Nigeria

PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PAEDIATRIC WARDS OF A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
A.H Ahmed (1), Y.I Alkali (2) U.M Danmusa (3)
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
3Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna-Nigeria

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis of patients with bacterial infections admitted into the Paediatric Wards over a period of 3months. Files of 100 patients were randomly selected and included in this study. A proforma was used for data collection, information retrieved from patients records include: Demographic Data, Culture and Sensitivity pattern, Clinical Information, Duration of Hospital Stay, Outcome, type, Class and Route of administration of antibiotics. Out of the 100 patients included in this study, 35(35%) were below one year, 50(50%) were between 1-5years and 15(15%) were between 6-12years.  More patients between the ages of 1-5years were admitted with bacterial infections. Out of the 100 patients included in this study 63 (63%) were males and 37(37%) were females. Out of the 100 patients, 27(27%) had septicemia, 48(48%) bronchopneumonia, 6(6%) osteomyelitis, 14(14%) had mixed infections. The remaining patients had urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection and typhoid enteritis. In a total of 229 prescriptions, only 38 (16.6%) were prescribed based on culture result. Most of the antibiotic prescriptions were based on clinical diagnosis, not on culture and sensitivity pattern. In present study 83% of antibiotics were administered by parenteral route and 17% by oral route. The Cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotics. Cefuroxime 63(27%) was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Ampicillin with Sulbactam was found to be the most frequently prescribed drug combination

IN SILICO PHARMACOKINETICS AND MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF LEAD COMPOUNDS DERIVED FROM DIOSPYROS MESPILIFORMIS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Aliyu Hamidu Ahmed1, Yusuf Ibrahim Alkali2
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethno pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacokinetics and toxicity profile along with efficacy are the major determinants for successful drug development. This study was carried out to determine the pharmacokinetic profile, potential biological activities and toxicity of diospyrin, lupeol and plumbagin using in silico approaches. The Swiss ADME tool was used to calculate the molecular properties of the ligands based on Lipinski’s rule of five (5).All ligands in the present study satisfied the rule. Using the Swiss ADME tool, the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds was evaluated. Protox-II server was used to predict the organ toxicities and toxicological end points of the ligands and their LD50. Plumbagin is found to have both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Lupeol and diospyrin are reported to be immunotoxic. Lupeol has LD50 of 2000mg/kg. Diospyrin and plumbagin have 16mg/kg. Swiss target prediction server was used to identify the various potential target. The target prediction suggests that plumbagin and lupeol have high preference for Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT). The best target for diospyrin was Aurora kinase A. Molecular docking study was conducted using AutoDock vina in The Python Prescription (PyRx) 0.8 virtual screening tool.  Plumbagin and lupeol were docked against Microtubule associated protein tau. The dockings scores based on binding energy were; plumbagin -33.8 (kcal/mole) and lupeol -44.7 (kcal/mole). Diospyrin showed a binding energy of -10.7 (kcal/mole) against Aurora A kinase. Results in this study suggest that diospyrin may serve as an important aurora kinase inhibitor while lupeol and plumbagin may be useful in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS ON THE MYOCARDIUM OF LEFT VENTRICLE OF THE HEART OF HIGH SALT FED ADULT WISTAR RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Saka, O. S; Olayode, A. A; Adelodun, S. T
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology,
Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
olusolasaka1@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of garlic extracts on the morphology of myocardium of left ventricle of the heart and also determine the body weight and relative weight of the organs on high salt fed adult Wistar rats. Twenty-five healthy female Wistar rats weighing 130-180 g were randomly assigned into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Groups A, B, C, D and E). Rats in group A was fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D and E were fed on the high-salt diet for five weeks. Thereafter, daily administration of 50 mg kg-1, 100 mg kg-1 and 150 mg kg-1 of the garlic extract were giving orally to groups C, D and E respectively for 3 weeks. The rats were sacrificed under ketamine anesthesia (5mg/kg i.m). The left ventricle of the heart was excised, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine special stained. Result showed significant decreased (p<0.05) in weight of all high salt fed groups when (F=46.90, p<0.05) compared with control. Whereas, treatment with garlic extract help in weight management in high salt fed+garlic extract treated groups and also no significant difference (p<0.05) in the relative heart weight when (F=1.773, p<0.05) compared the control with other groups. Histological results revealed morphological alterations in the left ventricle in high salt fed group. In conclusion, Garlic extract has ameliorative property at the level of 100 mg kg-1 or 150 mg kg-1 of the extract on high salt fed induced cardiac injury.

Job as Country Manager in PharmaEthics

PharmaEthics Ltd is a pharmaceutical company involved in marketing and distribution of pharmaceutical products in Nigeria. We get finished formulations from India.
We have a team 35 Medical Reps and cover entire Nigeria. Our product portfolio involves Antihypertensives, AntiMalarials, Haemetinic, Antioxidant supplement, Antibiotics etc. The company is owned by Indian directors.

Post: Country Manager

EVALUATION OF THE SYNERGIC ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND CYTOSTATIC EFFECTS OF ANANAS COMOSUS, CITRALLUS LANATUS AND CITRUS SINENSIS JUICE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Enegide Chinedu1*, Arome David1, Solomon F. Ameh1, Ugochi Ilomuanya2
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology), University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
2Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Nigeria
chinex.snow@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Background:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has named cancer as one of the most significant cause of death presently, with about 6 million reported deaths in 1996, 11.4 million deaths in 2004, 7.6 million deaths in 2008 and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. However, present postulations reveal that there might be an escalation of cancer mortality to about 15 million by 2030, if the progression of the ailment is not checked. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the synergic antiproliferative and cytostatic effects of these fruit (Ananas comosus, Citrullus lanatus and Citrus sinensis) juices. Materials and Method: The study was performed on rapidly proliferating seeds of Sorghum bicolor and the resulting mean radicle lengths (mm) were taken after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Result: The seeds treated with methotrexate showed a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of radicle length growth throughout the experiment, compared with the control seeds radicle. The rate of inhibition after 72 hours was 85.39%. The juice doses of 20 and 40% showed a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of seeds radicle length throughout the 72 hours of study. The inhibition rate was however higher after 72 hours with percentage inhibition of 87.19% at 20% juice concentration and 99.50% at 40% concentration. However, juice concentrations of 60 and 80% gave a cytostatic effect (i.e no radicle growth) throughout the study. Conclusion: The study has shown that A. comosus, C. lanatus and C. sinensis mixed juice has a potential for eliciting antiproliferative and cytostatic effects on rapidly proliferating cells.

AFRICAN HERBAL PLANTS USED AS ANTI-MALARIAL AGENTS - A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by single-celled obligate parasite known as Plasmodiumand is transmitted to man through the vector Anophelesmosquito. It has persistently been a major public health problem to the global community. As estimate has shown that globally, about 3.3 billion people were at risk of malaria in the year 2011. It has now been ranked among the world's top killer infectious diseases and remains the most prominent cause of death and illness in Africa particularly among pregnant women and children under the age of five years. Due to the development of drug-resistance by the malaria parasites and also the development of resistance to various insecticides by the vector, development of new antimalarial agents is imperative and herbal plants have for long been a major source of new drug discovery. Consequently, in various African countries, several plants have been reported to be having antimalarial effects and are being applied traditionally as antimalarial agents. The purpose of this review article therefore, is to collate and document different plants used traditionally as antimalarials in six African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Ethopia, Benin, Cameroon and Togo). One hundred and fifteen herbal plants from the six African countries have been captured in this article due to their local usage as antimalarial agents. The array of medicinal plants employed as antimalarial agents in Africa, unveils a promising source for the development of new and better antimalarial drugs. Scientific investigations should therefore be carried-out on them.

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIPROLIFERATIVE POTENTIAL OF THE HERBAL FORMULA "EKPO AGANWO"

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About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon Fidelis Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Background:
Cancer is a major global public health problem and has metamorphosed to a leading cause of death globally. Latest predictions by the Word Health Organization suggest that cancer death rate may escalate to about 15 million deaths by 2030. Though various anticancer agents have been discovered and are in use currently, they have not been able to tame the disease effectively. This has left the scientific community with the task of discovering/developing better agents with high efficacy and minimal adverse effect. There have been increased interests by both developed countries and the scientific community towards the importance of herbs as a fountainhead in the development of newer drugs, as many classes of drugs now in use contain models from natual product. Ekpo aganwo (EA) is an herbal formulation prepared from the stem bark of Khaya senegalensis and is its main constituent.
Aim:
This study was design as a preliminary assessment of the antiproliferative potential of EA.
Materials and Method:
The modified Ayinde et al., bench top assay method was employed for the study.
Result:
Methotrexate compared with control, caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle lenght throughout the study. The percentage inhibition was however highest after 72 hours, with a rate of 86.67%. EA 10 mg/ml did not produce any significant decrease in radicle growth after 48 hours, but however showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle growth after 72 hours of experiment. The percentage inhibition after 72 hours was 24.56%. EA doses of 20 - 100 mg/ml produced significant (P<0.05) decrease in radicle growth throughout the experiment. The percentage inhbition of EA doses of 20 - 100 mg/ml was 28.07 - 59.65 % after 72 hours.
Conclusion: The results obtained have favoured the postulation of EA having an anticancer potential, and this have been supported by the significant antiproliferative activity it produced during the experiment.

PHYTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME HERBAL PLANTS IN JOS, NIGERIA

About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, SolomonF. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria.
chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Phytochemicals are referred to as pharmacologically active substances which are naturally present in plants. However, the effects of various plant preparations in the body when administered, is dependent on the phytochemicals present. Herbal medicine have been said to be the oldest form of medicine and have of recent even gained new momentum due to its advantages.The World Health Organization has recognized that traditional herbal plants may be useful in an integrated health care deliverysystem in several countries. But however to achieve the goal of using both herbal medicine and modern medicine paripassu, there is need for the phytochemical assessment of the plants coupled with pharmacological and toxicological investigations as well. Therefore, the aim of this research is to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of some herbal plants in Jos, Nigeria. This study have unveiled the presence of various phytochemcals in the different plant extracts examined. The various phytochemicals present in the extracts includes alkaloids, saponins, tanins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. These phytochemicals are known to posses therapeutic and also physiological activity. The test have shown that the plants are useful as they contain phytochemicals capable of producing valuable pharmacological effects. However, further studies aimed at establishing the dosage in which the may produce their pharmacological effects and toxicity should be done. Studies aimed at isolating the phytochemicals and screening their individual effects will also be very useful.

HERBAL PLANTS A RELIABLE SOURCE FOR DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT

About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria.
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Though remarkable success have been achieved in the discovery and development of various drugs for the treatment and management of several ailments, there is still need for more discoveries. This is due to the reason that some of the drugs currently in use posseses one or more of the following drawbacks (i) high toxicity level (ii) increase lose of effectiveness or low efficacy (iii) costly or (iv) inaccessable. Herbs have now become the main stream for drug discovery and development. Conservative estimate have revealed that there are over 250,000 higher plant species, and only a minute proportion have been screened exhaustively for their possible therapeutic properties. Atleast, over 120 unique pharmacological substances derived from plants are currently being used as drugs in various countries in the world. Apart from the direct use of plant derivatives as therapeutic agents, they can also serve as models for the design, synthesis or semisynthesis of other therpeutic agents. In conclusion, herbs are a reliable source for more discovery and development of new drugs. The scientific community should therefore harness this resource by improving research on it.

CHRONIC MUCUS HYPERSECRETION AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE THE MOST DISABLING HEALTH EFFECTS OF TOBACCO

About Authors:
Chinedu Enegide*, Mr. Kennedy I. Amagon
Department of Science Lab. Tech.
(Physiology/Pharmacology Tech.),
University of Jos, Nigeria
chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstact
The use of tobacco have been in existence for long and have also been widely abused. Tobacco is now the leading cause of preventable death in the world today. An estimate of more than 5 million deaths  are recorded world-wide, yearly. Prediction also shows that deaths caused by tobacco may escalate to about 8 million by 2030. Statistics have shown that one out of every five deaths annually is caused by cigarette smoking. This statistics reveals about 440,000 smoking-related deaths yearly, and about 49,000 of these deaths are due to passive smoking. Both voluntary and involuntary (passive) smokers are at risk of the effects of tobacco. The effects of tobacco includes increased stress, alteration of brain cells chemistry, alteration of lipid profile, facilitation of atherosclerosis, increase in heart-rate and blood pressure, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, micro-nutrient disorders, oxidtive damage, bronchospasm, chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive lung disease. But however, chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive lung disease stands out to be the most disabling effect of tobacco. As these effects are known to reduce one's physical performance, breathing capacity as well as fitness (both present and future). It is therefore advised that better measures for controlling tobacco usage especially in public places should be employed. As this will help to reduce the treat it currently posess on public health (especially the high rate of chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive lung disease occurrence caused by tobacco).

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