Pharmacognosy Articles

A REVIEW ON HERBAL NANOPARTICLES

ABOUT AUTHORS
Arulanandraj. N*, Dhivya. S, DR. V. Gopal
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences,
Gorimedu, Puducherry-605006, India
*dhivyaraji310@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines have been used for several years throughout the world. Especially in India, herbal medicines are in high demand. Utilization of herbal medicines has increased because of their ability to treat various diseases with lesser side effects. The development of novel herbal formulations are reported to have remarkable advantages over respective crude drugs preparations or extracts which includes enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity, enhancement of pharmacological activity, reduction in dose, enhancement of stability, improved tissue distribution, sustained delivery and protection from physical and chemical degradation. The herbal nanoparticles are colloidal system with herbal particles varying in size from 1 to 1000 nm. The objective of this review article is to summarize the drawbacks of some conventional herbal formulations and the advantages of novel herbal formulations.


ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN TEA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH DIFFERENT GREEN TEA EXTRACT

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Nabadoy Roy*, Suprodip Mandal, Beduin Mahanti, Sandipan Dasgupta*
Division of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy,
Bharat Technology, Uluberia, Howrah 711316,
*n.roy.santoshpur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:  The aim of this present study is to evaluate the activity of green tea extracted in different solvents on different microorganism such as on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Esteritia coli mutant NCIM 2567, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 &Lactobacillus lichmani ATCC 7830.
Method:  Zone of inhibition of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts were measured and compared by using cup plate method. 5µg, 10µg, 15µg & 20µg concentration of the extract were used. MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration)& MBC (Minimum bactericidal concentration ) were observed with the concentrations of 100µg, 75µg, 50µg & 25µg.

Result: Result of zone of inhibition shows that aquous extract at the concentration of 20µg/ml is most effective to inhibit Escherichia coli growth compare to standard.Also minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) & minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) result suggest that aquous extract is more effective than ethanolic and methanolic extract to inhibit the growth of both Escherichia coli &Escherichia coli mutant.
Conclusion: Significant antimicrobial activity has been shown by all extracts against Escherichia coli but other microorganism inhibition is not so significant compare to Escherichia coli. Methanolic and ethanolic extract has shown little antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms as compared to the aqueous extract.


ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY ON LEAVES OF POLYGONUM GLABRUM WILLD IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL

About Authors:
Deepak singh1*, Arpit Dixit2, Amir khan3, Vikas singh4, Abhishek sachan4
1*Department of Clinical Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard nagar, New Delhi-110062
2Business executive at Merck Pvt.ltd, Ghaziabad, India
3Business executive at Cipla Pvt.ltd, Lucknow, India
4Shri RLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Etawah(UP), India
*deep_singh4u21@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The present investigations, which were primarily conducted with the aim of investigating some neuropharmacological activity of Polygonum glabrum (PG), i.e. PG has got anxiolytic activity when tested against open field exploratory behavior, where as elevated plus maze did not show any positive results. The action produced by PG was more than that of diazepam in open field exploratory behaviour. Observations confirms that PG possesses significant antidepressant activity. The observed antidepressant activity of PG was qualitatively comparable to that induced by Imipramine. Pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice was significant potentiated by PG.PG at 100 and 200mg/kg, reduced locomotor activity in rats.The PG seems to be little or no motor incoordination effect in mice when tested against rota-rod test.PG had significant analgesic activity which is both centrally and peripherally mediated, when tested against various analgesic models in rodents.The investigations indicates that PG has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anxiolytic actions, some of these actions, including antidepressant and anxiolytic can be rationalized on the basis of the neurochemical data emanating from this study . The present study indicate that PG can be clinically useful not only in inflammation, pain and fever, and worm infestation but also in depression and anxiety. Clinical studies are required to confirm the above mentioned activities.


MICROMERITIC STUDY OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA HERBAL TABLET WITH ITS EVALUATION

ABOUT AUTHORS
*Ladi Alik kumar , Dash Priyadarshini , Nayak Chandan , Barri Prasanta kumar   Gayatri Institute of Science and Technology,
Gunupur, Rayagada,765022, Odisha
*alikkumar3@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Neem is a large, dense evergreen tree in India growing 10-105m tall leaves divided into numerous leaflets. It has great healing power, acts as purifier, helps in treatment of eczema, leprosy and epiphoram.

The aim of the present work is to improvise the flow ability of herbal powders and minimized processing problems of herbal drug tablet. Macroscopic character of neem tree bark is thick, rough, brown in colour. leaf is alternate estipulate and are closely clustered towards the ends of the branches.
Micromeritic study is done using bulk density and tapped density, porosity, compressibility index, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio.
Preparation of extract of neem tablet is done by weight granulation method. It can be evaluated by weight variation, hardness test, friability test and disintegration test.
After all the evaluation is done, the prepared neem leaf passes all the Q.C test.


NEUROPROTECTIVE AGENTS, NATURAL PLANT HERBS & DRUGS IN ISCHEMIC STROKE: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nesar Ahmad*,Zafar Khan, Noorul Hasan, Abdul Basit, Seikh Zohrameena
Department of Pharmacology,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, UP, India
*nesar50@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
Stroke is a destructive experience which can result in permanent disability in brain. There is no permanent drug which can improve the blood flow at infracted area and also improve the neurological deficit. Due to the lack of treatments available for stroke, many researchers will investigate the suitable plants or drugs for the treatment of this disease. Numerous medicinal plants and herbal drugs are available to treat stroke, some of the plants are Ginkgo biloba, Fructus Chebulae, Pomegranate, Rosa laevigata, Garlic, Leonurus heterophyllus, Olive, Grape, Allium cepa, drugs such as Pravastatin, Senkyunolide I, Phloretin, Mgso4, HAMI 3379, Oleoylethanolamie, scopolamine and mecamylamine, Nitric Oxide, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 3,5,6,7,8,3’,4’-Heptamethoxy flavones, Rosiglitazone, Puerarin, the activity was estimated by parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Hemispheric swelling index (cerebral edema), H2O2 induced cell injury, OGD-R induced cell injury, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidises, mitochondrial membrane potential, Western blotting assay, ROS scavenging assays, Superoxide anion  scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical  scavenging assay, H2O2 scavenging assay, Singlet oxygen scavenging assay, Peroxyl radical scavenging assay, Peroxynitrite anion scavenging assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, blood–brain barrier integrity, cerebral infarct size, in Situ Apoptosis Detection, Western blotting, SOD, GSH, glutathione peroxidase, and MDA levels, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Lactate dehydrogenase activity assay, Determination of caspase activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Determination of choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT), Cell viability, Oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion assay, Flow cytometry, Immunohistochemistry.  The present review focused on different medicinal plants and drugs that have been tested in Stroke in animal models.


CINNAMON: A MAGICAL DRUG

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Pranav Nayak B*
Srinivas college of pharmacy,
Mangalore, Karnataka India,
*nayak.pranav10@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:
Cinnamon is used as a spice in our day to day life. It is aromatic. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring agent. It has been acquainted as one of the healthiest spices and has medicinal activity. When it is checked for chemical constituents it reveals phenolic flavonoid and carotenoid contents. They contain rich amount of polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. It inhibits the growth of certain bacteria and fungi. It helps to reduce the blood glucose by increasing insulin in the body by the mechanism of resisting insulin depletion. It interferes with carbohydrate digesting enzyme and reduces degradation of carbohydrate as a result of which it decreases entry of glucose from intestine to blood stream. It reduces the growth of cancer cells. ‘N’ number of pharmacological investigationsconfirmed that the ability of this plant is to exhibit hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cardioprotective action. This present article will provide you with detailed information on the most of the aspects of cinnamon.


TURMERIC AS MEDICINAL PLANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Priyanka R. Waghmare1*, Priynka G. Kakade1 , Prashant L. Takdhat2, Ashwini M. Nagrale2, SM Thakare2, MM Parate3
1 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmacy,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Daga Memorial Hospital,
Maharashtra, Nagpur, India

*waghmarepriyancka@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines are gaining increased popularity due to their advantages, such as better patient tolerance, long history of use, fewer side-effects and being relatively less expensive. Furthermore, they have provided good evidence for the treatment of a wide variety of difficult to cure diseases. The skin is the outermost layer of the body that is often easily damaged by environmental factors as well as stress and poor eating habits. Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is an infectious disease and one of the most prevalent human diseases. Acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of acne include topical, systemic, hormonal, herbal and combination therapy. Although here is a wide market for cosmetic products that offers to improve skin problems, nature also provides a solution to these. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne. Natural treatments for skin that give lasting results are often better than expensive commercial products and cosmetic procedures. One such natural treatment is turmeric powder for skin. Turmeric is considered safe in amounts found in foods and when taken orally and topically in medicinal quantities. Turmeric’s primary biologically active component is curcumin. Research has shown that curcumin has potent antioxidant, wound-healing, and anti-inflammatory properties, which may prove to be therapeutic against acne. This review focuses on the treatment of acne using turmeric as medicinal drug.

 


COMPARATIVE DIURETIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN IDIVIDUAL AND COMBINATION FORM

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Babar Vishal Bharat.*

Dattakala College of Pharmacy (D. Pharmacy),
Pune,Maharashtra, India
*vishalbabar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis Linn. (Parijatha) and Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Kokila) and combination of these extracts were compared for their diuretic activity using Lipschitz test. Standard drug used was furosemide (100mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. All the extracts significantly increased urine elimination and Na+, K+, and Cl- excretion as compared to normal saline treated groups. The combination of hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis and Hygrophila spinosa in 1:1 ratio showed better diuretic activity. Comparatively the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis showed more significant activity than Hygrophila spinosa extracts. The result revealed that Nycatanthes arbortristis is having better diuretic activity than Hygrophila spinosa which supports the traditional use of the plant.


IN-VITRO ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF M. AZEDARACH

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 ABOUT AUHTORS
Deepak Chowrasia1*, Nisha Sharma1, Mohammad Arshad2
1 University Institute of Pharmacy,
CSJM University, Kanpur, U.P., India
2Molecular Endocrinology Lab, Department of Zoology,
Lucknow University, Lucknow, U.P., India
* chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Preliminary screening of different crude extract of. M. azedarach was evaluated against human cancer cell lines viz. MCF-7 (breast cancer), SaOS-2 (osteosarcoma), and A431 (epidermoid carcinoma) to search for better herbal based anticancer agent. Solvents used were water, methanol, ethanol, n-butanol, & n-hexane. It has been found that among solvents, methanolic extract of M. azedarach shows comparatively superior activity suggesting presence of phytoconstituents comprising polar functionalities.


EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Deepak Ku. Birla*
Shri Bherulal Pharmacy Institute
Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
deepakbirla7@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Momordica Charantia is the widely consumed fruit in India. The seeds, fruit, leaves, and root of the plant have been used in traditional medicine for microbial infections, sluggish digestion and intestinal gas, menstrual stimulation, wound healing, inflammation, fever reduction, hypertension and have many significant other medicinal effects. Various phytochemicals present in leaves are extracted using soxhelt apparatus with different solvents. The aim of the study is to assess the antibacterial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity was checked against different human pathogens. The antibacterial activity was determined in the extracts using Disc diffusion method. The present study discusses antibacterial activity of Momordica Charantia extracts. Antibacterial activity was tested against (Pseudomonas aureogenosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Shigella flexineri, Bacillus substilis & E.Coli.). The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms.


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