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Nandu Kayande1*, Pankaj Kushwah2, D.K. Vir3
1HOD Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmacognosy
3Department of Pharmacology
Nimar Institute of Pharmacy, Dhamnod,
Opp.ITI, Maheshwar Road Dhamnod, Dhar. M.P.454552
The objective of present study was to evaluate in vivo anti-diarrheal potential ofCinnamon leaves. Sample was analyzed for quantities estimation of photochemical and anti-diarrheal activity of aqueous leaf extract, at 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was investigated using castor oil induced model. The aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamon leaves (100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and Loperamide (2mg/kg) as positive control. The effect of the extract on castor oil-induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal transit and intestinal fluid accumulation (enter pooling) was assessed respectively. In this study, the phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamon leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols. At oral doses of 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight, the plant extract showed pronounced significant (p<0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity compared to the control group. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following the extract administration of up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The results showed that the aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamonleaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity which supports its use in traditional herbal medicine practice.
Meenu Sharma*, Saroj jain
Hindu college of pharmacy
Panchayat Bhawan, Gohana Road, Sonipat (Haryana)
Amongst various carriers explored for target oriented drug delivery, vesicular, microparticulate and cellular carriers meet several criteria rendering them useful in clinical applications. Lymphocytes, leukocytes, platelets, granulocytes and erythrocytes have been proposed as a cellular carriers. Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, and have been the most extensively investigated and found to possess great potential in novel drug delivery. The biocompatibility, non- pathogenicity, non-immunogenicity and biodegradability make them unique and useful carriers. The prime function of these RBCs is to transport gases for respiratory processes. Carrier erythrocytes are prepared by collecting blood sample from the organism of interest and separating erythrocytes from plasma. By using various methods the cells are broken and the drug is entrapped into the erythrocytes, finally they are resealed and the resultant carriers are then called "resealed erythrocytes". Erythrocytes have been proposed as a carriers for a wide range of bioactive components including drugs enzymes, pesticides, DNA molecules and others.
Himangshu Sekhar Maji*, Debdutta Banerjee, Sushomasri Maji
Bengal School of Technology,
Sugandha, Delhi Road, Hooghly,
West Bengal, India
Lawsonia inermis(Henna Plant) has been used as herbal medicine for ages. In this study the antibacterial effect of ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis root against bacterial cultures of Vibrio cholera 156, Salmonella typhi 102, Shigella dysenteriae 2, Staphylococcus aureus ML 281, Escherichia coli Row, Shigella Flexneri 6430 Bcy, Bacillus polymyxa NCTC 4747, Vibrio cholera 2080, Salmonella typhi 642. The alcoholic extract was found to be more effective according to NCCLS agar dilution method.
Emanual Michael Patelia, Bushra Ahmed, Muhammad Javaid, Jayesh Patel, Rakesh Thakur, Mishra Trinath
Department of Pharmacology, University of Bedfordshire, England,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU
The identification will be carried out by comparing a potential PCR product obtained from an unknown species with other PCR products specific to 5 known species, using the same five set of pairs of primers specific of these five species respectively. This implies that each PCR product obtained for each species has to be specific to each species and can be considered as a marker in this exercise. This specificity will be based on the uniqueness of the chosen template that is to be used for each PCR. In addition, since the PCR products will not be sequenced, they will be differentiated by their size, which will be identified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product can only be used as a marker that defines a species if the amplified sequence is unique to this species. Therefore, the first step in this exercise will be to identify a suitable sequence to amplify for each species. Following the identification of a suitable template, the size of the PCR will have to be defined; since the comparative analysis will be based not only on the presence of a product but also its size, all PCR products should have different sizes identifiable on agarose gel. Since the size of a PCR product is defined by the location of primers along the sequence, the second step in this exercise will be to design suitable primers. Finally, having defined specific template and primers for each species, PCR will be carried out using the DNA of unknown species as a template with all five sets of primers so that a successful PCR product and its size would identify the unknown species as one of the five species.
PHARMACEUTICAL MARKETING AND ETHICAL CODES: MYTHS OR REALITY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALLAHABAD, UTTAR PRADESH
*Pradhyuman Singh Lakhawat, Poonam Vishwakarma
Research Scholar (Management) SHIATS,
Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
Marketing is very important part of any organization for its existence in the market. The main strength of organization can measure on two basis first human resources and second on the basis of market share. While marketing is the major part then it should be follow the business ethical norms which are the guidelines for what is wrong and what is right in the business. But now a day’s mostly pharmaceutical in the pressure of more selling, more profit and for making the big share they are neglecting these codes. And whole pharmaceutical industry in the race of competition forgets one thing that is this marketing service is directly relate with the human life. Medicines are nectar but if it is in wrong form it can be poison for humans. So I am trying to give a small picture of current pharmaceutical marketing services and ethical codes.
S.O. Pratap1,2, Ruchi Gaur3, R.Stephan4, J.L bhatt3, C.R. Pillai1, Usha Devi1
1Malaria Research Center, New Delhi
2SR Group of Institutions, Jhansi, UP
3ITM University Gwalior, MP
4Government P.G. College Ariyalur, Tamilnadu, India
The natural products are important source of biologically active compounds having potential for developing a novel malaria drug. Malaria is one of the most important infectious vector born parasitic disease caused by Coccidian protozoan parasite of genus Plasmodium carried out by mosquito, invade red blood cells. Malaria is thousand times more complex than any disease. In the current study, a natural ingredient of herb; Dhatura Inoxia is analyzed, for its anti-malarial activity by preparing crude extract of water and ethanol, analyzed on schizont stage of plasmodial life cycle against two Chloroquine strains: sensitive and resistant of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. The results revealed that IC50 values of crude water extract was recorded as; 71± 1.41µg/ml and 105±7.07 while as the ethanol crude extract produced IC50 concentrates: 52±3.53 µg/ml and 59.5± 70 µg/ml against sensitive and resistant P. f. isolates, respectively. The results showed that this herb plant possess significant antiplasmodial activity in terms of IC50 as recorded in this study.
Gayathri Krishnamoorthy, Kanaka Durga Vadlapatla, Rini Susan Varghese, Britto Duraisingh*
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
PSG College of Pharmacy,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
The intention behind this piece of review work is to enable every single individual thoroughly understand this emerging field in Indian pharmacy that is Pharm.D, newly introduced in 2008 by the Pharmacy Council of India. It gives a direct doctorate degree after five years of college and one year internship in a hospital. This paper highlighted all the information regarding the prospectus of this field in India, colleges offering this course, scope, roles and responsibilities and feedback from student, intern and clinical pharmacist. Pharm.D is already well recognised in United States of America and majority of the gulf countries. Let’s look forward for an eye-opening future in India!!!!
Ravindra M Hanwate*1, Dehghan M H G2, Saifee M2
1Dr.Vedprakash Patil College Of Pharmacy, Auranganad (Maharashtra) INDIA
2Y.B.Chavan College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, India
Solid dispersions have been used to increase the dissolution rates of poorly water soluble drugs. Many methods are used to prepare solid dispersions. This paper reports various solubility enhancement strategies in solid dispersion. The methods described are fusion (melting), solvent evaporation, lyophilization (freeze drying), melt agglomeration process, spray drying technology, use of surfactant. The paper also shows study of characterization, selection of carriers, potential applications and limitations of these methods in solid dispersion.
Kambham Venkateswarlu1, N.Devanna2, N.B.L.Prasad3
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director of JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
3Head of Examination branch-JNTUA-OTRI
The aim of the present study was to develop the microscopical authentication for the selected leaf of piper betel from the literature were the microscopical evidence is not available earlier and also to develop the pharmacognostic evaluation for the leaf of the crude drug and to evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the piper betel leaf. This work has clearly shown that the microscopical evidence for the leaf and what are the phytoconstituents present in the leaf.
Akshay Rajgaria, Prajna Tripathy
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences.
An aspergilloma, also known as a mycetoma or fungus ball, is a clump of fungus which exists in a body cavity such as the lung. It is associated with the Aspergillus species, but Zygomycota and Fusarium may also form similar structures