Pharmacognosy Articles

SOME NATURAL ISOLATED COMPOUNDS AS ANTICANCER AGENTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
R. Mishra1, P. Barad1, N. Patel2, N. Patel3*
1Department of Pharmacy,

Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

2Department of Pharmacognosy,

Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

3Department of Pharmacology,
Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

ABSTRACT
Worldwide cancer is the major cause of death. Almost 8.8 million people died due to different types of cancer such as lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, blood cancer etc. in 2015. Government of various countries and some private organizations are spending trillions dollars for the research in cancer.  According to report of WHO treatment cost of cancer is approximately US$ 1.16 trillion per year and this amount is increasing per year. Despite of huge work the exact cause of genesis is still unknown. Couples of therapies like chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and targeted therapy are available with some detrimental effect. Now scientists are seeking lead molecule from naturally occurring substances due to high safety margin as compared to current approaches. Natural phytochemicals are prominent strategy for prevention, treating, and curing cancer. There are many phytochemicals from herbs having potent anticancer property. Generally these phytochemicals treat cancer by different mechanisms like augmenting apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, targeting to some specific cancer inducing proteins, increasing cytotoxicity etc. This is our little attempt to gather information of phytochemicals having anticancer property such as Etoposide, Curcumin, Vincristine, etc. with postulated mechanism. Etoposide is effective in lung cancer, ovarian cancer by inhibiting type II Topoisomerase. Various research revealed that Curcumin is effective in different types of cancers by increasing apoptosis and targeting specific gene such as MDM2 oncogene is inhibited through the ETS2 transcription factor by modulation of signaling pathway PI3K/mTOR in breast cancer. Vincristine shows anticancer property by oncogenic EWS-FLI1 fusion protein inhibition which cause G2-M phase cell cycle arrest & reduce tumor. This review depicts few phytochemicals having anticancer property such as Etoposide, Curcumin, vincristine, etc. with possible mechanism.

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THE STEM OF ZIZIPHUS XYLOPYRUS (RETZ) WILLD

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Upendra B. Gandagule1, B. Duraiswamy2, Lokesh Gupta2, Mayur R. Bhurat1, Sanjay A. Nagdev3*

1Department of Pharmacognosy,
K.Y.D.S.C.T’s college of Pharmacy,
Sakegaon-Bhusawal, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Pharmacognosy,
JSS College of pharmacy,
Ooty, Karnataka, India
3Department of Quality assurance,
K.Y.D.S.C.T’s college of Pharmacy,
Sakegaon-Bhusawal,
Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
The present study deals with detailed pharmacognostic profile of stem of Z. xylopyrus, family Rhamnaceae an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Stem samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied by morphological, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical and powder characters of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Macro and microscopical studies indicated the presence of stem reddish brown in colour externally and internally whitish in colour, odourless and having pungent taste with smooth, irregular fracture. Xylem fibers arranged in radial rows, xylem parenchyma, vessel or xylem vessels, medullary rays were uni to tetraserate and pith. Powder microscopy revealed the presence of sclerenchyma, sclerenchymatous fibre and wood elements. Phytochemical evaluation have been performed which clearly reveals the occurrence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value was higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigation and application.

INVITRO STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA IN ADIPOCYTE 3T3 - L1 CELL LINES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Ranjitha B1, Dinesh Bhaskar1, Balasubramanian Sathyamurthy2
1 Department of Biochemistry,
Reva Institute of Science and Management, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Biochemistry,
Ramaiah College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Bangalore,
Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT: 
The leaves of Terminalia Arjuna are commonly known as Arjuna. It is used as traditional medicinal plant distributed throughout the greater part of the Indian Peninsula along rivers and found in Sub-Himalayan tract, Chota Nagpur, Orissa, West Bengal, Punjab, Deccan and Konkan it has many medicinal properties like anti bacteria, anti inflammatory and used for the treatment of Asthama, Bronchities. These leaf extracts are found to have antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. Out of many constituents arjunolic acid is the active principle which is responsible for antidiabetic effects. The present work was aimed to study the effect of Terminalia arjuna. Methanolic extracts on adipocyte 3T3-L1cell line and found the phytochemical compounds of Terminalia arjunaleaves have more inhibitory scavenging and more antidiabetic activities

ANTI-ANEMIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT SEEDS OF FOENICULUM VULGARE IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE INDUCED ANEMIC RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
CHANDRAKANTA KUSHWAH 1*, DEEPANSHU GUPTA 1, ANKUR JOSHI 1, SAPNA MALVIYA 1 & ANIL KHARIA 1
1 Department of pharmacy Modern institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Indore (M.P.), India
chandakushwah0@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the anti-anemic activity in hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats. Phenylhydrazine (60mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally in rats for two days to induce anemia. The animal were divided into 5 groups of 6 animal each. Group 1 was known as normal control group, Group 2 was known as anemic control group, Group 3 was known as standard reference control group given with Vit. B12, Group 4 was known as test control-I given with 100mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare, Group 5 was known as test control-II given with 200mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare. All the test drugs were given for 28 days through oral route once in a day. On 29th day blood was taken out through tail puncture and was subjected to the determination of RBC, Hb and percentage Haematocrit. Both the hydro-alcoholic seeds extract of Foeniculum vulgare and Vit. B12 significantly increase the HB, RBC & percentage Haematocrit level which shows that Foeniculum vulgare seeds exhibits the anti-anemic activity

FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HERBAL LIPSTICK USING COLORED PIGMENT OF PUNICA GRANATUM

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Megha Padiyar1, *Sourabh D Jain1, Deepak Birla1, Jayanti Mukherjee1, Vimukta Sharma2
1Shri Bherulal Pharmacy Institute, Indore (M.P.), India
2BM College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Indore (M.P.), India

*sourabhjain072@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Herbal Cosmetics are in rising demand in the world market as these are the priceless gift of nature with enhanced activity and lesser or no side effects. The concept of beauty and use of natural cosmetics is as primordial as mankind and civilization. Herbal cosmetics as the name suggests are natural and free from all the destructive artificial chemicals. The present work was aimed to formulate herbal lipstick by using various natural ingredients like concentrated juice of pomegranate seeds (Punica granatum), shikakai, dried ginger powder, lemon juice, coconut oil, bees wax, paraffin wax, strawberry essence, vanilla essence and so on. The formulated herbal lipstick was evaluated and various parameters such as color, melting point, breaking point, force of application, surface anomalies, pH, skin irritation test and aging stability were determined and reported herewith.

ANTI-ANEMIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF FRUIT OF ALLIUM TRICOCCUM IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE INDUCED ANEMIC RATS

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PhotoABOUT AUTHORS
DEEPANSHU GUPTA *, CHANDRAKANTA KUSHWAH , ANKUR JOSHI , SAPNA MALVIYA & ANIL KHARIA
Department of pharmacy
Modern institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, (Shri Prabhat Chandra Kharia Research and Educational Society)
Indore, M.P, India

*guptadeepanshu252@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This current research was done to bring out the anti-anemic activity in hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit of Allium tricoccum in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats. The anemia was induced by the administration of Phenylhydrazine (60mg/kg) intraperitoneally in rats for two days. The animals were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals each. 1st group was served as normal control group, 2nd group was served as anemic control, 3rd group was served as standard reference control administered with Vit. B12 complex, 4th group was served as test control-I administered with 100mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit of Allium tricoccum and 5th group was served as test control-II administered with 200mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit of Allium tricoccum. All the test drugs were given for 28 days daily through oral route. On 29th day blood was withdrawn, through tail puncture and subjected to the estimation of RBC, Hb and percentage Haematocrit. Both the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Allium tricoccum and Vit. B12 significantly increase the Haemoglobin, Red Blood Cells & percentage Haematocrit level which conclude that Allium tricoccum fruit exhibits’ the anti-anemic activity.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY ON ACCURACY IN DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

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ABOUT AUTHORS
SUJATHA RAMASAMY 1*, SRIKANTA PRIYADARSHAN PATRA 1,PULAK RANJAN BASAK 1,
1Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC)-DST, New Delhi, India.
*sujathar23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Breast cancer is one of the leading type of cancer in India. Current methods used in detection of cancer like mammography combined with Digital Infrared Imaging can help learn about  earlier stages of cancer with accuracy.The Niramai an Indian startup developed a software with machine learning and artificial intelligence which can detect and sense cancer cells that are 5 times smaller than what has been done presently. The method is non-contact, painless and free of radiation. This method can help detection of cancer in very early stage before showing any suspicious or alarming signs.

A REVIEW ON HERBAL NANOPARTICLES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Arulanandraj. N*, Dhivya. S, DR. V. Gopal
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences,
Gorimedu, Puducherry-605006, India
*dhivyaraji310@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines have been used for several years throughout the world. Especially in India, herbal medicines are in high demand. Utilization of herbal medicines has increased because of their ability to treat various diseases with lesser side effects. The development of novel herbal formulations are reported to have remarkable advantages over respective crude drugs preparations or extracts which includes enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity, enhancement of pharmacological activity, reduction in dose, enhancement of stability, improved tissue distribution, sustained delivery and protection from physical and chemical degradation. The herbal nanoparticles are colloidal system with herbal particles varying in size from 1 to 1000 nm. The objective of this review article is to summarize the drawbacks of some conventional herbal formulations and the advantages of novel herbal formulations.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN TEA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH DIFFERENT GREEN TEA EXTRACT

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Nabadoy Roy*, Suprodip Mandal, Beduin Mahanti, Sandipan Dasgupta*
Division of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy,
Bharat Technology, Uluberia, Howrah 711316,
*n.roy.santoshpur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:  The aim of this present study is to evaluate the activity of green tea extracted in different solvents on different microorganism such as on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Esteritia coli mutant NCIM 2567, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 &Lactobacillus lichmani ATCC 7830.
Method:  Zone of inhibition of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts were measured and compared by using cup plate method. 5µg, 10µg, 15µg & 20µg concentration of the extract were used. MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration)& MBC (Minimum bactericidal concentration ) were observed with the concentrations of 100µg, 75µg, 50µg & 25µg.

Result: Result of zone of inhibition shows that aquous extract at the concentration of 20µg/ml is most effective to inhibit Escherichia coli growth compare to standard.Also minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) & minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) result suggest that aquous extract is more effective than ethanolic and methanolic extract to inhibit the growth of both Escherichia coli &Escherichia coli mutant.
Conclusion: Significant antimicrobial activity has been shown by all extracts against Escherichia coli but other microorganism inhibition is not so significant compare to Escherichia coli. Methanolic and ethanolic extract has shown little antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms as compared to the aqueous extract.

ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY ON LEAVES OF POLYGONUM GLABRUM WILLD IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL

About Authors:
Deepak singh1*, Arpit Dixit2, Amir khan3, Vikas singh4, Abhishek sachan4
1*Department of Clinical Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard nagar, New Delhi-110062
2Business executive at Merck Pvt.ltd, Ghaziabad, India
3Business executive at Cipla Pvt.ltd, Lucknow, India
4Shri RLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Etawah(UP), India
*deep_singh4u21@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The present investigations, which were primarily conducted with the aim of investigating some neuropharmacological activity of Polygonum glabrum (PG), i.e. PG has got anxiolytic activity when tested against open field exploratory behavior, where as elevated plus maze did not show any positive results. The action produced by PG was more than that of diazepam in open field exploratory behaviour. Observations confirms that PG possesses significant antidepressant activity. The observed antidepressant activity of PG was qualitatively comparable to that induced by Imipramine. Pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice was significant potentiated by PG.PG at 100 and 200mg/kg, reduced locomotor activity in rats.The PG seems to be little or no motor incoordination effect in mice when tested against rota-rod test.PG had significant analgesic activity which is both centrally and peripherally mediated, when tested against various analgesic models in rodents.The investigations indicates that PG has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anxiolytic actions, some of these actions, including antidepressant and anxiolytic can be rationalized on the basis of the neurochemical data emanating from this study . The present study indicate that PG can be clinically useful not only in inflammation, pain and fever, and worm infestation but also in depression and anxiety. Clinical studies are required to confirm the above mentioned activities.

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