Microbiology Articles

PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Muhammad Mujahed
M.Sc Biotechnology
Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri , Nanded.
mujubiotech2011@rediffmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
A few decades ago, it was realized that certain proteins could be used as pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of human diseases. e.g. insulin for diabetes mellitus, interferon for viral diseases. However the availability of such therapeutic/ pharmaceutical products was limited due to costly and cumbersome procedures involved in their isolation. Further, their use in humans was associated with several complications. For instance, administration of pig insulin to diabetic patients results in the development of antibodies.

The advent of recombinant DNA technology heralded a new chapter for the production of a wide range of therapeutic agents in sufficient quantities for human use. The commercial exploitation of recombinant DNA  (rDNA) technology began in late 1970s by biotechnological companies to produce proteins.There are around 400 different proteins being produced  by rDNAtechnologyand as of now around 30 have been approved for human use.

DNA FINGERPRINTING FOR DIFFERENTIATING E.coli ISOLATES FROM VARIOUS SOURCES USING RAPD TECHNIQUE

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Rudra Sharan Dwivedi
Regenerative Medical Services Ltd.
Assistant Manager QC
rudsd1987@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Insightful and efficient methods for typing pathogenic microbes are significant for identification of specific strain, to trace the root of infection and to understand the evolution of virulence. A genetic characterization of six different isolates of Escherichia coli from sewage, clinical and contaminated soil samplesusing random amplified polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD)was carried out. Four primers of OPA series from operon technologies (OPA4, OPA5, and OPA6) were used to test out for polymorphism. Out of three primers tested OPA4 produced distinct bands in five strains with slight variation among isolates from different habitat. So we concluded that the RAPD could be used for discrimination of the E.coli isolates from different habitat.

MICROBIAL TREATMENT OF OFFSET PRINTING INDUSTRY EFFLUENT

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Archana G. Kulkarni, R.S. Awasthi
Dept. of Microbiology, Shivaji Mahavidyalaya,
Renapur (M.S.)
*agnk.77@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Out of 57 bacterial isolates only 3 bacterial isolates degraded azo dyes, observed in offset printing industry effluent. The strains were isolated from outlets of offset printing industry and then identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus indicus. All three strains were further used for the treatment of effluent by optimizing the environmental and nutritional conditions. The physiochemical analysis of treated and untreated effluent was carried out by using standard methods as well as metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscope and the analysis of degraded products by HPLC, LC MS. These bacteria appreciably mineralized the azo dyes viz. Scarlet red and Magenta, observed in the effluent. These bacteria thus could be used to device a simple but effective and viable microbial technology for treatment.

REVIEW ON SUPER BUG (NDM-1)

About Author:
Kambham Venkateswarlu
Final Year Graduate Student
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha College of Pharmacy,
Palluru, Chittoor-517132, Andhra Pradesh, India.
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The term superbug is a nonspecific word that is used to describe any microorganism that is resistant to at least one or more commonly used antibiotics. Some authors restrict its use to microorganisms resistant to two or more antibiotics.

The most common bacteria described as superbug are the following:
* MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to multiple antibiotics)
*  VRE (Enterococcus species resistant to vancomycin)
*  PRSP (Streptococcus pneumonia strains resistant to penicillin)
*  ESBLs (Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics such as cephalosporins and monobactams)

Emerging superbugs may be multiple drug resistant Clostridium difficile, VRSA (vancomycin resistant S.sureus) and NDM Escherichia coli (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase resistant E.coli).


EFFECT OF LYOPHILIZATION AND CRYOPRESERVATION ON PLANT LEAVES OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA TERMINALIA CATAPPA, TERMINALIA CHEBULA, JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA, JATROPHA CURCAS

About Authors:
1Hardik R. Patel*, 2Upanita C. Patel
1Industrial biotechnologist, 2Microbiologist
Anand, Gujarat, India.
*hardikigbt@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
Cryopreservation and lyophilization of plant germplasm has obvious advantages over in vitro storage in term of space saving and improved phytosanitation. We compared cryopreserved and lyophilized leaf as sources for genomic DNA isolation by CTAB protocol and PVP protocol.Our results showed that cryopreservation of leaf tissue yielded high molecular weight genomic DNA. The DNA was suitable for restriction-enzyme digestion and as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. While these results rule out cryopreserved  tissue as a source for DNA isolation, the ability to freeze-dry, powder, and efficiently store voluminous tissue samples for later use in DNA and protein isolation could be of great benefit to laboratories involved in  molecular genetics and molecular biology.

MICROBIAL ASSAY OF ANTIBIOTICS

About Authors:
Nilesh Sovasia*, Arshad Hala
Seth G.L.Bihani S.D.College Of Technical Education,
Institute Of Pharmaceutical Science & Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, India
*nilesh.sovasia@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The microbiological assay of an antibiotic is based upon a comparison of the inhibition of growth of micro-organisms by measured concentrations of the antibiotics under examination with that produced by known concentrations of a standard preparation of the antibiotic having a known activity.

Isolation And Molecular Characterization Of Xylanase Enzyme From Soil

About Author:
E.Ashwini
Microbiologist  In  Institute Of Health Systems, Hyderabad
M.Sc Microbiology From Osmania University.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of some cultural conditions on the xylanase enzyme production by two Isolated Species from the industrial soiland to investigate its potential to produce xylanase utilizing tomato pomace as a substrate. Xylanase activity was detected using the Dinitrosalicylic acid assay method.
The Alkalophilic bacteria isolated from the industrial soil, secreats extra cellular xylanases when grown in liquid media supplemented with eighter rice bran, grass, corn cob, or sugar baggage as a carbon sources (which were treated with 2N NaoH for removing the cellulose from these substrates). The two bacteria belonging to the species Sporo lactobacilli and Acrobacter respectively shows the high enzyme activity at high temperatures 50?C and 60?C and high enzyme activity was found at pH 8 and pH 9 for two organisms. The extra cellular enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 66 KD & 67KD for both the organism respectively, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme has two peptides and was conformed by Zymogram analysis. The species sporo lactobacilli show high enzyme activity of 4.7 U/ml and the species Acrobacter shows the enzyme activity of 7.46 U/ml.

Role of Major Histocompatibility Cells in Transplantation

About Authors:
G.Amrutha
Microbiologist  in  Department  Of Microbiology
Institute Of Health Systems (HIS),  Hyderabad.
Osmania University

Abstract
Transplantation is the process of  removal of  damaged tissue or organ and replacing with new well functioning tissue or organ of same or different individual. The groundwork for the new science of transplantation immunology was laid by Medawar and other British biologists in the 1940s. They showed that rejection of tissue transferred from one person or animal to another was invariable, except for grafts between identical twins or a few special cases (e.g. cornea). In the 1950s they further showed that this tissue rejection was a response of the immune system. Other scientists who worked for transplantation are  Karl Landsteiner, Dr. Eduard Zirm, Dr. Alexis Carrel, Peter Gorer, Little and Tyzzer, George Snell, Dr. Joseph Murray etc..,Different types of organs like heart,skin,kidney,liver,cornea etc.., can be transplanted. Antigens which cause strong immune response and are most important in rejection of organs and tissues are called MHC antigens which play main role in transplantation. There are mainly 4 types of grafts. They are Autograft,Isograft,Allograft and Xenograft. The rejection may be acute and chronic and the mechanism of graft rejection is of mainly 2 types. They are sensitization stage and effector stage. Finally, the graft survival can be done by mitotic inhibitors, immune suppressive therapy etc..,

Screening and Isolation of Protease Producing Bacteria from Kitchen Exhaust

About Author: Debashish Satpathy
Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Berhampur
Odisha

Protease is any enzyme that conducts proteolysis by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in the polypeptide chain. They are also called proteolytic enzymes or proteinases.

Classification Proteases are currently classified into six groups:
Serine proteases
Threonine proteases
Cysteine proteases
Aspartic acid proteases
Metalloproteases
Glutamic acid proteases

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