Articles

THERAPEUTIC GASES PHARMACOLOGY AND IT’S ADVANCED DELIVERY

  ABOUT AUHTORS
AKASH S MALI1,2*,AUDRIUS MARUŠKA2
1University of Würzburg Germany.
2Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
*Akashmit97@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmaceutical gases molecules (Therapeutic medical Gases) are plays vital role in various disease conditions. In particular, Carbon monoxide, Oxygen, Nitric oxide, Hydrogen sulfide are generated in the human body and mediate signaling pathways as biological messengers and shown pharmacological effects on cardiovascular disorders, nervous system, respiratory track and gastrointestinal disorder. Appropriate oral delivery of gases is challenging concept in front of novel drug delivery system, recently microbubbles, nanobubbles, liposomes, ultrasound technology provides new oral and parenteral delivery platform for therapeutic gases. This review provides pharmacological effects of therapeutic medical gases and its novel delivery aspects.


STRUCTURE BASED ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3-DIARYL-2-PROPEN-1-ONES AND THEIR RECENT PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERESTS

ABOUT AUHTORS
Nisha Sharma, Mahroz, Deepak Chowrasia*
University Institute of Pharmacy,
Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur, U.P.,  India

chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chemically chalcones are 1,3–diphenyl-2-propene-1-one, containing dual aromatic rings which are linked to each other via carbon bridge system enveloping keto-ethylenic core structure. Owing to the presence of conjugated double bond and electron dense aromatic ring system, the molecule posses less redox potential; thus greater probability for characteristic electron transfer reactions. Naturally, conjugated systems of these types are abundantly present in edible plants and are considered to be precursors of bioactive flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Chalcones and their derivatives find numerous industrial applications such as artificial sweeteners, scintillator, polymerization catalyst, fluorescent whitening agent, organic brightening agent, stabilizer against heat, visible light, and ultraviolet radiation.  As a chemo-identifying agent, chalcones have been found useful in elucidating structure of natural products like hemlock, tannin, cyanomaclurin, ploretin, eriodictyol and homoeriodictyol, and naringenin. Pharmacologically, the same molecule acts as a versatile and universally accepted moiety for design and development of numerous bioactive synthetic analogues in search of ideal medicine to conquer human pathological conditions.  The present paper thus designs to explore and study various prospective of chalcones and their derivatives in terms of recent developments and pharmacological importance.


A REVIEW ON GASTRO-INTESTINAL DRUG ESOMEPRAZOLE

ABOUT AUHTORS
MNL Aishwarya, E. Anka Rao, M. Niranjan Babu
Department of Pharmaceutics
Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Tirupati, AP, India
meenumakkhan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Esomeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used to treat gastric problems mainly peptic ulcers. Peptic ulcers are present in around 4% of the population. They newly began in around 53 million people in 2013. About 10% of people develop a peptic ulcer at some point in their life.They resulted in 301,000 deaths in 2013 down from 327,000 deaths in 1990. The first description of a perforated peptic ulcer was in 1670 in Princess Henrietta of England. H. pylori was first identified as causing peptic ulcers by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren in the late 20th century, a discovery for which they received the Nobel Prize in 2005. Esomeprazole comes under non-surgical treatment for peptic ulcers. Though it is an effective drug used for the treatment of peptic ulcers it includes some side effects such as headache, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite…etc., optical isomer of omeprazole is called as s-isomer of omeprazole or esomeprazole which is an improved form of omeprazole. Esomeprazole in combination with cardiovascular drugs produces potential interactions and positive effects. This review article provides an evaluation of the literature on the concomitant use of esomeprazole available. The efficacy, safety, tolerability, cost effectiveness, and patient quality of life of this regimen is discussed. A summary of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of esomeprazole, Mechanism of action of omeprazole, as well as its effects during pregnancy are also reviewed.


EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID ON DISSOLUTION STABILITY OF RIFAMPICIN IN MARKET FIXED DOSE COMBINATION PRODUCTS FOR TUBERCULOSIS

ABOUT AUTHORS
Subashini Rajaram, Abirami Murugan, Nidhina Raj C.M
Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India.
Life Pharmacy, Al Barsha, Dubai-UAE
E-mail : subababu.r@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT
Degradation of rifampicin (RIF) to insoluble and poorly absorbed 3-Formyl rifamycin SV (3-FRSV) in acidic environment is a major concern which leads to reduction in the bioavailability of RIF and is further influenced by the presence of isoniazid (INH) in the stomach after ingestion. It is recommended that addition of ascorbic acid (ASC) in dissolution medium, in plasma as antioxidant to stabilize RIF from degradation and also daily intake of ASC to control tuberculosis (TB).Though the effect of ASC on fixed dose combination (FDC) products has not been traversed and hence examined in the present study.  The rate of degradation of RIF to 3-FRSV in the presence of ASC in dissolution medium (0.1 N HCl) on market formulations was estimated by Dual Wavelength UV–Vis. spectrophotometry (DW spectrophotometry) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Addition of ASC in FDC formulations lowered significantly formation of 3-FRSV or degradation of RIF as compared to that without ASC in in-vitro. Our study proposed that co-package of ASC with fixed dose combination products (FDC) can protect RIF degradation in the acidic environment and in-vivo investigation needed to predict the bioavailability of RIF in FDC products in the presence and absence of ASC for effective control of TB.


PREPRATION AND EVALUATION OF NANO-EMULSION FORMULATION BY USING SPONTANEOUS EMULSIFICATION

ABOUT AUTHORS
Deepa Vishwakarma, Deepa Dhiman, Amit kumar Pal, Aman Mittal, Sunit Saini
Department of Pharmacy,
Smt. Tarawati Institute of Biomedical Allied Sciences,
Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India

vishwakarmadeepa152@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of our investigation was to design a thermodynamically stable and dilutable nanoemulsion formulation of Ibuprofen, with minimum surfactant concentration that could improve its solubility, formulation were taken from thermodynamic stability and dispersibility test. The oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase, respectively, containing 100mg of ibuprofen showed a significant improvement in drug release. In vitro drug release of the nanoemulsion formulation was highly significant as compared to marketed tablet formulation. The present study revealed that tinidazole nanoemulsion could be used as a liquid formulation for increase bioavailability. The formulated system can also be treated as self nano emulsifying drug delivery system.


PREPARATION METHOD, PROPERTIES AND CROSSLINKING OF HYDROGEL: A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Komal Saini*
Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh
komalsainiks@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hydrogels comprises of different classes class of materials that could absorb considerable amount of water while maintaining their integrity in water having three dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks. In the last few years, radical methods of preparation of hydrophilic polymers and hydrogels have evolved that may be used in the future in drug delivery applications. For successful and desirable applications, synthesis of new polymers and cross-linkers having more biocompatibility and better biodegradability would be beneficial. This review provides an overview of the different classes of hydrogels, their characterization, method of preparation, their advantages and disadvantages and cross-linking.


FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE

ABOUT AUTHORS
Kambham Venkateswarlu*, Jami Komala Preethi
1Department of Pharmaceutics, JNTUA-Oil Technological and Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present investigation was focussed on formulation and in vitro evaluation of mouth dissolving tablets (MDTs) of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (PGTZN) thereby enhancing the dissolution rate. MDTs were prepared by wet granulation and direct compression methods using Croscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone and Sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants. Powder blends were evaluated for flowability and all the powder blends showed acceptable flowability. The prepared tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters like hardness, friability, wetting time and showed acceptable results. Formulations F8 and F15 showed disintegration time of 23 and 22 sec respectively. Dissolution was performed in pH 1.2 HCl buffer and formulations F15 showed maximum drug release within 30 min. drug release from F15 was more than that of the marketed drug. Hence, it could be concluded that formulation F15 showed good drug release than marketed drug and there is a lot of scope for future in vivo studies.


DRUGS AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS

ABOUT AUTHORS
J A Sathwara1, A M Bhandari2
1* Department of Pharmacology, A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, Anand ,Gujarat
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, Anand ,Gujarat

*jignasa.sathwara@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The development of drugs is costly for the Pharmaceutical companies and without the protection of Intellectual Properties, the formula for the drug can easily be duplicated and can be synthesized at cheaper cost. The U.S. intellectual property laws protect the rights of small inventors and large corporations alike to guarantee “the first to invent” the exclusive right to the patents. To solve the drug price inflation within the U.S., an initiative has been taken that drug patents are different from other innovations. Under the new plan, new drugs would be sold at generic prices upon FDA’s approval. New drugs will no longer be rewarded by net-profit from sales, but instead by Medical Innovation Prize Fund at a level of 0.5% of the gross domestic product, that provide money to developers of new products based upon the actual impact on health outcomes over ten years. Although patents protect the rights of the investors and courage innovations, there are certain ideas that should not been patented. Potentially lifesaving technologies should be separated from other type of innovations, and money making should not be the only inceptive for drug discovery. The number of worldwide who have access to medicines is low, an allowing patents on drugs, although increase the number of advancements in lifesaving technologies; it will decrease the number of people who access to them. International efforts should focus on allocating monetary motivation to provide people to access drugs.


A REVIEW ON PROCESS VALIDATION

ABOUT AUTHORS
Surya Pratap Singh *, Kailash Dhaker, Abhisek Namdev, Mahaveer Prasad Khinchi, Surbhi Bhatnagar
1Department of pharmaceutics, Kota College of  Pharmacy,
Kota, Rajasthan, India
sp.kota91@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Process validation is the process for improving the safety and quality of the dosage form which is manufactured in the pharmaceutical industry. Basically, Process validation emphasize the role of objective measure and statistical tools and analyses knowledge ,detection ,and control of variability and give assurance on consistent of quality / productive throughout life cycle of product. Result from Process validation method can be used to judge the quality and consistency of analytical result. The purpose of this review to cover need of process validation, principle of process validation, type of process validation, phase of process validation, strategy for process validation. In this review article we discussed about the importance and strategy of validation of analytical procedure.


MICROENCAPSULATION DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Keshari Roshan*, Rathore KS, Bharkatiya Meenakshi, Mishra Amul
Bhupal Nobel’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.

*Roshankeshari220@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
 Microencapsulation is a process in which a very tiny droplet of particle such as solid, liquid or even gas can be entrapped, coated or surrounded with a polymeric particle. There are different technique to encapsulate the material by chemical method which includes coacervation method, polymeric-polymeric incompatibility, and physical method which include air suspension method, pan coating, spray drying, and centrifugal extrusion. The main important material used in microencapsulation is core material (which is specified material to be coated) and coating material (which is capable of forming film).since it is applicable in pharma industry, agriculture industry, food industry, construction industry. As it is better drug delivery system than conventional drug delivery system with minimum side effect and having targeted action.


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