Microbiology Articles

FORMULATION, EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL SOLID DOSAGE FORM AND STUDY OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
*Ramasamy M, Suresh Kumar S, Vishali M, Swetha M, Yuvarani S, Gopala sathees kumar K
KMCH college of Pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatti Road,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT 
Aim and objective: The primary aim of the study is to formulate, standardize and evaluate the polyherbal (Murraya koenigii, Zingiber officinale,n Syzygium cumini, Phyllanthus emblica, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica, Citrous limon) solid dosage form for systemic diseases. Methodology: The polyherbal solid, Dosage form was formulated by filling the polyherbal powder mixture into the hard gelatin capsules, standardized as per WHO guidelines of quality standardization. It was evaluated for antioxidant parameters (DPPH and ABTS assays) and Antimicrobial activity. Results: Pharmaceutical parameters i.e. weight variation; moisture analysis and drug content are within I.P limit. Dissolution studies reveal that the release of maximum drugs (91%) at 120 minutes. The DPPH assay and ABTS assay activity of the polyherbal extract is found to be close to the standard drugs. Antimicrobial activity of polyherbal extract showed zone of inhibition 34mm for E-coli and 12 mm for Aspergillus Niger. The polyherbal drugs are less effective against rest of the microorganisms.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SCHIFF BASE OF 2-AMINO 5-NITROTHIAZOLE AND ITS COPPER COMPLEX

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Garima shrivastava*, Dr.Manjul shrivastava, Gaurav shrivastava
Department of Chemistry,
Govt.M.H. College of Home Science,
Jabalpur, MP, India

ABSTRACT
In an attempt to find out a new class of antimicrobial agents new schiff base ligand of 2-amino 5-nitro thiazole and its copper complex were prepared. The Microwave assisted synthesis was carried out by condensation of 2-amino 5-nitro thiazole and substituted salicyldehyde. The newly synthesized schiff base ligand and its copper complex were tested against representatives of gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and gram- negative bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas putida) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger) by disc diffusion method.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN TEA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH DIFFERENT GREEN TEA EXTRACT

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Nabadoy Roy*, Suprodip Mandal, Beduin Mahanti, Sandipan Dasgupta*
Division of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy,
Bharat Technology, Uluberia, Howrah 711316,
*n.roy.santoshpur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:  The aim of this present study is to evaluate the activity of green tea extracted in different solvents on different microorganism such as on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Esteritia coli mutant NCIM 2567, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 &Lactobacillus lichmani ATCC 7830.
Method:  Zone of inhibition of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts were measured and compared by using cup plate method. 5µg, 10µg, 15µg & 20µg concentration of the extract were used. MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration)& MBC (Minimum bactericidal concentration ) were observed with the concentrations of 100µg, 75µg, 50µg & 25µg.

Result: Result of zone of inhibition shows that aquous extract at the concentration of 20µg/ml is most effective to inhibit Escherichia coli growth compare to standard.Also minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) & minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) result suggest that aquous extract is more effective than ethanolic and methanolic extract to inhibit the growth of both Escherichia coli &Escherichia coli mutant.
Conclusion: Significant antimicrobial activity has been shown by all extracts against Escherichia coli but other microorganism inhibition is not so significant compare to Escherichia coli. Methanolic and ethanolic extract has shown little antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms as compared to the aqueous extract.

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITE AND INHIBITORY EFFECT OF AZIMA TETRACANTHA LEAVE EXTRACT AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
SANDHIYA.V*1, KAVITHA.C2
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, C.L.Baid metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, C.L.Baid Metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
*sandhiyavaithi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The leaves of Azima tetracantha belongs to salvadoraceae family, commonly known as “mulluchangu” in tamil, it is a best known medicinal plant from ancient period. The plant has reported for many pharmacological action such as antifungal, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, anti ulcer, anti arthritic, hypolipidemia etc. The present study was investigated about the characteristics, quantitative estimation and antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave in different solvents extract (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water) successfully. In quantitative estimation the leaves of Azima tetracantha shows 48.4 % yield of carbohydrate in water extract, 21%  yield of phenol in ethanol extract and 24%  in ethyl acetate extract and 19% yield of tannin in ethanol extract. In antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave two standard drugs are used such as clotrimazole (10 mcg/m1 as standard-1) and ketaconazole (10 mcg/ml as standard -2). The antifungal activity was studied for all extracts in a concentration of 100 mcg/ml, 200 mcg/ml and 400mcg/ml against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Ethanol extract of a leave of Azima tetracantha in increasing concentration shows prominent activity against Candida albicans compared to other extract. The Hexane, Chloroform and Water extracts of a leave of Azima tetracantha shows moderate activity against Candida albicans compared to ethyl acetate extract. The Ethyl acetate extract shows slight activity against Candida albican scompare to other extracts. There was no activity was observed for various extracts of Azima tetacantha against Aspergillus niger.

ANTIBIOTIC POISONING AND FOOD POISONING THROUGH CHICKEN

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Suman Pattanayak
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women,
Enikepadu, Vijayawada, AP, India
suman6982@gmail.com

Chicken is one of the most popular foods. There can’t be many people who do not enjoy chicken curry, chicken pakoda, roast chicken, stew or barbecued chicken on a Sunday. This includes children as well as adults who both enjoy the taste and versatility of chicken. Since the 1940s, antibiotics have played a critical role in protecting the public’s health, and are responsible for saving millions of human lives. About 90% of antibiotics produced in the world are given to farm animals. The use of low doses of antibiotics by the modern food animal industry is responsible for drug-resistant bacteria emerging on farms which reach the general population through human or animal carriers, and through the food consumers eat. The chicken is one of the worst offenders when it comes to food poisoning. Many of us have either experienced this first hand or know someone who has suffered from this nasty illness.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PURIFICATION METHODS FOR PRODUCTION OF POLYPEPTIDE ANTIBIOTICS – “POLYMYXIN B” AND “CEREXIN A” FROM BACILLUS SPECIES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Pratyush Kumar Das1, Shilpa Das1, Debasish Sahoo2, Jikasmita Dalei2, V.Madhav Rao2, Sunakar Nayak2, Swadhin Palo3
1Centre of Biotechnology, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
2Nitza Biologicals (P.) Ltd.Chandra Towers, Near Fortune Honda Showroom, Neredmet 'X' Road, Secundrabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
3Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Berhampur, Odisha, India.
onlypratyush11@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Polymyxin B and Cerexin A are two polypeptide antibiotics, the first one discovered and incorporated quite earlier and the later one has still not been used in clinical trials for its high cytotoxic nature. Although Polymyxin was discovered very earlier but in the mid-way for some time it had lost its importance and was not used frequently due to its narrow spectra of action that only acts on gram negative microbes and because of its toxicity level. But with several new resistant gram negative microbes coming into the limelight responsible for causing many infections, Polymyxin B (the least toxic of all Polymyxins) has again been started to be used in pharmaceutical formulations and drugs. In this project, both Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus cereus responsible for production of Polymyxin B and Cerexin A respectively were isolated from the rhizosphere of grass and cultured in the lab. They were confirmed by biochemical tests and then used to produce the corresponding antibiotics by submerged fermentation. The crude antibiotic thus obtained were purified by various methods like adsorption through activated charcoal, acetone precipitation, dialysis, Ion Exchange and Sephadex column chromatography and the results were compared to find the best possible way to purify the antibiotics keeping in mind that they show the maximum activity as possible on a lab scale. Further work on Cerexin A was not possible due to the unavailability of its standard solution. Work was carried out for quantitative estimation of purified and crude Polymyxin B by performing spectrophotometric assay against standard polymyxin.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PADIGALINGA CHENDURAM AGAINST ENTERIC PATHOGENS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
V.C. Jiji Mol*, S.Vasanth, P. Shanmugapriya, R.Madhavan, S.Murugesan, V.Manjari, M. Murugesan
Department of  Nanjunool,
National institute of Siddha,
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
drjijivijay@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Siddha system of Medicine is a traditional system of Medicine with a pharmacopeia  base  of natural resources –herbs, minerals, metallic salts and animal products. Herbo -mineral compounds offer advantages over  plant drugs by  virtue of their long shelf life, lower dosage, easy storability, and sustained availability as it contain minerals and metals as integral part of the formulations. Siddha system emphasizes aetiology and management of various diseases affecting mankind. Kirahaninoi (chronic diarrhoea) caused by kirumi (microbes) is one among them. Padigalinga chenduram, a herbo-mineral Siddha medicine is mentioned in our Siddha literature is indicated for  Seetha bedhi(mucus diarrhoea), Raththa bedhi (dysentric diarrhoea), Kazhichal suram(fever accompanying diarrhoea) specifically. Kirahani is characterized by acute diarrhoea, gripping abdominal pain and uncomfortable desire to empty the bowel, accompanied by dehydration, weight loss and rise in temperature. In this study, Padigalinga  Chenduram was investigated for antibacterial potential against enteric pathogens like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi by Agar well diffusion method. The study implies  that the herbo mineral compound may be useful as an alternative in the treatment of enteric pathogens. Further research in my topic of interest will  be the detection of the compounds responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity.

METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS DETECTION BY PCR

About Author:
Mariz Sintaha
Lecturer,
School of Life Sciences
Independent University, Bangladesh
sintu.bmb@gmail.com

Introduction:
MRSA refers to strain of Staphylococcus aureus which is resistant to methicillin. MRSA infection causes Red bump (may be pus filled), warmth, pain, swollen and red and tender skin lesions and are resistant to various antibiotics used for treatment including cephalosporins and penicillins. Rapid and accurate detection of MRSA has great significance since is needed for proper treatment of staph diseases. It is difficult to detect MRSA in media using phenotypic methods such as disk diffusion, oxacillin agar screening test, agar dilution, MIC determination by broth dilutionsince expression of metcillin resistance is not uniform in all cells. The genotypic method is now taken as the gold standard to detect MSRA because of its accuracy.

TREATMENT OF XENOBIOTICS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY MIXED CULTURED MICROBES

About Authors:
Saptaparna Mukherjee
Emami Limited, Quality Control
West Bengal University of Technology
sapta.muk@gmail.com

Abstract
By polluted water (Industrial waste water) treatment we are trying to reduce the water pollution as well as the recycling of water may reduce the deficiency of water in dry places of earth. Xenobiotics are often synonyms of pollutants if this accumulates in the biots body and cause disease. Industrial waste water contents many pollutants like heavy metals, pesticides, toxic substances, which may affect the plant and animals of a particular geographic area and in taking by humans may cause severe diseases. Unlike to recent available filters our bio filter can remove the heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead), the pesticides and any toxic substances found in industrial waste water (tannery, battery, paper etc) by microbial metabolism (Packed bed of fugue and bacteria) and other simple filtration(charcoal treatment, reverse osmosis etc). Microbes are very helpful in absorbing or chelating or degrading the heavy metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium etc), pesticides, organic and radioactive substances. Like Aspergillus candidus (fugue), Rhodotorula rubra (yeast) and Thiobacillus ferooxidans, Serratia marinorubra (bacteria) can convert arsenic to asenite, which is less harmful than source. Similar microbes can find for other heavy metals and toxic substances.

SINGLE CELL PROTEIN AND BAKER’S YEAST

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Rajesh G. Dobariya
shree M.&N. Virani Science College,
Rajkot
drajesh47@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Single cell protein typically refers to source of mixed protein extracted from pure or mixed culture of algae, yeast, fungi or bacteria. The microbes which are used for single cell protein production must be non-pathogenic to plants, animals and man. Good nutritional value, easily and cheaply produced on scale, toxin free, fast growing, easily to separate from the medium and to dry. They have many silent feature. Biomass production is ordinarily carried out in continuous mode to maximize yields and economic scale. The raw material of this process is very cheap because we used molasses, whey, gas, oil etc. For a substrate. So SCP is waste to best. The molasses and various salts including ammonium and phosphate salt contain of the baker’s yeast. The yeast are used for the production of SCP. The baker’s yeast is useful to as and they create disadvantages also the SCP and baker’s yeast very useful for organism.


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