Articles

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORO DISINTIGRATING TABLETS OF RESPERIDONE BY USING SUBLIMATION AND SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE

ABOUT AUTHORS
V.T. Iswariya*, A.Hariomprakash Rao, K. Sri Jahnavi, A.Sravanthi, P. Deepa, K. Samatha
M.R.R. College of Pharmacy,
Nandigama, Andhra Pradesh, India
*iswariyapharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The technique of Solid dispersion and sublimation techniques are a promising method towards enhancing the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. The main objective of Resperidone mouth dissolving tablets is to enhance the solubility. Several formulations of solid dispersion and sublimating tablets were prepared by using different ratio of drug sublimating agent (Camphor) and carriers (PEG 4000, Polaxomer, Mannitol). The prepared Solid dispersion and sublimating tablets were evaluated for their flow properties such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The interaction between drug and excipients were studied by FTIR. In vitro dissolution profiles of the solid dispersion and sublimation formulations were studied and compared between sublimation and solid dispersion formulation. Among all formulations SD2 formulation was shown maximum drug release in less time.


CLEANING VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY - AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Sadanand Maurya*1, Devendra Goyal2, Chandan Verma1
1 Department of Quality Assurance in Macleods Pharmaceutical Limited
2 Department of Production in Macleods Pharmaceutical Limited
*sadanandmpharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical products shall demonstrate a control to reproduce consistently the desired quality of product, wherein the control of cross-contamination plays an important role. An effective cleaning shall be in place to provide documented evidence that the cleaning methods employed within a facility consistently controls potential carryover of product (including intermediates and impurities), cleaning agents and extraneous material into subsequent product to a level which is below predetermined levels. Pharmaceutical manufacturers must validate their cleaning process to ensure compliance with cGMP regulations. So it is necessary to validate the cleaning procedures to ensure safety, efficacy, quality of the subsequent batches of drug product and regulatory requirements in Pharmaceutical product manufacture. In this article cleaning validation and cleaning validation program discussed in brief.


PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA IN LEAD INDUCED CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN ALBINO RATS

ABOUT AUTHORS
G.Hema Latha1*, MD.Sultan Ali2, C.Vijaya lakshmi  R.Kiran kumar1, C.V.H.Hemavathy1
1 Kottam Institute of Pharmacy, Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar, Telangana
2 Safa College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, A.P
hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Protective effect of ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats. The main aim of the present work is to evaluate the Protective effect of Ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats.Objectives are to test the  Preliminary phytochemical screening of Aqueous & Petroleum ether extracts of “Ziziphus Jujuba”. Group 1: Control group; Group 2: Animals treated with lead 0.1 ml/100 g body weight i.p; Group 3: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 250mg/kg; Group 4: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 500mg/kg.All the groups were subjected to pre-treatment for a period of 7 days except Control group. To compare the changes in Quantification of infract size in normal and treated groups. To compare the changes in SGOT levels in Control and treated groups. The protective effect of the aqueous extract ,petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba may be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and tannins. There was a dose dependent increase in cerebral protection in terms of reduction of infarct size of brain tissue and SGOT levels in serum. Furthermore investigation is needed to find out the particular constituent which is responsible this protective activity.


METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF NAPROXEN IN BULK SAMPLES AS WELL AS IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS BY USING RP-HPLC

ABOUT AUTHORS
S. Ashutosh Kumar*, Manidipa Debnath,Vaddi Pavan Krishna Kumar

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance,
A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy,
Nallajerla, West Godavari, A.P
* ashu.mpharm2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose:
A simple, precise, accurate, rapid and economical reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed as per ICH norms for the estimation of Naproxen from pharmaceutical formulation.
Methods: The method was carried out on a Kromosil-C18 ODS column (150 mm X 4.6 mm; 5 µ) with a mobile phase consists of ammonium acetate buffer (adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1 % Triethyl amine): methanol (40:60 v/v) and filtered through a 0.45 µ cellulose nitrate filters. The flow rate was maintained in isocratic mode at 1.0 mL/min. The detection was carried out at 210 nm. The run time was 7.0 min.
Results: The retention time was 3.063 min for Naproxen. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and solution stability.
Conclusion: The proposed method was adequate sensitive, reproducible, and specific for the determination of Naproxen in bulk as well as in tablet dosage forms.


EPILEPSY: A BRIEF REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Abdul Waheed*, Swati Pathak, Roohi Mirza
Department of Pharmacology,
Amity Institute of Pharmacy,
Amity University, Noida, U.P., India
*abdul.waheed2050@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by tendency to recurrent seizures or fits. The seizures can leads to loss of consciousness, disturbance of movement, muscle spasms, autonomic and mental functions. Epilepsy is developed because of imbalance in nerve signalling chemical called neurotransmitters. During epilepsy, the level of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate increases and the level of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA decrease. These lead to abnormal signalling in brain causes epilepsy. Primary diagnosis of epilepsy includes eye–witness and family history. Electroencephalograph (EEG) is the cornerstone for diagnosis of epilepsy and measures the brain wave activity. Neuroimaging like computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques are used to diagnose abnormalities in structure and function of brain. Video recording is also useful for the monitoring of epileptic events. The most common approach of treatment is to prescribe antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Three generations of AEDs including phenytoin, valproate, carbamazapine, lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Primidone,Phenobarbitone,Gabapentin, Topiramate, Levetiracetam, Felbamate, Rufinamide, Zonisamide, Tiagabinand Vigabatrin etc. are prescribed. These AEDs have some teratogenic effects on  pragnent woman and lactating mother; need precautions. Instead of  pharmacological approaches, Non-pharmacological approaches also used for the treatment of epileptic seizures like ketogenic diet, atkins diet, yoga etc. Thr purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge on epilepsy classification,diagnostics, approaches of treatment, pathophysiology, mechanism of epileptogenesis and teratogenic effects.


ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR
Dr. (Mrs.) Anita Singh

Department of Home Science,
Kr. R.C.M. P.G College Mainpuri, U.P, India
dranitasinghkrcm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lent virus (slowly-replicating retrovirus) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs). Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. HIV enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell. There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but a variety of drugs can be used in combination to control the virus.


DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO DRUG RELEASE PROFILE OF SUSTAINED RELEASE FLOATING GRANULES OF CINNARIZINE

ABOUT AUTHOR
Aman Mittal
Smt. Tarawati Institute of Biomedical & Allied Science
Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India
amanmittal_27@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) are the drug delivery systems having a bulk density lower than the gastric content and they remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, with the potential for continuous release of drug. Cinnarizine, a H1-receptor antagonist, used for the treatment for vestibular vertigo disorders and motion sickness was selected as the drug aspirant and Gelucire 43/01 was selected as a lipid carrier in different ratio (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5) along with drug to be formulated as gastro retentive multiparticulate system. The formulation F1 to F9 were prepared and formulation F4 to F9 were evaluated for in-vitro drug release and formulation F5 was selected as optimized formulation that exhibited good floating ability and zero order drug release (93.56 %) at the end of 8 hrs. The in-vitro drug release study of the aged sample show phase conversion of Gelucire. The phase conversion also caused increase in drug release. In conclusion, hydrophobic lipid, Gelucire 43/01 can be considered as an effective carrier for design of a multiple unit floating drug delivery system of cinnarizine.


RECENT INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ORAL THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Kh. Hussan Reza 1*, Pranabesh Chakraborty2
1 Department of Pharmacy, Bengal School of Technology, Sugandha, Hooghly, West Bengal
2 Director, Department of Pharmacy, Bengal School of Technology, Sugandha, Hooghly, West Bengal
*hassan23pharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Oral route of administration is most convenient route but often is disadvantageous for administering to geriatric and paediatric patients. Orally disintegrating film is found to be effective in delivering rapid drug action by dissolving the drug in buccal cavity. Since a decade oral thin films has got commercial importance in generic and non generic market projecting it as a multinational business asset. Current research in this field is found to be associated with industrialization and commercialization. Current article make an overview of not only technological changes in research and manufacturing but also gives an insight about growing market worldwide.


ADR MONITORING: AN ESSENTIAL NEED FOR BETTER HEALTH CARE AND SAFETY

ABOUT AUTHORS
Annu*, Priyanka
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
*annu.gvm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is the noxious and unintended response that occurs at the dose of drug normally used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease. ADRs cause a huge burden on the modern society because of the increase incidence of the morbidity and mortality. ADRs can occur with any class of drugs and the availability of the more and more number of therapeutics increases the risk of ADRs consequently. It has been found that the maximum numbers of ADRs occur more among infants and children and also they are generally more severe as compared to adults. ADRs are of particular interest in today’s practice because clinical trials are done in the limited number of the subjects and therefore the drug which is found safer in the clinical trial may produces serious ADRs. The most common reason for this is that the clinical studies generally have limited sample size and have low statistical power. Therefore the ADRs monitoring is an essential need for the better health care and therefore the health care centre should promotes the spontaneous monitoring, reporting, documentation and prevention of ADRs.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS TO ENHANCE DISSOLUTION RATE OF LAMOTRIGINE BY USING SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE

ABOUT AUTHORS
Bhumi B. Patel1*, Chainesh N. Shah2, Rumit M. Shah3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Naranjibhai Lalbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Umrakh, Gujarat, India.
2 Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Piparia, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Shree Naranjibhai Lalbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Umrakh, Gujarat, India.
* patelbhumi198@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Lamotrigine belongs to biopharmaceu­tical classification systems; BCS class II (Low solubility & High permeability). In addition, it requires immediate therapeutic action. Hence, the main objective of this study is to improve the solubility by solid dispersion technique and formulate it as Orodispersible tablets to avert the problems of swallowing and to provide rapid onset of action. Lamotrigine solid dispersion was prepared by using PEG 6000 as solubility enhancers and formulated it into ODT by direct compres­sion technique using different concentrations of Sodium Starch Glycolate, Cross Carmalose Sodium, and Kyron T-314 as cross linked polymers. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters and the results were found to be sat­isfactory. The batches batch containing Kyron T-314 as super disintegrant in 7% concentration, as they showed 95.75% drug release in 15 minutes with a disintegration time of 11 seconds which shows improved dissolution rate in compare to marketed formulation of Lamotrigine.


Pages