THE PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF FICUS RACEMOSA LINN. FAMILY: MORACEAE AN UPDATED REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Kajal V. Kosankar*, Dr. A.N. Aher
MVP samaj college of pharmacy, Gangapur road Nashik, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
Ficus racemosa it belongs to family Moraceae syn. Ficus glomerata Roxb. is the major group of angiosperm (flowering plant). They are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, America, Australia, Himalayan ranges, Punjab, Khasia Mountain, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, Deccan, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Udumber is used from ancient time for treating the many diseases. This tree is used traditionally for public health. It is also called yajnodumbara and grows all over the India at different areas. The common name is ‘Audumbar’ and ‘Umbar’ and used in Unani, Ayurveda and Homeopathy. The leaves tender are used in kalasha prokshana it is sprinkle water to different places from a scared copper mug and the bark is used in Homa. In review macroscopically studies, microscopically studies and chemical constituents are studied on different parts of the plant. Traditional uses and pharmacological uses are described, the extraction of leaves, fruit, stem, bark and latex are done due to this the important constituents are isolated in respective solvent like ethanol, methanol, acetone, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and water. The more information is described below and the people are moving towards ayurvedic preparations.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2631

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 6, Issue 12

Received On: 06/11/2018; Accepted On: 20/11/2018; Published On: 01/12/2018

How to cite this article: Kosankar, K. and Aher, A.N. 2018. The Phytoconstituents and Pharmacological Actions of Ficus racemosa Linn (Family: Moraceae) - An updated review. PharmaTutor. 6, 12 (Dec. 2018), 55-63. DOI:https://doi.org/10.29161/PT.v6.i12.2018.55

INTRODUCTION
In our country many plants are used traditionally, among that few are used for treatment of several diseases. Moraceae family- consists of fifty genera and 1400 species. Over world 850 species of Ficus are found. About 80% of population use herbal medicines for primary healthcare estimated by the WHO. India is rich in traditional and medicinal plant used for public healthcare. People are moving more towards traditional plant rather than allopathic medicines.

Ficus racemosa also called as ‘Audumbar tree’ & ‘Umbar tree’ grown in Maharashtra. It spelled as ‘Cluster fig’ in English. (Paarakh et al., 2008) Common name is ‘Goolar’. The importance of indigenous medicines is coming from generation to generation.  India is one of rich country for plants resource and they are valuable medicines used in Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and other system of medicines.

By isolating the important components from different parts of plant like: roots, stems, leaves, barks, flowers and fruits formulation can be made and used for many diseases like: Roots- hydrophobia, Barks- galactogogue, Fruits- blood disorders, dry cough, burning sensation, leprosy, menorrhagia, Leaves- astringent, bronchitis. The leaf of F. racemosa contains Flavonoids, triterpinoids, alkaloid and tannins. The fruit have glauanol acetate, tiglic acid, taraxasterol, lupeol acetate and many more constituents are present in other part of plant.

They are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, America, Australia, Himalayan ranges, Punjab, Khasia Mountain, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, Deccan, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. The reproductive system is unique because it involving synconia fig and specialized pollinator wasps.

VERNACULAR NAMES (Shah et al., 2016)
Sanskrit – Udumbara
Hindi – Goolar
Marathi – Umbar
Bengali – Jagnadumbar
Telugu – Paidi
Oriya – Dimri
 Malayalam – Atti
Nepali – Gular, Dumri
Kannada – Rumadi
Tamil - Atti

TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION
“The study of the identification, taxonomy and nomenclature of organisms, including the classification of living things with regard to their natural relationships and study of variation and the evolution of taxa”. Classification of Ficus racemosa is given below: (Shah et al., 2016)

HISTORY
It is a one of the herb mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda. Udumbara is considered sacred to God Dattaguru, has various synonyms like yajnanga, yajniya, yajnayoga and yajnyasara suggesting the use in ritual sacrifice. The ksiri viksa produced on cutting or plucking the leaf, latex oozes out. The plant is from a group, called pancavalkala. Maharishi Charaka has categorized Udumbara as anti-diuretic herb (mutra sangrahaniya). Susruta has described the properties of the plant, like astringent, promotes callus healing in fractures (bhagna sandhaniya) and useful in vaginal disorders. The plant was located on south-western coast (middle-earth) of the Bay of Belfalas,

Fig.1 Fruit of Ficus racemosa Linn.

MACROSCOPICAL STUDY

MICROSCOPICAL STUDY (Ahmed et al., 2010)

Cork: It contains polygonal or rectangular cells. The cork is made up of polygonal or rectangular cells. The phellogen contains 1-2 layers of thin walled cells.
Phelloderm: It contains compact tissue of parenchymatous cells or small groups of sclereids and it is lignified with simple pits. Several parenchymatous cells which contains single prism of calcium oxalate brownish content.
Cortex: It contains numerous sclereids they are rectangular or isodiametric and pitted thick walled and cortical cell contains resinous mass. Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are present in cells. Phloem contains sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma, sclereids, phloem fibers and medullary rays. Starch grains they are present in ovoid to spherical. Laticiferous vessels are brown granular present in phloem region. Cambium present in 2-3 layer of tangentially elongated thin walled cells.
Leaf: It shows dorso-ventral characters with single layer of palisade cells at upper epidermis. Lower and upper epidermis showed abundant and uniserate, unicellular, thin walled covering trichromes on the upper epidermis.
Mesophyll is middle part between lower and upper epidermis of the leaf, contains sclerenchymatous cells covering to vascular bundle. Collenchymatous cells are present in mesophyll between vascular bundles and lower epidermis.
Vascular bundle contains xylem and phloem arrangement at middle of mid rib.

Fig2. Tree of Ficus racemosa Linn.

SPECIES OF FICUS
The different species of ficus belong to family Moraceae are given below:

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS:

The racemosa Linn species contains primary and secondary metabolites like, carbohydrates, mucilage, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, terpinoids, phenolic substance, glycosides, saponins, coumarins, triterpenoids, α phenolics, bergapten, bergaptol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, lupen-3-one, β-sitosterol-d-glucoside and vitamin K₁, α hydroxyl ursolic acid, protocatechuic acid, oleanolic acid, rusolic acid, maslinic acid also used for treating many diseases.

The non-enzymatic constituents like phenolic components flavonoids, vitamin C and the enzymatic constituents like ascorbate oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase peroxidase.quercitin-3-glucoside, rutin and methyl esters of leucoanthocyanins are obtained from leaves.                             

Bark – Tannin, wax, saponin, β-sitosterol, steroids, alkaloids, gluanol acetate, leucopelargonidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, leucopelargonidin-3-O–β-D-glucopyranoside, leucocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyrancoside, (Ahmed et al., 2010) lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol acetate, α-amyrin acetate, leucocyanidin and leucoanthocyanin, kaempferol, coumarin, ellagic acid, α-amyrin, stigmasterol, quercetin, bergenin and racemosic acid.              

Leaves - Campestrol, arabinose, bergapten, psoralenes, ficusin, (Baruah et al., 1992), stimasterol, isofucosterol, α-amyrin, lupeol, tannic, arginine, serine, aspartic acid, glycine, threonine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, n-nonacosane, n-hentricontanen, hexa-cosanol, n-octacosan gluanol acetate, racemosic acid, quercitin-3-glucoside, rutin and methyl esters of leucoanthocyanins. (Mandal et al., 1999)               

Fruits - The phenolic compounds like gallic acid and ellagic acid.  Furanocoumarins like psoralen, bergapten, β- sitosterol tetracyclic triterpene, glaunol acetate, Glucanol, tiglic acid, taraxasterol, lupeol acetate, friedelin, hydrocarbons, sterols, glycosides, carbohydrates, hentriacontane and α-amyrin.           

Latex - Euphol, isoeuphorbol, β-sitosterol, 4-deoxyphorbol, cycloartenol  and cycloeuphordenol.

TRADITIONAL USES:
Ficus racemosa all parts of plant are used traditionally from longer time to cure the diseases, different parts uses are given below: (Ahmed et al., 2010)

Bark: Used for multiple purpose like Galactagogue and gynecological disorders. Decoction of the bark used in piles, ulcerative colitis, diarrhea and dysentery, diabetes, astringent, menorrhea, hemoptysis, wash wounds, abortions, uropathy, piles and asthma. 
Sap of bark: Diabetes, burns, swelling, leucorrhea, dysentery and diarrhea 

Roots:    Hydrophobia, dysentery, pectoral, complications, diabetes and mumps.    Fruits: Active against leprosy, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, burns, intestinal worms, astringent, stomachic, menorrhea, hemoptysis, visceral obstruction, diarrhea, constipation dry cough, urinary tract infection and blood disorders, more potent for diabetes treatment.
Leaves: Bronchitis, bowel syndrome, piles, bilious infections, douche in dysmenorrhea, ulcers. Leaf juice used to prevent hair splitting. The decoction of leaves used in wound washing and healing.
Latex- Externally applied on wounds so that it shows anti- inflammatory activities, aphrodisiac, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, stomachache, cholera, mumps pain, edema, boils, blisters, measles, promote healing and most important is adhesive. 
Sap of root: Gonorrhea, diabetes, mumps, heat stroke, chronic wounds and malaria in child.

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