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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CEFUROXIME AXETIL

ABOUT AUTHORS
Balay Ragini*, A.Pavani, R.Raja Reddy
Malla Reddy Pharmacy College,
Maisammaguda(via-hakimpet), Secunderabad, Telengana. india
ragini.balay@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cefuroxime Axetil is a second generation antibacterial belongs to Cephalosporin Group. The drug undergoes rapid metabolism in intestinal mucosa due to change in pH Environment and hence has decreased oral bioavailability. The aim of present investigation is to increase the gastric residence time by preparing gastroretentive tablets here by improving bioavailability of Cefuroxime Axetil. A simple UV spectrophotometric method has been employed for the estimation of Cefuroxime Axetil at 281 nm. A floating drug delivery system (FDDS) was developed using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, sodium alginate and hydrocolloids like hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and guggul. The prepared tablets were evaluated in terms of their precompression parameters, physical characteristics, In vitro release, buoyancy lag-time and swelling index. The formulations were optimized for the different grades of HPMC, and its concentrations and combinations. The results of the In vitro release studies showed that the optimized formulation F3 could sustain drug release of 92% and remain buoyant for 10h. The optimized formulation was subjected to various kinetic release investigations and it was found that the mechanism of drug release was predominately Higuhci with non fickian diffusion. Finally the tablets formulations found to be economical and may overcome the draw backs associated with the drug during its absorption.


HERBAL ANTI HYPERTENSION DRUGS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Asha Kesari*, Pushpa Kumari Mahto, Shankheswari Kishan, Suranjeeta Singh
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Rourkela, Odisha
ashakeshri@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the arterial blood pressure is elevated (normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg). High Blood Pressure may lead to heart failure, stroke, coronary heart disease, kidney failure etc and may affect lungs, brain and heart. It is an important global problem and a very good percentage of people all over the world are affected by blood pressure. As there is no definite cure for this condition, hence controlling it is a big challenge. The main focus on BP management is to lower the elevated blood pressure and to prevent or reduce target organ damage. Although various antihypertensive drugs are available, they are usually associated with many sides –effects. The following article deals with the alternative measures used for lowering high blood pressure giving more importance on the various herbal drugs to be used as combination therapy.


ROLE OF PRODRUGS IN SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF DRUGS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kalyana Chakravarthi G*, Vijayaraj S, Venugopal A, Naresh Ch, Saritha B
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy,
Tirupati, A.P., India.
kalyanyadav896@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Solubility is one of the essential parameters to achieve bioavailability of drug in systemic circulation to produce expected therapeutic response.  Nearly 40% of new drug molecules face solubility challenge. Though several techniques like micronization, crystal engineering, hydrotrophy, solid dispersion and so forth were available for solubility enhancement of poorly soluble drugs based on physical and chemical modification, prodrug approach is a vital technique amongst the other. Prodrugs are biologically inactive compound which can be metabolized in the body to produce active drug. It is estimated that currently about 10% of all world-wide approved drugs are prodrugs. This review extensively confers the role of prodrugs and the kind of promoieties used for solubility enhancement.


PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF VERTICILLIUM TENERU AND ACREMONIUM

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Somaia El-saedi1, Jamal S Mezogi1, Abdulrhman A. Akasha2*
1Department of Pharmacognacy
2Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmacy, Tripoli University, Libya,
Akashaabdu@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
Development of new drugs, especially in the area of oncological and infectious disease represents today one of the most important research fields. The marine environment is a tremendous source of natural products. Many new compounds isolated from marine micro- and macroorganisms showed prominent biological effects, mostly antibiotic and cytotoxic activities. The current study aimed to investigate pure compounds which were isolated from marine-derived fungi. The study was preformed with fractions from two marine derived fungal strains, i.e. Verticillium teneru and Acremonium sp. The isolation of the desired secondary metabolites was carried out using different chromatographic separation techniques (TLC, VLC and mainly HPLC). Chemical and spectroscopic methods (1D NMR, 2D NMR, MS, IR and UV) were applied for structural elucidation of the separation compounds.  Extracts of  two algal-derived fungus strains with high cytotoxic properties, were investigated chemically. This investigation resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of three pure compounds representing different structural sub-classes, one of them 1 proved to be new natural products and two were known compounds2 & 3.


AN OVERVIEW ON MANGIFERA INDICA: IMPORTANCE AND ITS VARIOUS PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

About Author:
Pallab Kalita
Assam Down Town University,
Institute of Pharmacy, Guwahati, Assam, India
kalitapallab@gmail.com

Abstract
Majority of crude drugs from plant origin are used in  Indian system of medicine. Medicinal  plants are using as herbal remedies to prevent and cure several ailments differs from community to community. Most studies on the exploitation of mango have been dealing with mango peels, juices and stem bark and mango leaves. Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), reported to contain active substances like mangiferin. In ayurveda, one of its uses is clearing digestion and acidity. Mangiferin is a pharmacologically active flavonoids, which having the anti bacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetes, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory activities.


ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ECHINOSYSTIC ACID RELEVANCE TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: AN IN SILICO STUDY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Monjur Ahmed Laskar*, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury
Bioinformatics Centre, Assam University,
Silchar, Assam, India
monjur@bioinfoaus.ac.in

ABSTRACT
Plants have been used in treating cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and are recognized for their ability to produce secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites obtained from different plants have been the starting material for designing different drugs. Echinosystic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene was isolated and identified from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Echinosystic acid has significant cardioprotective effects. Different phytochemicals have been found to be cardioprotective and paved the path towards development of cardioprotective formulations. In the present study we have analyzed the inhibitory potential of Echinosystic acid, on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) - the enzyme responsible for various cardiovascular diseases.
The study revealed that Echinosystic acidhave high ACE inhibiting potential as compared to other known ACE inhibitors.


ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT TRIAZOLE ANALOGUES

ABOUT AUTHOR
Mohammad Asif
Department of Pharmacy, GRD(PG) Institute of Management and Technology,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
aasif321@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Different heterocyclic analogues were evaluated for their diverse biological activities. The triazole moiety seems to be very small but in the biological profile has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore this skeleton to its multiple potential against several activities. Triazole analogues have a wide range of biological applications including antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiepileptic, antiviral, antihypertensive, antianxiety, antidepressant, antihistaminic activities etc. This review provides a brief response of the medicinal chemistry of triazole analogues particulary as analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.


FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF IBUPROFEN LOADED ETHYL CELLULOSE MICROSPHERES

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Lakshmanarao.R*, Pavani Priya.G, Saikishore.V
Department of pharmaceutics,
Bapatla college of pharmacy, Bapatla-522101, India
rapakalakshmanarao@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Microspheres are well accepted technique to control the drug release from the dosage form to improve bioavailability, reduce absorption difference in patients, reduce the dosing frequency and adverse effects during prolong treatment. The main objective of the present study is to prepare and evaluate ibuprofen  microspheres by solvent evaporation  method, with water insoluble polymers such as Ethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as suspending agent, using as carrier for oral administration in view to achieve oral sustained  release of the drug.  Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and is used in chronic and acute conditions of pain and inflammation. Its biological half-life is 2 ±0.5 hrs. Due to its low biological half-life (2 hrs), it requires frequent administration to maintain plasma concentration. This causes inconvenience to the patient and also leads fluctuations in plasma drug concentration that may cause inferior therapeutic effects or toxic effects. There-fore, development of controlled release dosage forms would clearly be beneficial in terms of decreased dosage requirements, thus increase patient compliance. The formulations were evaluated for particle size distribution analysis, flow properties like Angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s Ratio, Carr’s index, Encapsulation efficiency, Scanning electron microscopy,optical electron microscopy and invitro release studies. The optimized formulation showed good invitro sustained  release activity of the drug ibuprofen.


KNOWLEDGE REGARDING TERATOGENIC EFFECT OF DRUGS AMONG STAFF NURSES WORKING IN MATERNITY AND PAEDIARTIC WARDS OF K.L.E’S DR. PRABHAKAR KORE CHARITABLE HOSPITAL, BELGAUM, KARNATAKA

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Angadi SA1*, Dandagi SR2
KLE University Institute of Nursing Sciences,
Nehru Nagar, Belgaum
angadi.shweta@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
When pregnant mother consumes drugs it reaches the fetus through the placenta, in the same way that oxygen & nutrients are delivered to the baby in the mother’s uterus. Depending upon the drug taken, the amount, duration & stage of pregnancy, it can produce varying effects on growing baby. Drugs can damage the fetus &cause developmental abnormalities (producing birth defects) & result in still birth. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge regarding teratogenic effect of drugs among staff nurse working in maternity and pediatric wards. Structured Knowledge Questionnaire on teratogenic effects of drugs was used to evaluate the knowledge of Staff Nurses. The results revealed that out of 30 staff nurses selected for the study, majority 19 (63.3%) possessed average knowledge regarding teratogenic effect of drugs.


DR.SUBHAS MUKHERJEE AND INDIA’S FIRST TEST TUBE BABY

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Avlikant J. Dhawale*
RedCross Formulation, Ajanta Pharma, Aurangabad, Maharashtra
Department of Biochemistry, Gramin Science College (Swami Ramanand Tirth Marathwada University), Nanded, Maharashtra, India
*dhawale111@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Infertility is the inability of an animal or plant to reproduce by natural means. Many people in the world are facing the problem of infertility altimatlely the problem of saving their generations. Today, modern science chalanged and solved the problem of infertility by developing the technique of Test Tube Baby by using principle of in-vitro fertilization.

Dr. Subhas Mukherjee, first Asian who invented most easy and successful method of producing Test Tube Baby. In Culcutta, West Bengal, on 3rd October 1978, the team announced the birth of World's Second Test Tube baby named as 'Durga' (Kanupriya Agarwal). The announcement came 67 days after the birth of World's First Test Tube Baby named as 'Louise Brown in England by Physiologist Robert G. Edwards who awarded the Nobel Prize for such work in 2010. During his lifetime, Government of West Bengal didn't recognized his work. By the day to day insult from government Dr. Subhas Mukherjee committed to suicide.