Articles

ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAF EXTRACTS

ABOUT AUTHORS
J A Sathwara
Department of Pharmacology, A.R.College of Pharmacy &
G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, V.V.Nagar, Dist-Anand ,Gujarat-388120.
jignasa.sathwara@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to investigate antiepileptic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii L. Spreng (AEMK) on electrically and chemically induced seizures. The aqueous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii (200 and 300 mg/kg) were studied for its antiepileptic effect on maximal electroshock induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice. AEMK (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES) as well as protected animals from pentylenetetrazole induced tonic seizures. The results suggest that the aqeous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii may produce its antiepileptic effects via non-specific mechanisms since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole.


SPECIFICATIONS FOR STARTING MATERIALS, INTERMEDIATES AND FINISHED PRODUCTS

ABOUT AUTHORS
Nirav R.Soni, M.Pharm
A-one Pharmacy college,Enasan
Dept.of Qualtiy Assurance (QA)
nirav_sonic@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The specifications are to assure that each unit has the value of drug claimed on the label, that all the drug in each unit is out there for whole use ,that the drug steady  within the formula in its certain final container for their expected shelf life and it’s having no toxic overseas substance. It’s greatly utilized in pharmaceutical enterprise and utilized by using wellness sector and support best which is finished via GMP, GLP and GCP and other organization including Pharmaceutical Quality System (PQS) , Quality Risk Management (QRM)  and Quality by Design (QbD).


A Review on chemistry and Pharmacological activity of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combine dosage form

ABOUT AUTHORS
Suleman S. khoja, Parthkumar H. Chauhan, Maulik N. Patel, Harsha D. Jani
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies and Research Centre, Anand, Gujarat.
premukhoja@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combination are active contain and approved by CDSCO The two substances belong to different groups of medicines. Cinnarizine  is a part of a group called calcium antagonists.  Dimenhydrinate belongs to a group called antihistamines Also used in Treatment of vertigo symptoms of various origins. exhibits  anti-emetic and antivertiginous  effects through  influencing the chemoreceptor trigger zone in  the  region of the  4th  ventricle.  Dimenhydrinate thus  acts  predominantly on the central vestibular system.  Due to  its calcium  antagonistic properties, cinnarizine acts  mainly  as a vestibular sedative  through inhibition  of  the calcium  influx  into  the vestibular  sensory cells. Cinnarizine thus acts predominantly on the peripheral vestibular system. Both  cinnarizine and  dimenhydrinate  are  known  to  be effective in  the treatment  of  vertigo.  The combination product is more effective than the individual compounds in the population studied.  The product has not been evaluated in motion sickness. Maximum plasma  concentrations  (Cmax)  of  cinnarizine  and diphenhydramine are reached in  humans  within  2  - 4 hours. metabolised  in  the liver. Cinnarizine is  mainly eliminated  via the  faeces (40-60%) and to a lower extent also in  urine, mainly in the form  of  metabolites conjugated  with  glucuronic acid.  The major route  of  elimination  of diphenhydramine is in  the urine


A COMPARATIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIURETIC DRUGS

ABOUT AUTHORS
Bharat Lal Naik, Chaitanya Prasad Meher
Department of Pharmacology
The Pharmaceutical College (TPC), Tingipali, Barpali, Odisha
chaitanyameher84@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Diuretic are the drugs that promote the output of urine excreted by kidney. The increased excretion of water & electrolytes by the kidney is dependent on 3 different process viz. glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption & tubular secretion. Diuretic are very effective in the treatment of cardiac oedema, specifically the one related  with congestive heart failure(C.H.F). They are extensively used in various type of disorders for ex. Cirrhosis of liver, Hypertension,Nephritic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, nutritional oedema, oedema of pregnancy & also to lower intraocular & cerebrospinal fluid pressure. The presented article is based on comprehensive idea about the pharmacology of various diuretic drugs.


A comparative evaluation of the quality & price of generic medicine with their branded counterparts

ABOUT AUTHORS
Bhupender Singh, Arun Nanda, Vikaas Budhwar, Rakesh K. Marwaha
Department of Pharmacy,
M. D. University, Rohatak
Haryana, India

* pharma.bsingh@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Generic drugs are as effective as their branded counterparts in terms of safety and efficacy. Although their exists several myths about quality of generic medicines because of its less price as compared to branded counterparts. The present study aims to evaluate and compare the quality of generic medicine with their branded counterparts as per Indian Pharmacopoeial standards and other validated methods on a commonly used type 2 diabetes drug (Metformin). The qualitative as well as quantitative studies were performed as per IP 2010. The official test performed includes uniformity of weight, disintegration, dissolution, assay and friability. Non official test includes hardness test and assay by HPLC using validated methods. The study revealed that branded as well as generic metformin tablets comply with the standards provided in IP 2010 and generic metformin was found to be 111.52% lesser in cost per tablet as compared to costliest branded version of metformin.


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES AND RHIZOMES

ABOUT AUTHORS
Seema*, Parminderjit Kaur
Department of Pharmacy,
Rayat Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India
*seemakumar2125@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a perennial herb, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. The rhizomes and leaves of turmeric were extracted separately with ethanol by Soxhlet extraction and the percentage yield of rhizomes and leaves of Turmeric was 12% and 17% yield respectively. The extract of turmeric rhizomes and leaves can increase the bile flow, offer protection of the gall bladder and also the leaf extract possess anticancer properties. The present study was focused on the isolation of curcuminoids by thin layer chromatography using chloroform: ethanol: glacial acetic acid in a ratio of 95: 5: 1. From TLC the better resolution of Rf value was observed in rhizomes at 0.8, 0.66, 0.51 as Curcumin, Demethoxycurcumin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin respectively whereas Rf value of leaves was 0.42 as Bisdemethoxycurcumin, when visualized under 366nm under bright yellow fluorescent. The phytochemical screening of leaf extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenols. The ash value of turmeric rhizomes and leaves was 3.33% and 6.67%, acid insoluble value was 1.3% and 2% and water insoluble value was 13.3% 1nd 16.67% respectively. The moisture content of rhizomes and leaves of turmeric in IR- Moisture balance was found to be 0.93 and 0.30 whereas in Tray Drier the moisture balance was 0.46 and 0.27 respectively while the melting point was observed as 160-1630C and 116-1200C respectively which resembles the report of literature (IP, 2007).


SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLELISM IN STRUCTURAL SKELETONIZATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS

ABOUT AUTHORS
Nisha Sharma1, Mohammad Arshad2, Asif Jafri2, Deepak Chowrasia*1
1Institute of Pharmacy, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University,
UP, Kanpur, India.
2Molecular endocrinology lab, Department of Zoology, Lucknow University, (U.P.), Kanpur, India.
*chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Spectroscopy based pharmaceuticals chemofingerprinting and standardization is an essential intent to portrait molecular structures as well, a cemented platform to harvest diversified physiochemical characteristics of therapeutic chemoentity. Compared to classical wet techniques, the spectroscopic-framed-chemical analysis meritoriously distinguished from former in terms of sensitivity, accuracy, precession, rapidness, detection limit, spectrum, versatility, result reliability, intuiting data, and automated operation. Quest for “ideal medicine” is still a misnomer, however, may comply if being assisted with well planned and excellently executed spectroscopy methodology. The present paper is design to explore various prospective of different spectroscopic technique and their role in chemical evaluation and standardization of pharmaceuticals.


QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITE AND INHIBITORY EFFECT OF AZIMA TETRACANTHA LEAVE EXTRACT AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS

ABOUT AUTHORS
SANDHIYA.V*1, KAVITHA.C2
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, C.L.Baid metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, C.L.Baid Metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
*sandhiyavaithi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The leaves of Azima tetracantha belongs to salvadoraceae family, commonly known as “mulluchangu” in tamil, it is a best known medicinal plant from ancient period. The plant has reported for many pharmacological action such as antifungal, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, anti ulcer, anti arthritic, hypolipidemia etc. The present study was investigated about the characteristics, quantitative estimation and antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave in different solvents extract (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water) successfully. In quantitative estimation the leaves of Azima tetracantha shows 48.4 % yield of carbohydrate in water extract, 21%  yield of phenol in ethanol extract and 24%  in ethyl acetate extract and 19% yield of tannin in ethanol extract. In antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave two standard drugs are used such as clotrimazole (10 mcg/m1 as standard-1) and ketaconazole (10 mcg/ml as standard -2). The antifungal activity was studied for all extracts in a concentration of 100 mcg/ml, 200 mcg/ml and 400mcg/ml against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Ethanol extract of a leave of Azima tetracantha in increasing concentration shows prominent activity against Candida albicans compared to other extract. The Hexane, Chloroform and Water extracts of a leave of Azima tetracantha shows moderate activity against Candida albicans compared to ethyl acetate extract. The Ethyl acetate extract shows slight activity against Candida albican scompare to other extracts. There was no activity was observed for various extracts of Azima tetacantha against Aspergillus niger.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORO DISINTIGRATING TABLETS OF RESPERIDONE BY USING SUBLIMATION AND SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE

ABOUT AUTHORS
V.T. Iswariya*, A.Hariomprakash Rao, K. Sri Jahnavi, A.Sravanthi, P. Deepa, K. Samatha
M.R.R. College of Pharmacy,
Nadergul, Andhra Pradesh, India
*iswariyapharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The technique of Solid dispersion and sublimation techniques are a promising method towards enhancing the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. The main objective of Resperidone mouth dissolving tablets is to enhance the solubility. Several formulations of solid dispersion and sublimating tablets were prepared by using different ratio of drug sublimating agent (Camphor) and carriers (PEG 4000, Polaxomer, Mannitol). The prepared Solid dispersion and sublimating tablets were evaluated for their flow properties such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The interaction between drug and excipients were studied by FTIR. In vitro dissolution profiles of the solid dispersion and sublimation formulations were studied and compared between sublimation and solid dispersion formulation. Among all formulations SD2 formulation was shown maximum drug release in less time.


CLEANING VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY - AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS
Sadanand Maurya*1, Devendra Goyal2, Chandan Verma1
1 Department of Quality Assurance in Macleods Pharmaceutical Limited
2 Department of Production in Macleods Pharmaceutical Limited
*sadanandmpharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical products shall demonstrate a control to reproduce consistently the desired quality of product, wherein the control of cross-contamination plays an important role. An effective cleaning shall be in place to provide documented evidence that the cleaning methods employed within a facility consistently controls potential carryover of product (including intermediates and impurities), cleaning agents and extraneous material into subsequent product to a level which is below predetermined levels. Pharmaceutical manufacturers must validate their cleaning process to ensure compliance with cGMP regulations. So it is necessary to validate the cleaning procedures to ensure safety, efficacy, quality of the subsequent batches of drug product and regulatory requirements in Pharmaceutical product manufacture. In this article cleaning validation and cleaning validation program discussed in brief.


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