Bangladesh

FRAMEWORK FOR PATIENT SAFETY

ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Medication errors are basic all in all training and in healing facilities. The two errors in the demonstration of writing (prescription/administering/administration errors) and endorsing deficiencies because of imperfect medicinal choices can result in mischief to patients. Any progression in the endorsing procedure can ignite errors. Slips, passes, or missteps are wellsprings of errors, as in unintended oversights in the account of medications. Blames in portion determination, discarded transcription, and poor handwriting are normal. Lacking mindfulness or ability and deficient data about clinical qualities and past treatment of individual patients can bring about endorsing issues, including the utilization of possibly mistaken medications. A perilous workplace, intricate or indistinct techniques, and deficient correspondence among human services staff, especially among specialists and medical attendants, have been distinguished as huge basic factors that add to prescription errors and endorsing issues. Dynamic intercessions went for diminishing prescription and endorsing issues are emphatically prescribed. This ought to be committed on the instruction and preparing of prescribers and the utilization of on-line helps. The unpredictability of the endorsing methodology ought to be decreased by presenting mechanized frameworks or uniform recommending diagrams, so as to abstain from account and exclusion errors. Input control frameworks and quick audit of prescriptions, which can be performed with the help of a healing center drug specialist, are additionally useful. Reviews ought to be performed occasionally.

ARTS AND SCIENCE OF PATIENT COMPLIANCE

ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
The word ‘compliance’ comes from the Latin word complire, meaning to fill up and hence to complete an action, transaction, or process and to fulfil a promise. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the relevant definition is ‘The acting in accordance with, or the yielding to a desire, request, condition, direction, etc.; a consenting to act in conformity with; an acceding to; practical assent”. Compliance with therapy is simply patients understanding of medication, motivation toward having this medication is a prescribed manner with the belief that the prescriber and prescribed medicine will be beneficial for his well-being. Although this is often the case, in a number of situations, the physician and pharmacist have not provided the patient with adequate instructions or have not presented the instructions in such a manner that the patient understands them. Nothing should be taken for granted regarding the patient’s understanding of how to use medication, and appropriate steps must be taken to provide patients with the information and counseling necessary to use their medications as effectively and as safely as possible. 20% to 30% of new prescriptions are never filled at the pharmacy. Medication is not taken as prescribed 50% of the time. For patients prescribed medications for chronic diseases, after six months, the majority take less medication than prescribed or stop the medication altogether. There are both federal and state laws that make using or sharing prescription drugs illegal. If someone take a pill that was prescribed to someone else or give that pill to another person, not only is it against the law, it's extremely dangerous.

THE MYSTERIOUS DOMINATION OF FOOD/DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS AND ADULTERANTS IN BANGLADESH

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Food adulteration and contamination are as old as the civilization itself. It is the consequence of the development of civilization, over utilization of nature, industrialization and in a price for the progression. It is highly prominent in Urban areas of Bangladesh. It is the consequence of commercialism of business people who are doing this knowingly to maximize profit. Higher degree of awareness shown by the people with higher educational background. Government regulatory agencies are less confident regarding food standard testing, as reported in the study. Educated people show higher degree of awareness of how the quality of food should be maintained. Regulatory authority is found to be in confidant in testing the food standard which also reflects their negligence. Safe food means, in general, there will be no danger from harmful elements that are deliberately added to food products in the country. The economic development of this country rarely reveals the basic literacy and consciousness of mass people. Necessary steps are to be taken to protect the environment for our own existence.

CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS AND POLLUTANTS IN THE MEASURABLE LIFE OF DHAKA CITY

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT Environmental pollution and food contamination are as old as the civilization itself. It is the consequence of the development of civilization, over utilization of nature, industrialization and in fact a price for the progress. It is highly prominent in Dhaka city. Air pollution is mainly due to the vehicle emission, industrial discharge and burning of fossil fuel. The water resource of Dhaka becomes a major health threat due to arsenic contamination, inadequate household/industrial/medical waste disposal and industrial effluent management. Food contamination came from the commercialism of business people who are doing this knowingly to maximize profit. Necessary steps are to be taken to protect the environment for our own existence. This paper reveals chemical pollution and contamination issues of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh.

AN A-Z OF PHARMA INDUSTRY REVIEW: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN

Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
After liberation, Bangladesh pharma industry was largely dominated by the import dependent MNCs. On or before 1982 ordinance, 75% of the market was dominated by the MNCs and the rest share was with the other 133 local companies. After NDP formulation and the Drug Control Ordinance, there was a dramatic change of reverse. By 1994, a few pharma companies achieved a tremendous growth and they reinvest their profit for faster return. By next decade, Bangladesh is aiming to 30 world class drug manufacturers to establish strong footstep in global pharma market. Bangladesh, as an LDC got exempted from the obligation of patent and data protection in this arena until 2033. Interestingly, Bangladesh already passed across the LDC landmark to a developing country. So, there’s window of opportunity of more than a decade to grow further from that aspect.

MANAGING RATIONAL USE OF DRUGS IN BANGLADESH

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Despite substantial progress in drug manufacturing, irrational drug use, inappropriate prescribing, inadequate access to essential drugs are major problems affecting the total health care system badly of Bangladesh. Virtually, all the drugs are available without prescriptions and self-medications are highly common. Access to essential medicines is significantly less than that mentioned in the official documents. Price of essential medicines is not consistent and the drugs regulating authority does not have any control over pricing of drugs. In short, the economical development and educational flourishment doesn’t represent the health sector of Bangladesh.

Purpose: Discussion and projection of drug use and monitoring status in Bangladesh. The pharmacists have a vital role to play which is thoroughly discussed.

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF GARUGA PINNATA LEAVES

ABOUT AUTHOR
Sonia Zaman
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
sonia_6995@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Garuga pinnata
(family: Burseraceae) has many traditional medicinal uses including as astringent, bronchodilator, stomachic, expectorant, pulmonary infection, antidiabetic etc. The present study is based on this plant to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of G. pinnata leaves. Antimicrobial activity of chloroform extract was evaluated against four Gram positive bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus and five Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysentriae, Vibrio mimicus, and two common fungus Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans by applying disc diffusion method where Kanamycin disc (30 µg/disc) was used as reference standard. The chloroform extract of G. pinnata leaves showed very good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungus A. niger. The most susceptible microorganism was S. paratyphi (19 mm zone of inhibition) followed by B. subtilis (15 mm zone of inhibition). The antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of G. pinnata leaves was evaluated spectrophotometrically using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for radical scavenging and  ascorbic acid was used as standard. The extract exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 57.06 µg/ml as compared to the IC50 value of the reference standard, ascorbic acid (37.21 µg/ml). The cytotoxic activity of G. pinnata  was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as standard. The chloroform extract revealed significant cytotoxic activity with LC50 of 6.607 µg/ml whereas LC50 of Vincristine sulphate was 6.026 µg/ml.

DETERMINATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Israt Jahan Bulbul
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
A study was conducted to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activitieswith minimum inhibitory concentration and cytotoxic activity of Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitaceae) leaves. In our present study, the antimicroial activity of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant were investigated against a number of pathogenic Gram-positive (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina lutea), Gram- negative (Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and three funguses (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevesiae). Here the zones of inhibitions for the test samples (500 µg /disc) werecompared with that of reference standard (30 µg /disc) in determining antimicrobial activity. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the pathogenic bacteria except A. niger. The highest sensitivity for n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractionswas against gram positive bacteria B.cereus. Almost all the gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungus were inhibited by ethyl acetate extract and showed better activity compared to n-hexane and chloroform extracts. All the three fractions were tested as antifungal against C. albicans and S. cerevesiae. They showed moderate activity against C. albicans whereas a very good activity against S. cerevesiae. But A. niger was not sensitive to the experimental extracts.Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that is the lowest concentration at which the test sample shows its highest activity against microorganisms was tested by serial dilution method. The MIC for n-Hexane and chloroform extracts was against B. cereus (64 µg /ml).  The ethyl acetate extract exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC of 64 µg /ml against S. aureus, S. luteae, S. boydii, S. dysentereae and V. mimicus. The Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. The LC50 values of standard vincristine sulphate, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract were 10.18 µg /ml, 24.71 µg /ml, 19.02 µg /ml and 30.38 µg/ml respectively which indicate the presence of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts are promisingly cytotoxic.

STUDY ON AGARWOOD (AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS) TO EVALUATE ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF N – HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Yesmin Begum
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
yesumyta@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present research aims to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of different leaf extracts of Aquillaria malaccensis. Antibacterial tests were done by Disc diffusion method using Kanamycin as standard. The chloroform extract showed good antibacterial activity against Shigella boydii and Escherichia coli with 19 mm and 17 mm zone of inhibition respectively. All other extracts showed mild to moderate antibacterial activity against other bacteria with 7 – 16mm zone of inhibition. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by using DPPH spectrophotometrically and ascorbic acid was used as standard. All three extracts showed significant antioxidant activities having IC50 value of 38.96 µg/ml, 39.63 µg/ml and 64.75 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, n –hexane and chloroform extracts respectively.

ANTIBACTERIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Israt Jahan Bulbul*, Khadiza-tul-Kubra, Mohita Chowdhury Shimu
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
*israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae). Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro anbacterial screening against gram positive, gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Here kanamycin disc (30 mg/disc) was used as standard. The chloroform and the n-hexane extract of T. cucumerina showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition 7-13 mm and 7-9 mm respectively. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. Among the extractives the chloroform soluble fraction demonstrated the highest cytotoxic activity with LC50 17.09 µg/ml which indicates the compounds present in the chloroform extract are promisingly cytotoxic. Antioxidant activity test of the crude extracts were assessed by means of DPPH free radical scavenging method where ascorbic acid was used as standard. The ethyl acetate fraction of T. cucumerinashowed strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 52.18 µg/ml.Incase of phenolic content, the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina revealed 18.79, 31.33 and 29.04 mg of GAE / gm of extractives, respectively.

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