Pharmacology Articles

A CASE REPORT ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AND ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Bharath kumar Dasari, Shyamsunder Anchuri, Manishkumar T,  Saikiran velpula, Nagaraju Vallepu, Pranitha Adepu

Department of pharmacy practice
Balaji  institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Narsampet, Warangal, Telangana

ABSTRACT.
Chronic kidney disease also  called chronic renal failure is most commonly seen in the patients of hypertension and diabetes
Case Report
A female patient of age 60 yrs was admitted in a multispecialty  hospital located in Warangal ,with the complaints of SOB, confusion, fever  Since 3dys ,she had a past medical history of HTN.
Discussion :
Patient’s data was collected in a profile form and the details were saved confidentially .the  patient was diagnosed with chronic kidney disease with HTN  and the treatment was  given.
Conclusion :
the patient was given a complete course and was given counselling for chronic kidney disease and the problem got resolved , hereby it shows the need of pharmacist in the area of patient care and quality treatment in the present scenario to expect quality of life
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A REVIEW ON: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Diksha A. Narwade*, Dr. A. N. Aher
Department of Pharmacognosy,
MVP samaj college of pharmacy,
Gangapur road Nashik, Maharastra, India

ABSTRACT
This paper gives the information about the Annona squamosa Linn. (Family: Annonaceae). Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of medicinal plant were performed. The plant is highly used traditionally for curing diverse diseases and disorders. It is locally known as “Sitaphal'' in Hindi. Macroscopical & microscopical studies of leaves have been studied. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of amino acids, terpenes, lipids, steroids, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, tannins, vitamins and alkaloids. The plant has various pharmacological actions such as insecticidal, purgative, laxatives, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, anti-oxidant, antimalarial and antibacterial. The reveiw specifically deals with the phytochemical and folkloric medicinal importance of plant.

THE PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF FICUS RACEMOSA LINN. FAMILY: MORACEAE AN UPDATED REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Kajal V. Kosankar*, Dr. A.N. Aher
MVP samaj college of pharmacy, Gangapur road Nashik, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
Ficus racemosa it belongs to family Moraceae syn. Ficus glomerata Roxb. is the major group of angiosperm (flowering plant). They are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, America, Australia, Himalayan ranges, Punjab, Khasia Mountain, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, Deccan, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Udumber is used from ancient time for treating the many diseases. This tree is used traditionally for public health. It is also called yajnodumbara and grows all over the India at different areas. The common name is ‘Audumbar’ and ‘Umbar’ and used in Unani, Ayurveda and Homeopathy. The leaves tender are used in kalasha prokshana it is sprinkle water to different places from a scared copper mug and the bark is used in Homa. In review macroscopically studies, microscopically studies and chemical constituents are studied on different parts of the plant. Traditional uses and pharmacological uses are described, the extraction of leaves, fruit, stem, bark and latex are done due to this the important constituents are isolated in respective solvent like ethanol, methanol, acetone, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and water. The more information is described below and the people are moving towards ayurvedic preparations.

SOME NATURAL ISOLATED COMPOUNDS AS ANTICANCER AGENTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
R. Mishra1, P. Barad1, N. Patel2, N. Patel3*
1Department of Pharmacy,

Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

2Department of Pharmacognosy,

Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

3Department of Pharmacology,
Shree S.K. Patel College of  Pharmaceutical  Education & Research
Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehasana Gujarat

ABSTRACT
Worldwide cancer is the major cause of death. Almost 8.8 million people died due to different types of cancer such as lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, blood cancer etc. in 2015. Government of various countries and some private organizations are spending trillions dollars for the research in cancer.  According to report of WHO treatment cost of cancer is approximately US$ 1.16 trillion per year and this amount is increasing per year. Despite of huge work the exact cause of genesis is still unknown. Couples of therapies like chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and targeted therapy are available with some detrimental effect. Now scientists are seeking lead molecule from naturally occurring substances due to high safety margin as compared to current approaches. Natural phytochemicals are prominent strategy for prevention, treating, and curing cancer. There are many phytochemicals from herbs having potent anticancer property. Generally these phytochemicals treat cancer by different mechanisms like augmenting apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, targeting to some specific cancer inducing proteins, increasing cytotoxicity etc. This is our little attempt to gather information of phytochemicals having anticancer property such as Etoposide, Curcumin, Vincristine, etc. with postulated mechanism. Etoposide is effective in lung cancer, ovarian cancer by inhibiting type II Topoisomerase. Various research revealed that Curcumin is effective in different types of cancers by increasing apoptosis and targeting specific gene such as MDM2 oncogene is inhibited through the ETS2 transcription factor by modulation of signaling pathway PI3K/mTOR in breast cancer. Vincristine shows anticancer property by oncogenic EWS-FLI1 fusion protein inhibition which cause G2-M phase cell cycle arrest & reduce tumor. This review depicts few phytochemicals having anticancer property such as Etoposide, Curcumin, vincristine, etc. with possible mechanism.

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER AND ITS CARE AN REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
1Anjani Srivarsha G , 3Nagavamsidhar M , 4Sai Teja D, 2Qadrie ZL.
1,3,4Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suryapet, Hyderabad, Telangana
2 Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suryapet, Hyderabad, Telangana

ABSTRACT:
Actually 14 to 16th century in Europe some people have experienced that sexual or other thoughts were by devil then the journey start. 1910, Sigmund Freud said that obsessions and compulsive behaviours are symptoms of OCD. Obsessive compulsory disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder. Obsessive compulsive disorder causes the brain stuck on a particular thought or urge. Actually  these  patients  are  having  a obsessive thoughts  means  they  always  occurring  of  images, several  thoughts or pictures over and over in the  mind. These thoughts or rituals can triggered more anxiety. These OCD patients can find out by the facts like washing, cleaning, checking and repeating. The  American  psychiatric  association said  that the females  are  more  affected  then  the  men. The  OCD is  a common , chronic  (long  lasting  disorder)  the  people  with  OCD can  feel  the  temporary  relief  from  the  anxiety if  the  person  can  untreated  then  they  cause  the  more  stress  and  the  effects  seen  on the  work, school  and  lead  to  serious  effects  on personal  relationships. Actually  obsessive compulsive disorder is a brain  injury , it involves  basal  ganglion (Eg: encephalitis  or  trauma) usually  there  is  no  neurologic  precipitant. The  evidence  suggesting  a selective  and  potent  serotonin(5-HT) reuptake  blocker drugs  are  successful  treatment in biological  basis of OCD. The drugs with the other mechanism of action have not been effective more. The neurotransmitter plays an important role in pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder.

EBOLA: ETIOLOGY, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT BY HERBAL REMEDIES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Deepak K. Birla*1, Sourabh D Jain2, Deepti Mishra2,
1Department of Pharmacognosy, Shri Bherulal Pharmacy Institute, Indore, MP, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shri Bherulal Pharmacy Institute, Indore, MP, India

ABSTRACT:
Ebola virus is the single member of the species Zaire ebola virus, which is the type species for the genus Ebola virus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The natural reservoir of Ebola virus is believed to be bats, particularly fruit bats, and it is primarily transmitted between humans and from animals to humans through body fluids. The Ebola virus has a high mortality rate, with a current case fatality rate estimated to be around 50%. Mortality rates for previous outbreaks have varied from 25% to 90%, and those outbreaks have been relatively short-lived (WHO, 2014) seen near the tropical rainforests of remote villages in Central and West Africa. It is spread by close contact with patients or exposure to infected biologic fluids. The virus has been found in the blood, saliva, feces, breast milk, tears, and genital secretions of infected patients. Ebola virus causes significant immune suppression and a systemic in¬flammatory response, leading to multi organ failure and shock.

A STUDY OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF PUNE

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Steffi Jerry Mammen
Inamdar Multispeciality Hospital,
Pune, Maharashtra

ABSTRACT:
Purpose: To study the adverse drug reactions (ADR’s) reported from wards and critical units in a tertiary care hospital of Pune. The adverse drug reactions were analyzed by Naranjo’s algorithm scale and Hartwig severity assessment scale and the outcomes were studied.
Methods:  This observational and cross-sectional study was conducted for 6months from November 2016-May 2017 in an inpatient setting of a tertiary care hospital of Pune. The data collection was done only in wards and critical units. Patients of all age groups and either sex were included in this study. The adverse drug reactions were assessed for their causality and severity by performing the Naranjo’s algorithm scale and Hartwig’s scale respectively. The outcomes were studied. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics.

Result: Total 50 adverse drug reactions were reported from wards and critical units. 21-30 years age group was reported to have more adverse drug reactions. The most commonly affected organ is the Skin 32 (71.11%), followed by Respiratory system 3 (6.66%) and nervous system 3 (6.66%). Vancomycin 5 (20%) was the drug having majority of the ADR’s. The commonly reported ADR in this study was rash and itching 29 (64.44%). According to Naranjo’s algorithm scale, 23 (51.11%) suspected ADR’s were probable, 17 (37.77%) ADR’s were possible and 5(11.11%) were definite. As per Hartwig’s severity assessment scale, majority of the ADR’s were mild 21 (46.66%), followed by moderate 20 (44.44%) and severe 4 (8.88%). The outcome of the ADR’s was all recovered 38 (84.44%) during the study period.
Limitations: Study was conducted only in wards and critical units not in all departments of the hospital. Some of the ADR’s have gone un-reported by Resident Medical Officer (RMO) due to increased work pressure, lack of awareness or busy environment.

HEPATITIS; CRISIS OF PEOPLE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
SUMAN A*, Nagavamshidhar M, SRIKANTH J, QADRIE ZL
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Suryapet, Telangana, India

ABSTRACT:
Hepatitis is a viral infection which can leads to the inflammation of liver. The injury is occurred to the liver due to the inflammation of hepatic cells. The auto immune hepatitis occurred when the body makes antibodies against its own hepatocytes (or) liver cells. Hepatitis is an inflammation that can be shelf limited or can progress to fibrosis, liver cancer, and cirrhosis. The hepatitis word comes from the ancient Greek, it means, heap-liver cities: inflammation the first hepatitis discussed in 1963 when Dr Baruch Blumberg discovered an antigen that detected in blood samples. HAV severity is increased with the age; this is lead to outbreaks of HAV. HAV vaccination was developed in 1990s; it is thermo-stable and acid resistant. All viruses are classified according to their virion properties like morphology, physiochemical properties and physical properties, genome, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, genome organization and replication. HBV is a global health problem that can leads to the liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The majority of liver transplantations occurred due to the HCV infection. The pathophysiology is not completely understood, the virus is reached to the liver but exact mechanism not known, the HVE replicated in Gastro-intestinal tract it before enter to the liver. The study was mainly done because of the common people  have lakh of knowledge on about hepatitis, they are suffered a lot due to this disease  by doing this type of reviews reveals that  how the common peoples are suffered, how to improve health information and communication to people in  health care system. Health care team and system  improve the information provided to people regarding the current issues of diseases, treatments and preventing measures based on this type of reviews.

ANTI-ANEMIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT SEEDS OF FOENICULUM VULGARE IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE INDUCED ANEMIC RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
CHANDRAKANTA KUSHWAH 1*, DEEPANSHU GUPTA 1, ANKUR JOSHI 1, SAPNA MALVIYA 1 & ANIL KHARIA 1
1 Department of pharmacy Modern institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Indore (M.P.), India
chandakushwah0@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the anti-anemic activity in hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats. Phenylhydrazine (60mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally in rats for two days to induce anemia. The animal were divided into 5 groups of 6 animal each. Group 1 was known as normal control group, Group 2 was known as anemic control group, Group 3 was known as standard reference control group given with Vit. B12, Group 4 was known as test control-I given with 100mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare, Group 5 was known as test control-II given with 200mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare. All the test drugs were given for 28 days through oral route once in a day. On 29th day blood was taken out through tail puncture and was subjected to the determination of RBC, Hb and percentage Haematocrit. Both the hydro-alcoholic seeds extract of Foeniculum vulgare and Vit. B12 significantly increase the HB, RBC & percentage Haematocrit level which shows that Foeniculum vulgare seeds exhibits the anti-anemic activity

ANTI-ANEMIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF FRUIT OF ALLIUM TRICOCCUM IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE INDUCED ANEMIC RATS

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PhotoABOUT AUTHORS
DEEPANSHU GUPTA *, CHANDRAKANTA KUSHWAH , ANKUR JOSHI , SAPNA MALVIYA & ANIL KHARIA
Department of pharmacy
Modern institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, (Shri Prabhat Chandra Kharia Research and Educational Society)
Indore, M.P, India

*guptadeepanshu252@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This current research was done to bring out the anti-anemic activity in hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit of Allium tricoccum in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats. The anemia was induced by the administration of Phenylhydrazine (60mg/kg) intraperitoneally in rats for two days. The animals were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals each. 1st group was served as normal control group, 2nd group was served as anemic control, 3rd group was served as standard reference control administered with Vit. B12 complex, 4th group was served as test control-I administered with 100mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit of Allium tricoccum and 5th group was served as test control-II administered with 200mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit of Allium tricoccum. All the test drugs were given for 28 days daily through oral route. On 29th day blood was withdrawn, through tail puncture and subjected to the estimation of RBC, Hb and percentage Haematocrit. Both the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Allium tricoccum and Vit. B12 significantly increase the Haemoglobin, Red Blood Cells & percentage Haematocrit level which conclude that Allium tricoccum fruit exhibits’ the anti-anemic activity.

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