EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF FRESH SOYA-BEAN OIL AVAILABLE IN BANGLADESH

 

ABOUT AUTHORS:
MR. Zubair Khalid labu*1, Md. Abdul Bake2, Razia Sultana3
1,3
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh,
2
Department of Pharmacy, Gono University, Savar, Dhaka 1344, Bangladesh.
* zubairlabu@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Hydrogenated soya-bean oil is the product obtained by refining, bleaching, hydrogenation and deodorisation of oil obtained from seeds ofGlycine soja Sieb. and Zucc. andGlycine max (L.) Merr. (G. hispida (Moench) Maxim.). Soya-bean oilis a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is plant based and less harmful saturated fats and offers nutrition and health related benefits.  The main objective of this work has been done for the evaluation and analyzing the quality of soya-bean oil available in local market. For the examination of soyabean oil six fresh samples of different sources were collected randomly from the market. British pharmacopoeia (BP) specifications were used for the determination of acid, peroxide and iodine value. The results were compared with the standard specified by Bangladesh standard and testing institute (BSTI). After three months study we observed that physical examination of all the samples were complies with the specification and chemical examination such as, In case of peroxide value, all the samples were found to comply with the specification and only two (S-5 and S-6) of them have comparatively higher value but remain within the limit. But In case of iodine value, five samples were within the limit, and only one sample (S-6) was out of specification. After over third month analysis we observed that all the sample value were higher than from first month study. The consumers which have to take this spurious product must be careful to take this because it may be harmful if adulterated.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1668

INTRODUCTION
Oil is a complex mixture of thousands of different compounds, composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen.  Hydrocarbons (composed solely from carbon and hydrogen atoms) are the most abundant compounds found in crude oils.

Soya-bean oil is a  white mass or powder which melts to a clear , pale yellow liquid when heated, practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in methylene chloride, in light petroleum (bp: 65°C to 70°C) after heating and in toluene, very slightly soluble in alcohol.

It is used as a raw material for the manufacture of cosmetics, printing inks, soaps and synthetic detergents, paints and varnishes, polishes, lubricants drying and pharmaceuticals.

At the present time the human race uses an estimated 40 million tons of fats and oils per year which reflect both their nutritional and industrial importance. From the chemical view, a fat or oil is a tri-glyceride which is the condensation product of one molecule of glycerol, with three molecules of fatty acids. Soybean oil, also known as ‘’Chinese Bean’’ is a widely used and versatile vegetable oil. Soyabean oil high smoke point makes it popular as frying oil, particularly in Asian Cuisine. 

Soyabean oil is plant based and less harmful saturated fats, it contains no cholesterol.  In addition to practical uses Soyabean oil offers nutrition and health related benefits. 

Extracted from Soyabean in this light yellowish oil is high in both polyunsaturated fats (58 percent) and monounsaturated fats (23 percent), and low in saturated fats (13 percent).  It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils.  As a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks (soy ink) and oil paints.  It is also converted to cooking oils.

It composed of saturated and unsaturated fats. 100 grams of Soya-bean oil has, 16 gm of saturated fat, 23 gm of mono-unsaturated fat, and 58 gm of poly-unsaturated fat. The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil namely tri-glycerides are 7%-10% Alpha linolenic acid (C18:3); 51% linoleic acid (C-18:2); and 23% Oileic acid (C-18:1). It also contains the saturated fatty acid namely stearic acid 4%, palmitic acid 10%.

Soya-bean oil contains higher energy, fats. One cup of hydrogenated soya-bean oil contains energy 1925 calories, fat 218 gm and saturated fat 32.5 gm.

Fat Comparison Chart:
The following table shows, in grams, how much saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated and trans-fats are contained in 1 tablespoon of various commonly used oils and fats.

Table-1:  Fat Comparison Chart

Fat

(1 Tbsp)

Saturated

(grams)

Mono-Unsaturated

(grams)

Poly-unsaturated

(grams)

Trans-Fat

(grams)

Sadflower Oil

0.8

10.2

2.0

0.0

Canosta Oil

0.9

8.2

4.1

0.0

Flaxseed Oil

1.3

2.5

10.2

0.0

Sunflower Oil

1.4

2.7

8.9

0.0

Margarine

1.6

4.2

2.4

3.0

Corn Oil

1.7

3.3

8.0

0.0

Olive Oil

1.8

10.0

1.2

0.0

Sesame Oil

1.9

5.4

5.0

0.0

Soybean Oil

2.0

3.2

7.8

0.0

Margarine (tub)

2.0

5.2

3.8

0.5

Peanut Oil

2.3

6.2

4.3

0.0

Cottonseed Oil

3.5

2.4

7.0

0.0

Vegetable Shortening

3.2

5.7

3.5

1.7

Chicken Fat

3.8

5.7

2.6

0.0

Lard (Pock Fat)

5.0

5.8

1.4

0.0

Beef’ Tallow

6.4

5.4

0.5

0.0

Palm Oil

6.7

5.0

1.2

0.0

Butter

7.2

3.3

0.5

0.0

Cocoa Butter

8.1

4.5

0.4

0.0

Palm Kernel Oil

11.1

1.6

0.2

0.0

Coconut Oil

11.8

0.8

0.2

0.0

Availability of Soya-bean Oil Materials in Bangladesh:
Soya-bean seeds contain about 20% of oil.  From regional trial, best location for soya-beans seem to be Ishurdi, Bakergong, Comilla, Noakhali, Dhaka, and Mymonshing. 

Actually, small quantities of soyabeans are growing in Bangladesh and it could not make significant increase in production in spite of the co-ordinated efforts of BARC (Bangladesh Agriculture Research Council) and UNICEF (United Nations International Children Emergency Fund).  At present crude degummed soya-bean oil is imported from the USA and processed further through neutralization, bleaching and deodorization.  70% of this marketed as refined edible vegetable oil with the remaining 30% further hydrogenated to produce vanaspati.

Materials
Fresh soybean oil, collected randomly from different shops.  This includes six samples which are collected from shop of open and closed container. The sample namely F-01, F-02, F-03, F-04, F-05, and F-06 coded as S-1, S-2, S-3, S-4, S-5, and S-6 respectively. The quantity for each sample collected was 500 ml. Reagents were used to carry on the determination of peroxide value Glacial acetic acid (Active Fine Chemicals, Bangladesh), Chloroform (Active Fine Chemicals, Bangladesh), Saturated potassium iodide solution (E-marck, Germany), 0.01M Sodium thiosulphate solution, 1% starch solution as indicator; for the determination of acid value, Ethanol (95%) (Active Fine Chemicals, Bangladesh), Ether, 0.1M potassium hydroxide solution, Phenolphthalein solution (indicator), Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate solution for standardization and 0.1 mol/L sodium thiosulphate, Carbon tetrachloride, Henus solution, 15% potassium iodide solution were used for the determination of iodine value of the collected samples.

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