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Mohammad Akbar Dar, Mubashir Hussain Masoodi*, Saeema Farooq
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, India
A radiopharmaceutical is a preparation intended for in-vivo use that contains a radionuclide in the form of a simple salt or a complex. It may exist as a solid, liquid, gas or a pseudo gas. The chemical and physical identity and a form of a radiopharmaceutical are very important because in each case, once administered the radiopharmaceutical is intended to target certain tissues, binding sites, biochemical pathways. A radiopharmaceutical can be used for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes depending on its specific physicochemical and radiation properties. The characteristic of radioactive decay is what makes radioisotopes useful in their medical applications; however, different applications will take advantage of radioactive emissions in different ways. Radioactive materials are regularly used to treat medical conditions, diagnosis pathology, visualize and measure physiological functions, and localize structures and pathways. This review describes both the therapeutic as well as diagnostic uses of radiopharmaceuticals.
Bikash Debnath*, Md. JashimUddin, Debasish Maiti
State Biotech Hub, Department of Human Physiology,
Tripura University, Suryamaninagar.
Central nervous system (CNS) drug development will be biology driven. Due to absence of functional platform for CNS drug targeting since, the large molecules pharmaceuticals cannot be delivered to brain. About 1.5 billion people worldwide are suffering from various type of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Overcome to this problem modern pharmaceutical technology manufacturing the nonaparticles. Properly use of nonamedicines (nanoparticles) is one of the ways to control the CNS disorder in all over world. Nanoparticles are particles between 1 to 100 nm in size. Using nanotechnology it is possible to deliver the drug to the specific site of the tissue across the Blood -Brain Barrier (BBB).Various types of nanoparticle are available for treatment of CNS disorders. These are lipid based nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymer-based nanoparticles etc.
ESTIMATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND FORMULATION BY SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE AREA UNDER CURVE UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS
Jadhav Santosh1*, Kharat Rekha1, Ansari Afaque2, Tamboli Ashpak3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutic’s, D. S. T. S Mandal’s College Of Pharmacy Solapur, Maharashtra India.
3Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,
Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.
Simple, fast and reliable spectrophotometric methods were developed for determination of Ondansetron Hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The solutions of standard and the sample were prepared in Distilled Water. The quantitative determination of the drug was carried out using the second order Derivative Area under Curve method values measured at 248-254nm. Calibration graphs constructed at their wavelengths of determination were linear in the concentration range of Ondansetron Hydrochloride using 2-10μg/ml (r²=0.9986) for second order Derivative Area under Curve spectrophotometric method. All the proposed methods have been extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. There was no significant difference between the performance of the proposed methods regarding the mean values and standard deviations. The developed methods were successfully applied to estimate the amount of Ondansetron Hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.
Niyati Borkar*1, SS Saurabh2, KS Rathore3, Ashlesha Pandit1, KR Khandelwal1
1JSPM’s Rajarshi Shahu College of Pharmacy and Research, Tathwade, Pune, India
2Lachoo Memorial College of Science & Technology, Pharmacy Wing, Jodhpur (Raj.), India
3BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Raj.), India
The concept of nutraceutical a evidence based medicines was started from a survey held in United Kingdom, Germany and France which concluded that diet is rated more highly by consumers than exercise or hereditary factors for achieving good health. Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, is a food or food product that reportedly provides health and medical benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. Nutraceutical is a term that does not easily fall into the legal category of food and drug and often inhabits a grey area between the two. Nutraceuticals may range from isolated nutrients herbal products, dietary supplements and diets to genetically engineered “designs” foods and processed products such as cereals, soups and beverages and hence also referred to as functional foods. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. Apart from disease prevention, they play an important role in disease management and therapy. Also, the growing consumer awareness regarding health care has led to the tantalizing opportunity for a “nutraceutical” breakthough in the pharmaceutical battleground as an alternative to modern medicine. This revolution will lead us into a new era of medicine and health, in which the food industry will become a research oriented one similar to the pharmaceutical industry. This review article focuses on the definition, history, development, classification, challenges and opportunities, regulations,global market scenario as also the motivation behind the development of nutraceuticals.
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women,
Enikepadu, Vijayawada, AP, India
Chicken is one of the most popular foods. There can’t be many people who do not enjoy chicken curry, chicken pakoda, roast chicken, stew or barbecued chicken on a Sunday. This includes children as well as adults who both enjoy the taste and versatility of chicken. Since the 1940s, antibiotics have played a critical role in protecting the public’s health, and are responsible for saving millions of human lives. About 90% of antibiotics produced in the world are given to farm animals. The use of low doses of antibiotics by the modern food animal industry is responsible for drug-resistant bacteria emerging on farms which reach the general population through human or animal carriers, and through the food consumers eat. The chicken is one of the worst offenders when it comes to food poisoning. Many of us have either experienced this first hand or know someone who has suffered from this nasty illness.
Shweta Vashist*, Jyoti Kaushik, Batra K. Sunil
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonipat
Skin is the main target of topical and transdermal preparations. Major aim of transdermal drug delivery sytem is to cross the stratum corneum. Now-a-days we better know vesicles have importance in cellular communication. Niosomal carrier are systems containing soft vesicles, composed of non –ionic surfactant and an alternative to liposomes. They can entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals but these types of vesicles include the superior physical stability problems such as aggregation, fusion, and leakage of encapsulated drug. Proniosomes are provesicular approach which overcomes the limitations of vesicular system (Niosomes). Provesicular approach has been proposed to enhance the stability of vesicles. Proniosomes is a compact semi-solid liquid crystalline product of non- ionic surfactant easily formed on dissolving the surfactant in minimal amount of acceptable solvent and the least amount of aqueous phase. Proniosomes can be converted into niosomes in –situ by absorbing water from the skin.
DIFFERENCE SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND IN ITS FORMULATION
Kharat Rekha1*, Jadhav Santosh1, Pawar Seemarani2, Tamboli Ashpak2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,
Sangola, Solapur, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,
Sangola, Solapur, Maharashtra, India
A simple, precise and accurate difference spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in bulk drug form by difference spectrophotometric method. Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride has exhibited maximum absorbance at about 272nm and 278nm in acidic and basic solution respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml in both the cases. The regression of coefficient was found to be r2=0.9982. The LOD and LOQ value were found to be 0.5140ppm and 0.5577ppm respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in bulk drug. As per ICH guidelines the result of the analysis were validated statistically and were found to be satisfactory.
Shashi Shekhar Anand, Navgeet, Balraj Singh Gill*
Centre for Biosciences,
School of Basic and Applied Sciences,
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India
The word ‘epigenetic’ was first coined by Conrad Waddington in 1946. It deals with functionally relevant modifications to the genome that do not include a change in the nucleotide sequence. Till date observation has focused on the functions of genome sequences and how their regulation occurs. The emerging epigenetic changes and the interactions between cis-acting elements with protein factors plays a central role in gene regulation as well as give insight to various diseases. To evaluate the crosstalk of DNA and protein by taking account of the whole genome, one new evolving technique which is called as ChIP-chip, works on the principle of combining chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray. ChIP-chip has been recently used in basic biological studies and may be improved further and can be useful for other to aspects, like human diseases. Now a days large amount of discoveries by ChIP-chip and other high-throughput techniques like this may be connected with evolving bioinformatics to add to our knowledge of life and diseases.
A STUDY ON DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS
Alti Aparna1*, Seema Pushpa Latha1, Gopalgari Lakshmi Nagarjun1, Galammagari Nagaraju1, C. Gopinath1, P. Murali Madhav2
1Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.
2Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is on alarming rise in India. Drug utilization studies help to identify the adherence to standard guidelines and extent of drug use and to evaluate the rational drug usage.
Aims and objectives: To determine the drug utilization pattern and effectiveness of oral hypoglycemic agents among diabetes mellitus patients.
Materials and methods: It is a prospective observational study carried out for a period of six months at RIMS kadapa, and two others diabetic centers. The diabetic patients who visited the medicine outpatient department were included. After obtaining approval from institutional ethical committee, a structured data collection form was used to collect demographic data, complete prescription details and other relevant information required for the study. The drug utilization pattern was determined. The drugs were categorized by Anatomical therapeutic classification (ATC) and DDD/1000 inhabitants/day was calculated by using WHO guidelines. Among all oral hypoglycemic agents the most effective drug/combination in this region was identified.
RESULTS: 716 prescriptions were assessed out of which,401(56.0%) were females and 315(43.9%) were males, most of the patients were in the age group of 40-60 for males 175(55%) and females 205(51.1%). Hypertension was the most common co-morbid seen. The average number of drugs per prescription was 4.26 and anti-diabetics per prescription was 1.79. DDD/1000 inhabitants/day for metformin (A10BA02) was 10.5, glimiperide (A10BB12) was 9.3, glibenclamide (A10BB01) was 7.91, pioglitazone (A10BG03) was 7.25. Out of 716 patients 311(45.25%) patients were on Monotherapy, and 405 (56.5%) were on Combination therapy.A total of 200 newly diagnosed patients of diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study out of which only 128 members were followed up successfully. The combinations of Metformin +Sulfonyl Ureas + Others showed a good control of fasting blood sugar when compared with only Metformin, only Sulfonyl Ureas or Metformin +Sulfonyl Ureas, Sulfonyl Ureas + Others.
Conclusion: Metformin was the most utilized drug followed by glimiperide. Combination therapy was most frequent when compared to monotherapy in which metformin+glimiperide was commonly prescribed one. so by understanding the current prescribing patterns attempts can be made to improve rational prescribing. The combination of Metformin+Sulfonyl Ureas+Others is more effective combination.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMOTRIGINE AND CLOZAPINE IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE BY ABSORPTION CORRECTION METHOD
Priyanka P. Atodariya*, Hasumati A. Raj, Vineet C. Jain
*Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy Collage, Kim,
Surat, Gujarat, India
The simple spectroscopic method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Lamotrigine and Clozapine in synthetic mixture. Absorbance Correction Method involves the measurement of absorption at two wavelengths 307 nm (lmaxfor Lamotrigine) and 360 nm (lmax for Clozapine). The method was found linear between the range of 1-5 µg/ml for Lamotrigine and 6-30 µg/ml for Clozapine for method. The accuracy and precision was determined and validated statistically. Both the method showed good reproducibility and recovery with %RSD less than 1. The method was found to be rapid, specific, precise and accurate and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis for Lamotrigine and Clozapine in bulk and combined dosage form.