Articles

A comparative evaluation of the quality & price of generic medicine with their branded counterparts

ABOUT AUTHORS
Bhupender Singh, Arun Nanda, Vikaas Budhwar, Rakesh K. Marwaha
Department of Pharmacy,
M. D. University, Rohatak
Haryana, India

* pharma.bsingh@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Generic drugs are as effective as their branded counterparts in terms of safety and efficacy. Although their exists several myths about quality of generic medicines because of its less price as compared to branded counterparts. The present study aims to evaluate and compare the quality of generic medicine with their branded counterparts as per Indian Pharmacopoeial standards and other validated methods on a commonly used type 2 diabetes drug (Metformin). The qualitative as well as quantitative studies were performed as per IP 2010. The official test performed includes uniformity of weight, disintegration, dissolution, assay and friability. Non official test includes hardness test and assay by HPLC using validated methods. The study revealed that branded as well as generic metformin tablets comply with the standards provided in IP 2010 and generic metformin was found to be 111.52% lesser in cost per tablet as compared to costliest branded version of metformin.


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES AND RHIZOMES

ABOUT AUTHORS
Seema*, Parminderjit Kaur
Department of Pharmacy,
Rayat Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India
*seemakumar2125@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a perennial herb, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. The rhizomes and leaves of turmeric were extracted separately with ethanol by Soxhlet extraction and the percentage yield of rhizomes and leaves of Turmeric was 12% and 17% yield respectively. The extract of turmeric rhizomes and leaves can increase the bile flow, offer protection of the gall bladder and also the leaf extract possess anticancer properties. The present study was focused on the isolation of curcuminoids by thin layer chromatography using chloroform: ethanol: glacial acetic acid in a ratio of 95: 5: 1. From TLC the better resolution of Rf value was observed in rhizomes at 0.8, 0.66, 0.51 as Curcumin, Demethoxycurcumin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin respectively whereas Rf value of leaves was 0.42 as Bisdemethoxycurcumin, when visualized under 366nm under bright yellow fluorescent. The phytochemical screening of leaf extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenols. The ash value of turmeric rhizomes and leaves was 3.33% and 6.67%, acid insoluble value was 1.3% and 2% and water insoluble value was 13.3% 1nd 16.67% respectively. The moisture content of rhizomes and leaves of turmeric in IR- Moisture balance was found to be 0.93 and 0.30 whereas in Tray Drier the moisture balance was 0.46 and 0.27 respectively while the melting point was observed as 160-1630C and 116-1200C respectively which resembles the report of literature (IP, 2007).


SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLELISM IN STRUCTURAL SKELETONIZATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS

ABOUT AUTHORS
Nisha Sharma1, Mohammad Arshad2, Asif Jafri2, Deepak Chowrasia*1
1University Institute of Pharmacy, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, (U.P.), Kanpur, India.
2Molecular endocrinology lab, Department of Zoology, Lucknow University, (U.P.), Kanpur, India.
*chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Spectroscopy based pharmaceuticals chemofingerprinting and standardization is an essential intent to portrait molecular structures as well, a cemented platform to harvest diversified physiochemical characteristics of therapeutic chemoentity. Compared to classical wet techniques, the spectroscopic-framed-chemical analysis meritoriously distinguished from former in terms of sensitivity, accuracy, precession, rapidness, detection limit, spectrum, versatility, result reliability, intuiting data, and automated operation. Quest for “ideal medicine” is still a misnomer, however, may comply if being assisted with well planned and excellently executed spectroscopy methodology. The present paper is design to explore various prospective of different spectroscopic technique and their role in chemical evaluation and standardization of pharmaceuticals.


QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITE AND INHIBITORY EFFECT OF AZIMA TETRACANTHA LEAVE EXTRACT AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS

ABOUT AUTHORS
SANDHIYA.V*1, KAVITHA.C2
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, C.L.Baid metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, C.L.Baid Metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
*sandhiyavaithi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The leaves of Azima tetracantha belongs to salvadoraceae family, commonly known as “mulluchangu” in tamil, it is a best known medicinal plant from ancient period. The plant has reported for many pharmacological action such as antifungal, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, anti ulcer, anti arthritic, hypolipidemia etc. The present study was investigated about the characteristics, quantitative estimation and antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave in different solvents extract (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water) successfully. In quantitative estimation the leaves of Azima tetracantha shows 48.4 % yield of carbohydrate in water extract, 21%  yield of phenol in ethanol extract and 24%  in ethyl acetate extract and 19% yield of tannin in ethanol extract. In antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave two standard drugs are used such as clotrimazole (10 mcg/m1 as standard-1) and ketaconazole (10 mcg/ml as standard -2). The antifungal activity was studied for all extracts in a concentration of 100 mcg/ml, 200 mcg/ml and 400mcg/ml against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Ethanol extract of a leave of Azima tetracantha in increasing concentration shows prominent activity against Candida albicans compared to other extract. The Hexane, Chloroform and Water extracts of a leave of Azima tetracantha shows moderate activity against Candida albicans compared to ethyl acetate extract. The Ethyl acetate extract shows slight activity against Candida albican scompare to other extracts. There was no activity was observed for various extracts of Azima tetacantha against Aspergillus niger.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORO DISINTIGRATING TABLETS OF RESPERIDONE BY USING SUBLIMATION AND SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE

ABOUT AUTHORS
V.T. Iswariya*, A.Hariomprakash Rao, K. Sri Jahnavi, A.Sravanthi, P. Deepa, K. Samatha
M.R.R. College of Pharmacy,
Nandigama, Andhra Pradesh, India
*iswariyapharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The technique of Solid dispersion and sublimation techniques are a promising method towards enhancing the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. The main objective of Resperidone mouth dissolving tablets is to enhance the solubility. Several formulations of solid dispersion and sublimating tablets were prepared by using different ratio of drug sublimating agent (Camphor) and carriers (PEG 4000, Polaxomer, Mannitol). The prepared Solid dispersion and sublimating tablets were evaluated for their flow properties such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The interaction between drug and excipients were studied by FTIR. In vitro dissolution profiles of the solid dispersion and sublimation formulations were studied and compared between sublimation and solid dispersion formulation. Among all formulations SD2 formulation was shown maximum drug release in less time.


CLEANING VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY - AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Sadanand Maurya*1, Devendra Goyal2, Chandan Verma1
1 Department of Quality Assurance in Macleods Pharmaceutical Limited
2 Department of Production in Macleods Pharmaceutical Limited
*sadanandmpharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical products shall demonstrate a control to reproduce consistently the desired quality of product, wherein the control of cross-contamination plays an important role. An effective cleaning shall be in place to provide documented evidence that the cleaning methods employed within a facility consistently controls potential carryover of product (including intermediates and impurities), cleaning agents and extraneous material into subsequent product to a level which is below predetermined levels. Pharmaceutical manufacturers must validate their cleaning process to ensure compliance with cGMP regulations. So it is necessary to validate the cleaning procedures to ensure safety, efficacy, quality of the subsequent batches of drug product and regulatory requirements in Pharmaceutical product manufacture. In this article cleaning validation and cleaning validation program discussed in brief.


PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA IN LEAD INDUCED CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN ALBINO RATS

ABOUT AUTHORS
G.Hema Latha1*, MD.Sultan Ali2, C.Vijaya lakshmi  R.Kiran kumar1, C.V.H.Hemavathy1
1 Kottam Institute of Pharmacy, Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar, Telangana
2 Safa College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, A.P
hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Protective effect of ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats. The main aim of the present work is to evaluate the Protective effect of Ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats.Objectives are to test the  Preliminary phytochemical screening of Aqueous & Petroleum ether extracts of “Ziziphus Jujuba”. Group 1: Control group; Group 2: Animals treated with lead 0.1 ml/100 g body weight i.p; Group 3: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 250mg/kg; Group 4: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 500mg/kg.All the groups were subjected to pre-treatment for a period of 7 days except Control group. To compare the changes in Quantification of infract size in normal and treated groups. To compare the changes in SGOT levels in Control and treated groups. The protective effect of the aqueous extract ,petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba may be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and tannins. There was a dose dependent increase in cerebral protection in terms of reduction of infarct size of brain tissue and SGOT levels in serum. Furthermore investigation is needed to find out the particular constituent which is responsible this protective activity.


METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF NAPROXEN IN BULK SAMPLES AS WELL AS IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS BY USING RP-HPLC

ABOUT AUTHORS
S. Ashutosh Kumar*, Manidipa Debnath,Vaddi Pavan Krishna Kumar

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance,
A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy,
Nallajerla, West Godavari, A.P
* ashu.mpharm2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose:
A simple, precise, accurate, rapid and economical reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed as per ICH norms for the estimation of Naproxen from pharmaceutical formulation.
Methods: The method was carried out on a Kromosil-C18 ODS column (150 mm X 4.6 mm; 5 µ) with a mobile phase consists of ammonium acetate buffer (adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1 % Triethyl amine): methanol (40:60 v/v) and filtered through a 0.45 µ cellulose nitrate filters. The flow rate was maintained in isocratic mode at 1.0 mL/min. The detection was carried out at 210 nm. The run time was 7.0 min.
Results: The retention time was 3.063 min for Naproxen. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and solution stability.
Conclusion: The proposed method was adequate sensitive, reproducible, and specific for the determination of Naproxen in bulk as well as in tablet dosage forms.


EPILEPSY: A BRIEF REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Abdul Waheed*, Swati Pathak, Roohi Mirza
Department of Pharmacology,
Amity Institute of Pharmacy,
Amity University, Noida, U.P., India
*abdul.waheed2050@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by tendency to recurrent seizures or fits. The seizures can leads to loss of consciousness, disturbance of movement, muscle spasms, autonomic and mental functions. Epilepsy is developed because of imbalance in nerve signalling chemical called neurotransmitters. During epilepsy, the level of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate increases and the level of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA decrease. These lead to abnormal signalling in brain causes epilepsy. Primary diagnosis of epilepsy includes eye–witness and family history. Electroencephalograph (EEG) is the cornerstone for diagnosis of epilepsy and measures the brain wave activity. Neuroimaging like computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques are used to diagnose abnormalities in structure and function of brain. Video recording is also useful for the monitoring of epileptic events. The most common approach of treatment is to prescribe antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Three generations of AEDs including phenytoin, valproate, carbamazapine, lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Primidone,Phenobarbitone,Gabapentin, Topiramate, Levetiracetam, Felbamate, Rufinamide, Zonisamide, Tiagabinand Vigabatrin etc. are prescribed. These AEDs have some teratogenic effects on  pragnent woman and lactating mother; need precautions. Instead of  pharmacological approaches, Non-pharmacological approaches also used for the treatment of epileptic seizures like ketogenic diet, atkins diet, yoga etc. Thr purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge on epilepsy classification,diagnostics, approaches of treatment, pathophysiology, mechanism of epileptogenesis and teratogenic effects.


ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR
Dr. (Mrs.) Anita Singh

Department of Home Science,
Kr. R.C.M. P.G College Mainpuri, U.P, India
dranitasinghkrcm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lent virus (slowly-replicating retrovirus) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs). Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. HIV enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell. There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but a variety of drugs can be used in combination to control the virus.


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