Articles

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ETHYL CELLULOSE BASED SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE AND THEOPHYLLINE COMBINATION MICROSPHERE

ABOUT AUHTORS
*Nayak Chandan1, PadhiPriyanka1
Gayatri Institute of Science and Technology,
Gunupur Odisha, India
*nayakchandan279@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: 
The study is concerned with the development of Ethyl Cellulose microspheres by the o/w emulsification and solvent evaporation method in the presence of tween 80 as an emulsifying agent. The influence of process parameters such as solvent mixture, composition, concentration of the emulsifying agent and speed of stirring has been examined. The microspheres have been analysed for their size, drug loading capacity and drug release study. Spherical and smooth surfaced microspheres with desired encapsulation efficiencies were obtained. Slow drug release from microspheres observed up to6- 8 h. An optimization procedure was employed to investigate and identify the key parameters affecting the properties of the microspheres.


SUSTAINED RELEASE EFFERVESCENT FLOATING BILAYER TABLETS A REVIEW OF NOVEL APPROACH

ABOUT AUHTORS
*P.Dhaneshwari1, P.Stephen2
1* Mother Theresa Post Graduate & Research Institute Of Health Sciences, Puducherry, India
2 Sai mirra innopharm pvt ltd, India
*dhanesh7pharma@gmail.com

Drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is a highly variable process and prolonging gastric retention of the dosage form extends the time for drug absorption. Novel drug delivery system overcomes the physiological problems of short gastric retention through various approaches including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), these systems float due to bulk density less than gastric fluids and so, remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, releases the drug slowly at the desired rate from the system and increase the bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs. This review entitles the applications of sustained release effervescent floating bilayer tablets, suitable for sustained release of those drugs incompatible with floating constituents over an extended period of time for better patient compliance and acceptability. The purpose of this paper is to review the principle of sustained release effervescent floating drug delivery system, current technology used in the development of same as well as summarizes the applications, advantages, methodology, evaluation methods and future potential for sustained release effervescent floating bilayer tablets


ANASARCA: A GENERALIZED SWELLING

ABOUT AUHTORS
L Reddenna1*, Dr. P. Venkatesh1, K Siva Kumar2, A Sai keshava Reddy2
1* Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Jagan’s College of Pharmacy,
Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India
*reddennapharmd@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Anasarca is the medical term referred to an individual who experiences generalized oedema. Anasarca is diverse from slight swelling or oedema that occurs mainly in the feet. Anasarca is very familiar in patients with heart failure and kidney failure. Anasarca happens because there is an underlying problem. A selection of diagnostic methods can be used in a challenge to make a diagnosis of anasarca. Formerly anasarca and the underlying problem is diagnosed, suitable measures will be made to treat the problem. In this section, we can communicate the information regarding anasarca.


GOODS AND SERVICES TAX (GST) in Indian Pharmaceutical and Its Impact on Industry

ABOUT AUHTOR
Neha Bala, Naresh Mali
*
Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Rajasthan,  India
malinaresh888@gmail.com

“GST will be the best example of co-operative federalism. Together we will take India to new heights of progress. We continue to work with all parties and states to introduce a system that benefits all Indians and promotes a vibrant and unified national market. This reform will promote ‘Make in India,’ help exports and thus boost employment while providing enhanced revenue.” — Prime Minister of India, Mr. Narendra Modi, 3rd August 2016


IMPACT OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

ABOUT AUHTORS
*1Bhuyan Nadugopal, 1Swain Sabhya Sampada, 1Ojha Sudip Kumar, 2Meher Chaitanya Prasad
1Gayatri Institute of Science and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada,765022, Odisha
2 The Pharmaceutical College,Tingipali,Barapali,Dist-Bargarh,Odisha
*nadugopal.1997@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:- The radioactive agents used in the nuclear medical field are called radiopharmaceuticals. A radiopharmaceutical is a drug, that contains a radionuclide in the form of a simple salt or a complex.  It may exist as a solid, liquid, gas or a pseudo gas. It is used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. The chemical and physical identity and a form of a radiopharmaceutical are very important because in each case, once administered the radiopharmaceutical is intended to target certain tissues, binding sites, biochemical pathways. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. Many of the radiopharmaceuticals used for the diagnostic purpose, like C14 for pancreatic study and breath test, Cr51used for red cell volume and GFR measurement, Co57 used for gastrointestinal absorption. In radiopharmaceuticals, technetium has a versatile activity due to its large usage.  This review article describes the production of radiopharmaceutical, types of radiation source used in healthcare, diagnostic imaging technique, therapeutic application as well as advantage and disadvantage of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation therapy. The main aim of this review article is to describe how radiation source or radiopharmaceuticals affect the healthcare system.


GENERALIZE CHEMOMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR AQUAMETRY BY KARL FISCHER TITRATION

ABOUT AUHTORS
Deepak Chowrasia* Dr. Nisha Sharma
University Institute of Pharmacy, CSJM University,
Kanpur, U.P.-208024, India
*chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Moisture content affects not only the physiochemical property of an organic or inorganic compound but also markedly deviate its stability if present beyond a specific concentration. Numerous methods were available and has been hand-to-hand adopted to determine the water content among which Karl Fischer titration hold a distinct position owing to its simplicity, accuracy, and cost effective measurement. The following paper presented here precisely defines some of the aspects of same.


A NOVEL TRANSDERMAL PATCH OF LAMIVUDINE: IN VITRO- IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION

About Authors:
*R. Natarajan., Abirami. M, , Pavan kumar J, G. Murugananthan
Department of Pharmaceutics & research
Swamy Vivekanandha College of pharmacy
Tamil Nadu,  India

*svcpnatarajan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The work was carried out to formulate and evaluate the matrix transdermal patches of Lamivudine for the controlled delivery of drug in the body. The transdermal patches were prepared by the solvent casting method using Span-80 as a permeation enhancer and were prepared in different drug: polymer (Lamivudine: HPMC and Lamivudine: EC) ratios of 1:2.5, 1:5, without permeation enhancers and with permeation enhancers. The prepared transdermal patch were found to be good physicochemical properties, shows no skin irritation on the rat skin and  subjected to in vitro drug permeation study by using rat skin in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for 24 hours. The comparative statistical analytical data (ANOVA) showed ‘p’ value < 0.0001 which suggest that the prepared formulation are extremely significant for transdermal delivery. The formulation (FPE2) ratio 1:5 of (Lamivudine: HPMC) patch with permeation enhancer showed best result among all the formulation. This formulation (FPE2) was subjected to in-vivo studies by using rat. The in-vivo studies of the patches were administrated transdermally to rat skin and while a standard solution of 10μg/ml was used as a control, and collected the plasma drug sample at different time interval and analyzed by HPLC. The in-vitro in-vivo correlation studies shows the regression value (R) 0.863 and correlated and to be linear.


RECENTLY USED TECHNOLOGIES IN PELLET FORMULATION -A REVIEW

About Authors:
Utkranti D. Aher, *Tushar T. Shelke, Ekta P. Patel
JSPM’S Charak College of Pharmacy and Research,
Wagholi,  Pune

*tts.ccopr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Now a day’s medication systems that need frequent dosing are always with problems. So there is thrust in the area of pharmaceutical research to develop novel formulations, which will enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the existing drug. The goal of this study is to provide detailed and different techniques of pelletization such as powder layering, suspension and solution layering, globulation, freeze, extrusion - spheronization, cryopelletization etc. It has some merits, demerits and its characterization as a tool in the multipariculate drug delivery system.etc. It also gives brief idea about the evaluation of pellets and application of pelletization technique. Evaluation of quality of the pellets is discussed with reference to the size distribution, shape, surface morphology, specific surface area, friability and  tensile strength.


A STUDY ON ROLE OF DOCTOR OF PHARMACY IN IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN AN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY WARD OF A TERITARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

About Authors:
M. Manasa Rekha,
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya college of Pharmacy,
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh,  India.
manasarekharoyal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics. Clinical pharmacists often work in collaboration with physicians, nurse practitioners and other healthcare professionals. The Clinical Pharmacist Stating explicitly that the clinical pharmacist cares for patients in all health care settings emphasizes two points: that clinical pharmacists provide care to their patients and that this practice can occur in any practice setting. The clinical pharmacist’s application of evidence and evolving sciences points out that clinical pharmacy is a scientifically rooted discipline the application of legal, ethical, social, cultural, and economic principles serves to remind us that clinical pharmacy practice also takes into account societal factors that extend beyond science.


A REVIEW ON CLINICAL PHARMACIST CARE FOR MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

About Authors:
M.S.Umashankar, K.S.Lakshmi, A.Bharath Kumar*, A.Porselvi
Department of PharmacyPractice SRM College of Pharmacy,SRM University. Kattankulathur.Tamilnadu.India.
abharatpharma@gmail.com*

ABSTRACT :  Diabetic nephropathy is a type of progressive kidney disease that may occur in people who have diabetes. It affects people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and risk increases with the duration of the disease and other risk factors like high blood pressure and a family history of kidney disease.Kidney is made of hundreds of thousands of small units called nephrons.These structures filter the blood and helps to remove waste from the body, and control fluid balance.Clinical conditions we can investigate the symptoms like Persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/d or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months and Progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate,severe tiredness,headaches,general feeling of  illness,frequent voiding, lack of appetite, itchy skin, and leg swelling.Diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed after a routine urinalysis and screening for microalbuminuria and fasting,random blood sugar level,glomeluar filteration rate,serum creatinine,creatinine clearance is used to confirm the disease.Reduction of  kidney damage by controlling blood sugar levels,controlling blood pressure through the eating healthy foods and getting regular exercise.The evidence suggest that  approaching early treatment,regular Patient follow-up will delays and prevents the onset of diabetic nephropathy.Clinical Pharmacist having significant role in providing education on disease related issues and he work with both the patient and physician to ensure that patient is to achieve optimal blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid control, and that other risk factors and lifestyle  modifications are being addressed.Appropriate control of their diabetes with nephropathy can be influenced through proper education and counselling by the clinical Pharmacists in clinical care.


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