Bangladesh

AN A-Z OF PHARMA INDUSTRY REVIEW: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN

Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
After liberation, Bangladesh pharma industry was largely dominated by the import dependent MNCs. On or before 1982 ordinance, 75% of the market was dominated by the MNCs and the rest share was with the other 133 local companies. After NDP formulation and the Drug Control Ordinance, there was a dramatic change of reverse. By 1994, a few pharma companies achieved a tremendous growth and they reinvest their profit for faster return. By next decade, Bangladesh is aiming to 30 world class drug manufacturers to establish strong footstep in global pharma market. Bangladesh, as an LDC got exempted from the obligation of patent and data protection in this arena until 2033. Interestingly, Bangladesh already passed across the LDC landmark to a developing country. So, there’s window of opportunity of more than a decade to grow further from that aspect.

MANAGING RATIONAL USE OF DRUGS IN BANGLADESH

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Despite substantial progress in drug manufacturing, irrational drug use, inappropriate prescribing, inadequate access to essential drugs are major problems affecting the total health care system badly of Bangladesh. Virtually, all the drugs are available without prescriptions and self-medications are highly common. Access to essential medicines is significantly less than that mentioned in the official documents. Price of essential medicines is not consistent and the drugs regulating authority does not have any control over pricing of drugs. In short, the economical development and educational flourishment doesn’t represent the health sector of Bangladesh.

Purpose: Discussion and projection of drug use and monitoring status in Bangladesh. The pharmacists have a vital role to play which is thoroughly discussed.

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF GARUGA PINNATA LEAVES

ABOUT AUTHOR
Sonia Zaman
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
sonia_6995@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Garuga pinnata
(family: Burseraceae) has many traditional medicinal uses including as astringent, bronchodilator, stomachic, expectorant, pulmonary infection, antidiabetic etc. The present study is based on this plant to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of G. pinnata leaves. Antimicrobial activity of chloroform extract was evaluated against four Gram positive bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus and five Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysentriae, Vibrio mimicus, and two common fungus Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans by applying disc diffusion method where Kanamycin disc (30 µg/disc) was used as reference standard. The chloroform extract of G. pinnata leaves showed very good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungus A. niger. The most susceptible microorganism was S. paratyphi (19 mm zone of inhibition) followed by B. subtilis (15 mm zone of inhibition). The antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of G. pinnata leaves was evaluated spectrophotometrically using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for radical scavenging and  ascorbic acid was used as standard. The extract exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 57.06 µg/ml as compared to the IC50 value of the reference standard, ascorbic acid (37.21 µg/ml). The cytotoxic activity of G. pinnata  was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as standard. The chloroform extract revealed significant cytotoxic activity with LC50 of 6.607 µg/ml whereas LC50 of Vincristine sulphate was 6.026 µg/ml.

DETERMINATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Israt Jahan Bulbul
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
A study was conducted to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activitieswith minimum inhibitory concentration and cytotoxic activity of Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitaceae) leaves. In our present study, the antimicroial activity of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant were investigated against a number of pathogenic Gram-positive (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina lutea), Gram- negative (Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and three funguses (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevesiae). Here the zones of inhibitions for the test samples (500 µg /disc) werecompared with that of reference standard (30 µg /disc) in determining antimicrobial activity. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the pathogenic bacteria except A. niger. The highest sensitivity for n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractionswas against gram positive bacteria B.cereus. Almost all the gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungus were inhibited by ethyl acetate extract and showed better activity compared to n-hexane and chloroform extracts. All the three fractions were tested as antifungal against C. albicans and S. cerevesiae. They showed moderate activity against C. albicans whereas a very good activity against S. cerevesiae. But A. niger was not sensitive to the experimental extracts.Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that is the lowest concentration at which the test sample shows its highest activity against microorganisms was tested by serial dilution method. The MIC for n-Hexane and chloroform extracts was against B. cereus (64 µg /ml).  The ethyl acetate extract exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC of 64 µg /ml against S. aureus, S. luteae, S. boydii, S. dysentereae and V. mimicus. The Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. The LC50 values of standard vincristine sulphate, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract were 10.18 µg /ml, 24.71 µg /ml, 19.02 µg /ml and 30.38 µg/ml respectively which indicate the presence of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts are promisingly cytotoxic.

STUDY ON AGARWOOD (AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS) TO EVALUATE ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF N – HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Yesmin Begum
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
yesumyta@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present research aims to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of different leaf extracts of Aquillaria malaccensis. Antibacterial tests were done by Disc diffusion method using Kanamycin as standard. The chloroform extract showed good antibacterial activity against Shigella boydii and Escherichia coli with 19 mm and 17 mm zone of inhibition respectively. All other extracts showed mild to moderate antibacterial activity against other bacteria with 7 – 16mm zone of inhibition. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by using DPPH spectrophotometrically and ascorbic acid was used as standard. All three extracts showed significant antioxidant activities having IC50 value of 38.96 µg/ml, 39.63 µg/ml and 64.75 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, n –hexane and chloroform extracts respectively.

ANTIBACTERIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Israt Jahan Bulbul*, Khadiza-tul-Kubra, Mohita Chowdhury Shimu
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
*israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae). Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro anbacterial screening against gram positive, gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Here kanamycin disc (30 mg/disc) was used as standard. The chloroform and the n-hexane extract of T. cucumerina showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition 7-13 mm and 7-9 mm respectively. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. Among the extractives the chloroform soluble fraction demonstrated the highest cytotoxic activity with LC50 17.09 µg/ml which indicates the compounds present in the chloroform extract are promisingly cytotoxic. Antioxidant activity test of the crude extracts were assessed by means of DPPH free radical scavenging method where ascorbic acid was used as standard. The ethyl acetate fraction of T. cucumerinashowed strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 52.18 µg/ml.Incase of phenolic content, the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina revealed 18.79, 31.33 and 29.04 mg of GAE / gm of extractives, respectively.

ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF TREWIA NUDIFLORA

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Yesmin Begum
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
yesumyta@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study is to verify the traditional uses of different parts of Trewia nudiflora. Leaves, fruits, twigs & seeds of T. nudiflora were extracted with ethanol to evaluate antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.  Antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of different parts of T. nudiflora was revealed by disc diffusion method using kanamycin as standard. The leaf extract showed very good activity against Shigella dysenteriae with 37.5 mm zone of inhibition and moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeroginosa with 16.5 mm. The fruit extract also showed very good activity against Shigella boydii with 22.5 mm zone of inhibition. The twig extract also showed very good activity with 20mm zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeroginosa andthe seed extract showed moderate antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by using DPPH spectrophotometrically and ascorbic acid was used as standard. Among all the parts, the twig extract showed highest antioxidant activity having an IC50 value of 35.51µg/ml. The leaf, twig  and fruit extracts showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 9.17 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml and 10.53 µg/ml, respectively evaluated by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as standard.

IN VITRO MEMBRANE STABILIZING AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STREBLUS ASPER LOUR

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Fatema Nasrin1*, Nabila Mahrin2, Nisrat Jahan1, Yesmin Begum1, Senjuti Majumder1
1Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
2Pharmacology labortory, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
nasrin_0209@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
We aimed at assessing the effect of methanolic extract of Streblus asper in human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization and insecticidal (on the stored grain pest, Trogoderma  granarium Everts) as studies. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by using erythrocyte in hypotonic solution and heat induced was compared with acetyl salicylic acid. The extract at the doses of  200, 400 and 800 μg/ml significantly inhibited heat induced lysis of the human red blood cell membrane with values of 46.53%, 56.52% and 65.14%, respectively. The results of hypotonic solution induced lysis showed that S. asper has significant reduction (P≤0.01) in inflammation i.e. 40.8 % (400 µg/ml) and 50.8 % (800 µg/ml) as compared to the standard drug, acetyl salicylic acid, which was 62.96 % in insecticidal assay the extract showed dose dependent paralyzing effect and mortality of T.  granarium Everts. All the doses of crude extracts exhibited concentration and time dependent insecticidal activity.

STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF VIGNAMUNGO LINN.HEPPER ( FAMILY-LEGUMINOSAE)

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Fatema Nasrin1*, Saikat Ranjan Paul2, Sonia Zaman2, Sabiha Ferdowsy Koly2
1Senior Lecturer,  Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213
2Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213
nasrin_0209@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
In the present study the antimicrobial & cytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of VignaMungoLinn. Hepper (Family-Leguminosae)were studied. Antimicrobial activity was tested against eleven important pathogenic bacteria including both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and two common fungi. The bacteria are B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhi, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae Vibrio mimicus and V. parahemolyticus. Disc diffusion technique was used for invitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Here kanamycin disc (30mg /disc) was used as standard for antibacterial study. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against most of the bacterial strains with an average zone of inhibition of 10-20mm. The tested fungi are Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The extracts showed very good antifungal activity with an average 15 -19 mm zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts of leaves of V. mungo  showed maximum activity (19 mm, zone of inhibition)  against Bacillus  megaterium (19mm) with Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 64mg/ml. The maximum zone of inhibition for the methanolic extracts of  stems was found 20mm  against Shigellaboydii with MIC values of 64mg/ml. Cytotoxicity test was also studied by Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay and compare with LC50 values of standard vincristin sulphate as a positive control. The results illustrated significant cytotoxicity against A. salina, with LC50 0.67μg/ml, 4.52 μg/ml and 3.25 μg/ml for vincristine sulphate as standard, leaves and stems extracts, respectively. Further pharmacological investigations are required to understand the underlying mechanism of these pharmacological activities.

METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DETECTION BY PCR

About Author:
Mariz Sintaha
Lecturer,
School of Life Sciences
Independent University, Bangladesh
sintu.bmb@gmail.com

Introduction:
MRSA refers to strain of Staphylococcus aureus which is resistant to methicillin. MRSA infection causes Red bump (may be pus filled), warmth, pain, swollen and red and tender skin lesions and are resistant to various antibiotics used for treatment including cephalosporins and penicillins. Rapid and accurate detection of MRSA has great significance since is needed for proper treatment of staph diseases. It is difficult to detect MRSA in media using phenotypic methods such as disk diffusion, oxacillin agar screening test, agar dilution, MIC determination by broth dilutionsince expression of metcillin resistance is not uniform in all cells. The genotypic method is now taken as the gold standard to detect MSRA because of its accuracy.

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