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Mahaveer Kabra*1, Sanjay Bhandari1, Ami Sharma1, Reema Jain2
Department of Pharmacology,
1Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota
2Bhupal Noble’s Institute of Pharmaceutical science, Udaipur
A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of histamine. Allergies are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens, such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An allergic reaction indicates an excessive release, of histamine by the body.Histamine is a natural chemical produced by the immune (disease-fighting) system of the body. The main action of histamine is related to allergies. An allergen is a substance that is not normally harmful, such as pollen, but which causes an overreaction by the immune system in some people.drugs show their action by binding with their specific receptor like H1-receptor antagonists are Diphenhydramine, Meclizine etc. H2-receptor antagonists Cimetidine, Famotidine. All antihistamines are reversible, competitive antagonists at histaminic (H1) receptors. They act by inhibiting binding of circulating histamine to its receptor site, but do not prevent histamine release. Administration of an antihistamine results in inhibition of respiratory, vascular, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle constriction, a decrease in histamine-activated secretions from salivary and lacrimal glands, and anti-inflammatory effects. Antihistamines also decrease capillary permeability, which reduces the wheal and flare response to an allergen, as well as diminishes itching. Competitive inhibition of histamine at H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume and hydrogen ion concentration reduced. Antihistamines are used as treatment for allergies.
Tara Shankar Basuri1*, Ishvar Parmar1, Vishal Modi2, Virag Shah3, Niyatee Thakur4
SSR College of pharmacy, Silvassa,
U.T of Dadra & Nagar Haveli-396230
Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and anincreasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractorymalignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma arelimited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on novel synthetic and herbal drugs for malignant melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach. These molecules are widely used by the oncologists for the treatment of this type of cancer. So this review can help to the public to aware the malignant melanoma and its treatment and novel target for its treatment.
Mahaveer Kabra*, Sanjay Bhandari, Natasha Sharma Raman Gupta.
Department of Pharmacology,
Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota. Raj.
Abrus precatoriusLinn (Fabaceae) Plant found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. It is used medicinally in various country. The roots, leaves and seeds of the plant are used medicinally. Glycyrrhizin, Triterpene glycosides, pinitol and alkaloids such as abrine, hepaphotine, choline and precatorine are the principle chemical constituents of the plants. Traditionally leaves are used as aphrodisiac, tonic, remove biliousness, useful in eye diseases, cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. The root is considered emetic and alexiteric. Internally, the seeds are described as poisonous and useful in affections of the nervous system and externally used in skin diseases, ulcers and affections of the hair. Antifertility, Antithrombin, Aanthelmintic Activity, Antimalarial are some reported activity of Abrus precatorius Linn.
Banwari Lal Gupta
L.R.S. Institute of Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases,
Despite decades of research and drug development for cancer treatment, cancer still remains one of the major causes of human death in the world. An important aspect in cancer therapy is the development of a targeted drug delivery system that decreases the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and other cancer therapies. The current conventional method in treating cancer involves inserting catheters to allow for chemotherapy, to reduce the amount of cancer present, and/or then to surgically remove the tumors, followed by more chemotherapy and radiation sessions.
Research on thermal therapy- the heating of pathological tissue using energy source (radiofrequency, microwave, high-intensity focused ultrasound or laser energy and cryosurgery. There are clear reasons for using hyperthermia in cancer treatment. Treatment at temperatures between 40-44°C is cytotoxic for cells in low pO2 and low pH environmental conditions, which are found specifically within the tumor tissue, due to insufficient blood perfusion. Under such conditions radiotherapy is less effective, and systematically applied cytotoxic agents will reach such area in lower concentrations then in well perfused area. Therefore the addition of hyperthermia to chemotherapy or radiotherapy will result in at least an additive effect. Furthermore, the effects of both radiotherapy and many drugs are enhanced at an increased temperature. Hyperthermia can be allied by several methods such as: local hyperthermia, regional hyperthermia, and whole-body hyperthermia.
Countless researches are on their way, in the relation of improvement of heating techniques, development of hyperthermia planning models and thermometry. The clinical studies have confirmed future expectations of hyperthermiawould be valuable. Hyperthermia is a potential combined approach and deserving more attention for its further development. This article will throw the lights on hyperthermia therapy for improvement of cancer treatment.
ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE HAZARDS IN POMEGRANATE GROWERS OF DROUGHT PRONE AREAS OF MAHARASHTRA
Prakash Bansode*1, Vidhin Kamble2, Raghunath Shinde1
1Department of Chemistry,
2Department of Zoology,
Sangola College, Sangola Dist.-Solapur(M.S.)
The pesticides especially organochlorines are known for their easy bioaccumulation and persistence in living systems. They are prepared on commercial scale and consumed on large amounts. In India agriculture is the backbone of economy and mean of livelihood for people living in villages. The draugthtprone areas of Maharashtra are famous for horticultural practices such as pomegranate and ber.In order to control crop pest and to improve crop yield, various synthetic agrochemicals like pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides and phytoharmones are used on large scale. Many developed countries have banned some lethal, bioaccumulative and persistence pesticides but they are still used in drought prone areas of Maharashtra and have caused severe acute and chronic health hazards to the farmers and agricultural laborers. The present investigation was carried out to examine pesticide practices in drought prone areas and related hazards due to exposure to the organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides.
Patelia Emanual Michael
Department of pharmacology, University of Bedfordshire,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU.
Aspirin continues to be evaluated in vitro and in pre-clinical models to help elucidate mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis and the response of tumours to anti-neoplastic agents. Recent randomised evidence from trials primarily designed to prevent cardiovascular disease show a reduction in cancer incidence with long-term follow-up and epidemiological evidence from colorectal and breast cancer studies evaluating the effects of aspirin use after diagnosis suggests that aspirin may have a role in the adjuvant setting. The clinical management of patients is also continually evolving, with new combinations of agents or strategies being assessed; aspirin should not be overlooked in this process because it is neither new nor expensive.
Madhuri D. Ghadage*1, Gajanan H. Banapure2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, SMBT College of Pharmacy, Dhamangaon, Nashik
2H. R. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur Dhule
The controlled release of drugs in slow and sustained manner is one of the major challenges in drug delivery system. Targeting of drug to the particular site is an important aspect of drug delivery system. Carrier technology offers an intelligent approach for drug delivery by coupling the drug to a carrier particle such as microsphere which modulates the release and absorption characteristics of the drug. These delivery systems offer numerous advantages over the conventional dosage forms including improved efficacy, reduced toxicity, and improved patient compliance. Microspheres received much attention not only for prolonged release, but also for targeting of anticancer drugs. In future microspheres will find the central place in novel drug delivery, particularly in diseased cell sorting, diagnostics, genetic materials, targeted and effective drug delivery. The current aim of this review is to study various aspects of the microparticulates drug delivery system including method of formulation, evaluation & characterization.
M.Pharm (pharmacology), nshm knowledge campus,
kolkata, West bengal
The use of medicinal plants as herbal remedies to prevent and cure several ailments differs from community to community. Most studies on the exploitation of mango have been dealing with mango peels, juices and stem bark, however a little attention has been given to mango leaves. Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), reported to contain active substances like mangiferin. In ayurveda, one of its uses is clearing digestion and acidity. Mangiferin is a pharmacologically active flavonoids, which having the anti bacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetes, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory activities.
*Ravi Patel, Dr Shori Thakur
Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science Department,
University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
AL10 9AB, United Kingdom
Oxidative stress play important role in the progression of many diseases. Superoxide anion is a key reactive oxygen species (ROS) produce from univalent reduction of oxygen shows cytotoxicity. Superoxide binds to Nitric oxide (NO) and produces peroxynitrite which is a deleterious ROS. Nitric oxide is produced with help of Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which catalyse the conversion of L-arginine to citrulline. NO is small and produced in gaseous form which helps it in the diffuse from inside and outside of cells. NO has got many functions like vasodilation, nonspecific immunity, neurotransmission and also neurogenic vasodilation. NO produce from endothelial regulates vascular tone by various mechanisms like it produces vasodilation, inhibit platelet activation and leukocytes adhesion, and inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. Thereby NO plays important role in the progression of atherosclerosis so many researches are going on NO. NO also plays important role in the Inflammation and contribute in the organ failure. There are 3 types of NOS from which iNOS is non calcium dependant and can produces NO at very large level compare to other two types of NOS. DEM (Diethyl maleate) is a glutathione depleting agent which binds to glutathione through transferase reaction. It has been seen that DEM reduces the cytotoxicity induce by LPS, protect local skin inflammation, reduces lung injury and also increase survival rate in cerebral ischemia reperfusion. There by it get attraction of scientist for more research. The main aim of the study is to find out the effect of DEM on iNOS expression and cell viability. Results shows that DEM reduces the nitrite production and iNOS expression in LPS treated macrophages in dose dependant manner whereas it does not show any effect in macrophages not treated with LPS. It shows increase in the cell viability in LPS activated macrophages. These results indicate that a glutathione play regulatory role in iNOS expression but the mechanism underlining this is still unknown.
Vishwa Deepak kumar
Departement of Pharmacy,
IEC group of institution,
Greater Noida (U.P), Pin- 201301
Pharmacovigilance is an important and integral part of clinical research. Pharmacovigilance is “defined as the pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short term adverse effects of medicines. This addresses what exactly is Pharmacovigilance? What do we know of its benefits and risks, challenges and the future hold for pharmacovigilance in Indian medicine. Here the main focus on the aims and role of Pharmacovigilance in medicines regulation and their Partners. This article describes and discusses the National programme of pharmacovigilance and centre in India. There role in collecting the reports ADRs of medicines. Further effectiveness and risk assessments of therapies are been discussed. The important role played by health care professional, pharmaceutical industries, media, and programmes carried by WHO. Finally the conclusion describes the major challenges and achievements for the future pharmacovigilance programmeand toxicity is not socritical if botanicals are used in traditional forms (Harborne., 1998).