Pharmacognosy Articles

A Complete Overview of C. Hirsutus

About Authors: Parag Ghosh
Bharat Technolgy & West Bengal Universuty of Technology,

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1067

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of C .hirsutus Diels leaves was studied for it free radical scavenging property in different in vitro models as 1, 1- Dipheheny1 – 2 picry1 hydrazy1, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxy1 radical model. The extract shows significant dose dependent free content suggesting the plant to exhibit antioxidant activity.

Scope of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences

About Author:Shahin Sahida,
Sagar group of institution, department of pharmacy,

Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences has been recently reinforced in Indian pharmacy institute due to global acceptance of Ayurveda. Some pharmacy institute have continued curriculum related to Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences as integral part of pharmacognosy or medicinal chemistry. Some pharmacy schools pioneered courses related exclusively to Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences. The courses available range from diploma to master’s level however there is little information has accumulated for doctorate and postdoctrate level studies in Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences.


1. Assistant professor, Department of pharmaceutics, R. K. College of Pharmacy, Kasturbadham,Rajkot.
2. Principal, Department of pharmacology, R. K. College of Pharmacy, Kasturbadham,Rajkot.
3. Research Scholar, R. K. College of Pharmacy, Kasturbadham, Rajkot

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1061

This article provides a basic view of what defines biological medicinal Products, often called biologicals, and how they differ from chemical products. In entering into this thought process, let us remember that proteins range in size from small amino acid chains up to macromolecules of hundreds of kilodaltons in size. In addition, in order to appreciate the science behind the regulations, an understanding of organic chemistry is necessary, and preferably knowledge of molecular cell biology and how proteins are created in cells via the DNA expression mechanisms. Although the details are inevitably complex and specialist as a result, we will look at some basic concepts pertinent to biologicals so that a regulatory generalist can be effective in dealing with such products.


About Author: Mr.Mahendra G. Pawar* (B.Pharmacy) Ms.Komal  R. Nikam (B.Pharmacy), Mr.Rakesh D.Amrutkar (M.Pharmacy)

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1059

Biotechnologists in recent years have come up with a new concept.This new concept is about edible vaccine. The difference here lies, that crops like “golden rice” provided extra nutrition that naturally didn’t occur in it. But edible vaccines are GM crops that would provide extra added “immunity” from certain diseases.
Edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and do not contain pathogenic genes (because obviously they use attenuated strains). Thus, they have no way of establishing infection and safety is assured.Oral administration is possible , production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up.For example, hepatitis-B antigen required to vaccinate whole of China annually, could be grown on a 40-acre plot and all babies in the world each year on just 200 acres of land,Cheaper (single dose of hepatitis-B vaccine would cost approximately 23 paise), grown locally using standard methods and do not require immense capital investment of pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, exhibit good genetic stability. Do not require special storage condition. Since syringes and needles are not used chances of infection are also less. Fear of contamination with animal viruses - like the mad cow disease, which is a threat in vaccines manufactured from cultured mammalian cells - is eliminated, because plant viruses do not infect humans.

Invitro Anticancer Activity of Alium Sativum and Emblica Officinalis : A New Regimen for Cancer Research

About Author: Vikas Mahajan* (M.Pharm 1st  year), Naiyer Shahzad, Sachin Mager
Singhania University,
Pacheri Bari, Rajasthan - 333515

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1054

In this study Cytotoxic potential of two Indian medicinal plant extracts were investigated. The invitro cytotoxic potentiality investigated as the ability of these two extracts to inhibit tumour cell line growth with help of MTT & Trypan blue assay. With this investigation we had also focused on angiogenesis. The cell lines studied are MCF7, A549 and DU145 with the methanolic extract of Alium sativum (MEAS) (garlic) and Emblica officinalis (MEEO) (amla). Both drugs are extracted by maceration method. The extract were concentrated & dissolved in DMSO Solvent & stock solution is prepared of conc. 1mg/10 ml. from which different conc. are prepared as 100, 10, 1, 0.1,0 .001 µg/ml. Both plant extracts preapared concentration are exposed in MCF7, A549 & DU145 in 96 well plate in which MTT dye was added later & allow it for 96 hr. after incubation period absorbance was taken in spectrophotometer at 517nm. With same trypan blue also performed & Counting of cell was done on inverted microscope.  Results indicates that the above plant extracts hsowing anticancer and antiangiogenesis activity of Same plant extract were studied on tube formation cell based models also. From this study we can conclude that both drugs possess anticancer activity for MCF7, A549 & DU145 for different concentrations.


About Author: Naresh Sharma,
M.pharma (Pharmacognosy)
Department of Pharmacognosy, Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology,
Jodhpur, India.

Due to Lack of knowledge regarding the toxic effects of synthetic compound in mosquito repellents,synthetic mosquito repellents are widely used. The prolong use of synthetic mosquito repellents shows many side effects like neurotoxic hazards, immunotoxic hazards, skin allergy, seizures, eye irritation, insomnia, impaired congnitive function, cough, sneezing, headache, asthma, bronchial irritation, itching,ear, nose and throat pain, dermatitis, reproductive dysfunction, development impairment and cancer, death. Synthetic mosquito repellents contains very toxic compounds such as DEET, picaridin, permethrin, P?Menthane?3, 8?diol (PMD) etc. These draw backs created a pathway for herbal mosquito repellents coil. Large numbers of herbal drugs are used in these mosquito repellents like Neem, Vekhand, Tulsi, Ajowan, Raal, etc along with other natural ingredients. The efforts are made to study the traditional beliefs from scientific approach. The main aim of this product development is to provide employment to the rural youth and to promote the use of herbal mosquito repellent coil as complete safe alternate of chemical repellents.


About Author: D. Gopi Krishna
Tirumala Engineering College
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Antibiotics are one of the most important commercially exploited secondary metabolites produced by the bacteria and employed in a wide range. Most of the antibiotic producers used today are the soil microbes. Fungal strains and streptomyces members are extensively used in industrial antibiotic production. Bacteria are easy to isolate, culture, maintain and to improve their strains. Microbes are omni present and exist in a competitive environment. Bacillus species being the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant endospore formation and production of vital antibiotics like bacitracin etc. are always found inhibiting the growth of the other organisms. In the present project a soil bacterium with the antibiotic activity is screened studied for morphological  characters which can provide valuable information about the strain. The inhibitory activity of the organism is checked against some of the important opportunistic microbial flora and inoculated into an appropriate designed media depending on the bacterial requirements, and incubated for 48 hrs at 370C.  The produced compound is extracted by solvent extraction and assayed for its activity. Enhancement in the antibiotic production is studied under various parameters like temperature, pH, carbon source concentration, and Sodium nitrate concentration, which may help in the industrial production. The extracted substance was found effective against the gram positive endospore forming bacilli and gram positive coci. Though a large list of antibiotics are commercially available, the search for the most potential one is still on, and this work may provide some potential information on the antibiotic production and the control of microbial strains.

Objective: The objective of the present study is production extraction and assay of   antibiotics from bacterial and fungal isolates using soil as source.

Pharmacognostic Studies of the Stems of Rumex Hastatus

About Author:
Rajput Praveen Kumar*, Gahlot Kavita
College of Pharmacy,
Institute of Foreign Trade and Management (IFTM),
Moradabad (UP)

Rumex hastatus is the bushy shrub or undershrub 30-90 cm,high,occurring chiefly on dry rocks and hillsides on dry rocks and hillsides of western Himalayas from Kumaun to Kashmir,at altitudes between 300 and 2400 m . Rootstock woody; leaves 2.5-6.5 cm.long,hastate, thick and fleshy ; flowers pink or green tinged with pink, polygamous ,on terminal panicles;nut small,trigonous.
Leaves have a pleasant acid tase and can be eaten;they also serve as an ingredienr for chutney and pickles.Root and stem yield 21-23 percent tannin.

Lawsonia inermis - From traditional use to scientific assessment

About Authors: Inder Kumar Makhija
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Manipal University, Manipal-576 104,

The world is endowed with a rich heritage of medicinal plants. The use of medicinal agents presumably predates the earliest recorded history. Medicinal plants are widely used by traditional practitioners for various ailments. Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae) commonly known as ‘Henna’is a well-known plant used in the Indian medicine. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional Indian medicine. The plant has wide range of phytochemicals including lawsone, isoplumbagin lawsoniaside, lalioside, lawsoniaside B, syringinoside, daphneside, daphnorin, agrimonolide 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-syringaresinol O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-pinoresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, syringaresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,  isoscutellarin3β, hennadiol, (20S)-3β, 30-dihydroxylupane, lawnermis acid, 3-methyl-nonacosan-1-ol, laxanthones I, II, III and lacoumarin etc. The various in-vitro and in-vivo studies of L. inermis reported the plant to have antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, tuberculostatic, anti-inflammatory, antifertility and wound healing properties. This review discusses on the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacological data of the plant.


About Authors: NEHA BATRA, S K Dubey

Ageing or aging is the accumulation of changes in an organism or object over time. Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social changes, the things you do this year can halt and even reverse many of health and cognitive issues faced by those over age 50. You could be in better shape, have fewer aches and pains AND have more energy than you did 10 years ago. Anti aging is possible. The body requires two vital materials- energy and raw material for anti-aging. There are many food and herbal treatment available in market for anti aging.