AFRICAN HERBAL PLANTS USED AS ANTI-MALARIAL AGENTS - A REVIEW

Pharma Admission

Pharma courses

pharma courses

 

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by single-celled obligate parasite known as Plasmodiumand is transmitted to man through the vector Anophelesmosquito. It has persistently been a major public health problem to the global community. As estimate has shown that globally, about 3.3 billion people were at risk of malaria in the year 2011. It has now been ranked among the world's top killer infectious diseases and remains the most prominent cause of death and illness in Africa particularly among pregnant women and children under the age of five years. Due to the development of drug-resistance by the malaria parasites and also the development of resistance to various insecticides by the vector, development of new antimalarial agents is imperative and herbal plants have for long been a major source of new drug discovery. Consequently, in various African countries, several plants have been reported to be having antimalarial effects and are being applied traditionally as antimalarial agents. The purpose of this review article therefore, is to collate and document different plants used traditionally as antimalarials in six African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Ethopia, Benin, Cameroon and Togo). One hundred and fifteen herbal plants from the six African countries have been captured in this article due to their local usage as antimalarial agents. The array of medicinal plants employed as antimalarial agents in Africa, unveils a promising source for the development of new and better antimalarial drugs. Scientific investigations should therefore be carried-out on them.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2120

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 3

Received On: 19/01/2014; Accepted On: 28/01/2014; Published On: 05/03/2014

How to cite this article: E Chinedu, D Arome, SF Ameh, African Herbal Plants used as Anti-Malarial Agents - A Review, PharmaTutor, 2014, 2(3), 47-53

INTRODUCTION
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by single-celled obligate parasite known as Plasmodiumand is transmitted to man through the vector Anophelesmosquito. The various plasmodium species are Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium falciparum is however knownto be the most deadly specie. Malaria is usually characterized by headache, chills, fever, myalgias, malaise and gastrointestinal upset. The most deadly complications however include respiratory distress resulting from metabolic acidosis, severe anaemia and cerebral malaria which may lead to death.[1] Malaria has persistently been a major public health problem to the global community. [2] Estimate has shown that globally, about 3.3 billion people were at risk of malaria in the year 2011. Malaria has now been ranked among the world's top killer infectious diseases and remains the most prominent cause of death and illness in Africa particularly among pregnant women and children under the age of five years. [3, 4] Though several malaria control programs have been put in place by various countries, it seems only a little success have been achieved. Various therapies have been developed for the treatment of malaria some which includes Chloroquine, Mefloquine, Quinine, Primaquine, Artemisinin and its derivatives like artesunate, artemether and arteether. However, the treatment and control of malaria have now evolved to a more complicated process. This is due to the development of drug-resistance by the malaria parasites and also the development of resistance to various insecticides by the vector (Anophelesmosquito). [5 - 7] Hence, the development of new antimalarial agents is imperative and herbal plants have for long been a major source of new drug discovery.

APPLICATION OF HERBS IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA IN AFRICA
Africa is said to be having the highest burden of malaria, this is due to the fact that Plasmodium falciparum (which is the most deadliest specie) occurs more in Africa and have led to an increased mortality rate (of about 600,000 deaths yearly) as well as morbidity. [8, 9] In fact, about 80% cases of malaria and 90% malaria deaths are from Africa. [10] Estimates have revealed that about 3.5 - 4 billion people globally, depend on herbs for drugs to treat of several ailments. [11] Africa has been known to be among the highest patronizers/consumers of herbal medicines. About 80% population in most African countries rely on traditional medicines (especially herbs) for primary health care. [12] History has revealed the successful use of plants/plant products in the treatment of several ailments including malaria. Records have even shown that some of the currently used antimalarial drugs were derived from plants. For example, the premiere antimalarial drug, was gotten in 1820 from the stem-bark of Cinchonaplant. Even Artemisinin the now famous antimalarial drug, was gotten from the plant Artemisia annua. [13 - 16] These and many more successes in herbal medicine research have therefore encouraged more investigations on various herbal plants used traditionally as antimalarial agents. Consequently, in various African countries, several plants have been reported to be having antimalarial effects and are being applied traditionally as antimalarial agents. The purpose of this review article therefore, is to collate and document different plants used traditionally as antimalarials in six African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Ethopia, Benin, Cameroon and Togo). This is important because herbal plants have always been a vital source for developing new drugs, hence novel antimalarial compounds/drugs may be developed from them if further scientific studies are carried-out on them.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


 

Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES