a diameter from 5 mm to 50 mm and a height of 5 cm to 1 m with a tap and some kind of a filter (a glass frit or glass wool plug – to prevent the loss of the stationary phase) at the bottom. Two methods are generally used to prepare a column: the dry method, and the wet method.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound
Figure1.9 GAS CHROMATOGAPHY
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In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an uncreative gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column (an homage to the fractionating column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator").
The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is coated with different stationary phases. This causes each compound to elute at a different time, known as the retention time of the compound. The comparison of retention times is what gives GC its analytical usefulness.Gas chromatography is in principle similar to column chromatography (as well as other forms of chromatography, such as HPLC, TLC), but has several notable differences. Firstly, the process of separating the compounds in a mixture is carried out between a liquid stationary phase and a gas mobile phase, whereas in column chromatography the stationary phase is a solid and the mobile phase is a liquid. Secondly, the column through which the gas phase passes is located in an oven where the temperature of the gas can be controlled, whereas column chromatography (typically) has no such temperature control. Thirdly, the concentration of a compound in the gas phase is solely a function of the vapor pressure of the gas.Gas chromatography is also sometimes known as vapour-phase chromatography (VPC), or gas–liquid partition chromatography (GLPC). These alternative names, as well as their respective abbreviations, are frequently used in scientific literature. Strictly speaking, GLPC is the most correct terminology, and is thus preferred by many authors.
High-performance liquid chromatography
(sometimes referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), HPLC, is a chromatographic technique used to separate a mixture of compounds in analytical chemistry and biochemistry with the purpose of identifying, quantifying and purifying the individual components of the mixture. Some common examples are the separation and quantitation of performance enhancement drugs (e.g. steroids) in urine samples, or of vitamin D levels in serum.HPLC typically utilizes different types of stationary phases (i.e. sorbents) contained in columns, a pump that moves the mobile phase and sample components through the column, and a detector capable of providing characteristic retention times for the sample components and area counts reflecting the amount of each analyte passing through the detector.
Collection of plant material
The plant material was collected from local area of Janagon, Warangal in MARCH 2012 and was authenticated at the Department of Chemistry, Prasad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Preparation of the Extract
Stem barks of Ficus religiosa Were collected and were dried at room temperature (37°c). It was powdered and sieved through muslin cloth. The preparation of extract was carried out to the method of extraction briefly, the stem bark of F. religiosa was shade dried after collection for 5 days and was powdered. Approximately 0.95 kg of powdered drug material was extracted using 450ml Chloroform in RBF of Soxhlet apparatus (Janagon, Warangal, India). The powdered bark was filled in condenser with appropriate weighing, then it has been fixed to the RBF. Boil at 40-55°c for 32hr.