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A REVIEW AND APPLICATION OF CRYOPROTECTANT: THE SCIENCE OF CRYONICS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Ankit J. Joshi
Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology,
S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Ganpat University, Ganpat vidyanagar, Kherva, Mehsana-Gozaria Highway, Gujarat.
Joshiankit2824@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The preservation of cells, tissues and organs by cryopreservation is promising technology now days and Low temperature technology has progressed in the field of tissue engineering, food preservation, fertility preservation, making disease resistant breeds since the early years to occupy a central role in this technology. Cryopreservation is important technology in every field like in organ cryopreservation, food cryopreservation, human cryopreservation, seeds cryopreservation, protein cryopreservation and pharmaceuticals. Cryobiologists will be required to collaborate with new physical and molecular sciences to meet this challenge. How cryoprotectants work is a mystery to most people. In fact, how they work was even a mystery to science until just a few decades ago. This article will explain in basic terms how cryoprotectants protect cells from damage caused by ice crystals, and with some of the advances.


GABAPENTIN: A NEW BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUG

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Firake Bhushan M.1, Pandagale Sagar J.2, Firke Sandip D.3, Palshikar Gautam S.4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Hadapsar, Pune
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Hadapsar, Pune
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SES’s R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur
4Department of Pharmacognosy, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Hadapsar, Pune
bmf.jscopr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Epilepsy is one of the most serious disorders of the brain, affecting about 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy leads to multiple interacting medical, psychological, economic and social consequences. Successful seizure control is very important in decreasing the psychosocial and economic costs of epilepsy. Yet, most therapies didn’t completely improve patients for numerous reasons. The most effective antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) include phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and primidone. Of the older AEDs, carbamazepine and valproic acid together bring a threat of hepatic toxicity and have been associated with fetal anomalies. Carbamazepine and phenytoin aggravate hypersensitivity reactions in a significant number of patients, and phenytoin is associated with chronic adverse events (AEs). Phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and primidone are hepatic enzyme inducers. Valproic acid, on the contrary, is a powerful hepatic inhibitor.

The newer agents have fewer drug interactions and slight, if at all, effect on the CYP450 enzyme system and other metabolic pathways. One of these new agents was gabapentin (GBP). GBP, the new antiepileptic drug (AED) has a broad spectrum of anti-seizure effects, less adverse effects and less drug interaction. GBP has since achieved international acknowledgment, not for its antiepileptic properties, but also its effectiveness in the managing of acute and chronic pain syndromes, especially neuropathic pain. It is prescribed as an add-on medication for the treatment of patients aged >12 years with partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures and for children aged 3 to 12 years with partial seizures. It has been used for monotherapy in adults in 38 countries. Gabapentin is regarded as safe and tolerable with a promising pharmacokinetic profile and an extensive therapeutic index.

The present article reviews the available information that dealing with the long-standing efficiency and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of patients with epilepsy.


DATA INTEGRITY NON-COMPLIANCES – THE GOOD, BAD AND UGLY

ABOUT AUTHORS
Krishnendu Singha
Manager – Quality Assurance
[The author is a Quality Assurance professional of a leading MNC]
Krish_singha2007@yahoo.co.in

DI issues – a cause or effect
“It is only the laboratory where such issues were noted, otherwise, we were good at everything”- heard almost after every USFDA inspection once a 483 or warning letter has been issued. It’s been always the laboratories accused of objectionable GMP findings specifically related to data integrity issues.

The question that remains unanswered is why would someone from one department of a big organization be so unethical, so unprofessional that they tend to cause such damages to their own organization who they receive salaries from? In fact, they had to work hard to earn this job! Neither are the lab professionals happy to have damaged organizational reputations. We perhaps may need to rethink whether we are blaming the corners for holding dust of a big room. It might turn out that we start realizing integrity issues are actually the consequence of an organizational deficiency and a reflection of an operational integrity; it has less to do with data and more to do with integrity. Data integrity non-compliance therefore is not the cause but a real effect.


STUDY OF EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ON PHARMACOKINETIC PROFILE OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED TYPE II DM RAT MODEL

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Swati R. Dhande, Aruhana R. Patil*, Lilasrao J. Kadam
Bharati Vidyapeeth's College of Pharmacy,
Belapur, Navi Mumbai
*arpatil1991@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic endocrine disorder. It is one of the most rapidly growing diseases worldwide. Various pharmacotherapies have been practiced in the cure and management of DM. The existing conventional therapies aims at reducing hyperglycemia and achieving better glycemic control over the time, but fail to combat the other risk factors associated with the disease. The newer approaches are targeting to combat the risk factors and reduce the progression of disease. The newer approaches includes regenerational therapies, use of herbal and natural supplements, use of antioxidants and use combinations of conventional therapies with above mentioned therapies. Though these combinations have been found to be promising in the management of DM, the risk of pharmacological interactions cannot be overlooked. The present study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin and a nutraceutical Z. officinale. STZ (Streptozotocin) and HFD (High Fat Diet) induced Type II DM rat model was used and the possible interaction was determined. The evaluation was done on validated HPTLC bioanalytical method. The present combination of sitagliptin and ginger did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile of sitagliptin.


REVIEW: TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Sezal1*, Vaibhav Walia2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences MDU Rohtak, Haryana
2Division Pharmacology, G.V.M. College of Pharmacy, Sonepat, Haryana
rk1891987@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by depressed mood, anhedonia, loss of energy and low self esteem. Nitric oxide (NO) is the smallest biologically active molecules which plays an important role in the intracellular signaling. NO negatively controls the levels of 5-HT. Inhibition of NO synthases (NOS) which are responsible for the production of NO; may exert antidepressants like action. Thus, NO is involved in the pathogenesis of depression and the agents which suppress the NO production exerts antidepressants like effect. Tinospora cordifolia commonly named as “Guduchi” belonging to family Menispermaceae; has been reported of its strong free radical scavenging properties against superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH), NO, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). Thus the aim of the present manuscript is to demonstrate the role of NO in depression and how Tinospora cordifolia exerts beneficial effects in the patients of depression.


QUALITY BY DESIGN

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Chaudhary Sonam*, Rathore KS
Bhupal Noble’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Sewashram road, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
*chaudharysonam1993@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A new approach to drug development could increase efficiencies, provide regulatory relief, flexibility, and offer important business benefits throughout the product’s life cycle. Quality by design is a systemic approach and essential part of the modern approach for quality and pharmaceutical development.

It includes defining target product quality profile, designing product, developing formulations, manufacturing processes, identifying critical quality attributes,  process parameters, sources of variability and controlling manufacturing processes to ensure consistent  product quality over time.

Pharmaceutical quality can be assured by understanding, controlling formulation and manufacturing variables using Quality by design. Product quality can be confirmed by product testing. Pharmaceutical industry have to  work hard to develop, manufacture, to bring  new drugs to market, to comply with regulatory requirements to ensure  that the drugs are safe and effective. Implementation of Quality by design leads to transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) into a science-based pharmaceutical quality assessment.


FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF DELAYED RELEASE ENTERIC COATED PARACETAMOL TABLETS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vivek P. Chavda*, Moinuddin M. Soniwala
Department of Pharmaceutics,
B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College, (Affiliated to Gujarat Technological University)
Rajkot – 360003, Gujarat (India)
*vivek7chavda@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluation of delayed release enteric coated paracetamol tablets. Successful delivery of drugs specifically to the intestine requires the protection of drug from being released in stomach. PCM core tablets were prepared with and without superdisintigrant using wet granulation method. Dip coating method is used for coating were different concentration of Eudragit L100 is used as coating agent. Preformulation studies like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio were performed. The FDT2 batch shows the highest drug release at end of total 135 min of 94.13 % which are the satisfactorily promising results. So, we can conclude that the FDT2 is the optimized batch among all three batches. From the reproducible results obtained from the executed experiments it can be concluded that Eudragit L 100 can be used as enteric coated polymer. These results reflect that PCM can be successfully enteric coated in order to prevent its release in the stomach and facilitate rapid release of the drug in the duodenum, due to the presence of superdisintegrant. Formulating these enteric coated tablets could increase patient compliance by decreasing adverse drug reactions (ADRS) associated with PCM therapy.


A RARE CASE REPORT ON TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
N. Surendra Reddy, S. Chandrakala, B. Nagendra Prasad, G. Divya, T. S. Durga Prasad, Diviti Ranganayakulu
Department of pharmacy practice,
Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy,
Tiruchanoor, Tirupati, india
*suriph7@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Tuberous sclerosis is a neurocutaneous syndrome with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Tuberous sclerosis has an approximate incidence of one in ten thousand to fifty thousand. Tuberous sclerosis complex Syndrome (TSCs) is a dominantly inherited disorder affecting multiple organs; caused by mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene encoding hamartin and tuber in respectively. It is characterized by the development of benign tumors affecting different body systems. The most common oral manifestations of TSC are fibromas (angiofibromas), gingival hyperplasia and enamel hypoplasia and the formation of hamartomas in multiple organ systems leading to morbidity and mortality. It is important to make an early diagnosis of TSC so that lifelong monitoring, early recognition of complications and proactive treatment can lower the morbidity and mortality rates. We report a case of 35 year old female in south India with the features of Tuberous sclerosis complex like seizures, weakness of the body, papules over the cheek, calcification noted in subependymal region in the brain and angiomyolipoma in both kidneys.


IMPURITY PROFILING AN EMERGING TREND IN PHARMACEUTICALS: A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Abhijit Chanda1, N.Ramalakshmi2, C.N Nalini2, S. Mahabubi1
1Department of Quality Assurance, Baxter (India) Pvt. Ltd
2Dept. of Pharmaceutical Analysis, C. L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy
Chennai-600097, Tamilnadu, India
chandaabhijit91@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Impurity profiling brings tremendous efforts in the group of analytical activities, the aim of which is the detection, identification/structure elucidation and quantitative determination of organic and inorganic impurities, as well as residual solvents in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. The control of impurities is currently a critical issue to the healthcare manufacturing. Various regulatory authorities like ICH, USFDA, UK-MHRA, CDSCO are emphasizing on the requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient’s (API’s) and as well as finished products. International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) formulated guidelines concerning the control and limit of impurities. To isolate and characterize impurities in pharmaceuticals diverse methods are used such as, capillary electrophoresis, gas–liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction methods, Ultraviolet Spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction chromatography, mass spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy etc. On the beginning of hyphenated techniques, the most browbeaten techniques for impurity profiling are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LCNMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS and fully automated Comprehensive Orthogonal Method Evaluation Technology (COMET). That is why it has plentiful claim in the field of drug design, monitoring quality, stability and as well as safety of the product.


FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLETS OF CEFIXIME

ABOUT AUTHORS:
B.Venkateswara Reddy
Department of Pharmaceutics,
St.Pauls College of Pharmacy, Turkayamjal (V),
Hayathnagar (M), R.R.Dist-501510, India.
basu.pharmacist@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Objective:
Cefixime is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic having bactericidal activity by inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is used in the treatment of uncomplicated UTI, pharyngitis and tonsillitis, acute bronchitis and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, uncomplicated gonorrhoea etc. The concept of formulating floating tablets containing Cefixime offers a suitable and practical approach in serving desired objective of retaining the drug in the stomach to increase the its bioavailability.
Methods:
The tablets were prepared by direct compression methodand total of 12 formulations are developedemploying HPMC K100M and HPMC K15M as polymers for sustaining the drug release and sodium bicarbonate as the gas generating agent.
Results:
Various polymers have been selected and subjected to IR-spectroscopic studies and found that there were no drug–excipient interactions. The powder blends of all the formulations have shown good flow properties. Other parameters such as hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, Floating lag time and in-vitro dissolution studies were performed and the results were satisfactory.
Conclusion:
Formulation F 12 was found to be best in all aspects and was considered as optimized formulation, it has a low floating lag time of  2mins  and has shown a maximum drug release of 99% at the end of 24 hours and drug release was by diffusion through the polymer matrix.