Pharmacognosy Articles

ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF SEED EXTRACTS OF Gynocardia Odorata ROXB. IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

About Author:
Urmila Moyal
NIMS Institute of Pharmacy, NIMS University,
Shobha Nagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan)
urmilamoyal@gmail.com

Abstract:
The study was designed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of ethanolic and aqueous seed extracts of Gynocardia Odorata roxb.in streptozotocin induced diabetes in 2 days old pups models. The seeds were collected, authenticated and shade dried. Shade dried seeds were then grinded into coarse powder and processed for further studies. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared and the phytochemical screening was performed. Ethanolic and aqueous both extracts were evaluated for the antidiabetic activity by using the streptozotocin induced diabetes in 2 days old pups model. After 3 months of streptozotocin administration pups become diabetic then different treatment were given to animals. After 3 weeks treatment estimation of biological parameters like serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride were performed and body weight, water intake and food intake were also recorded. Histopathological study was performed to study the structure of islets of pancreas in different group of animals. After 3 weeks treatment of ethanolic and aqueous extracts, when the biological parameters i.e. serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride were estimated and compared with diabetic untreated group there was a significant decrease were observed. Treatment also reversed the loss of body weight and increased demand of food intake and water intake when compared with diabetic untreated group. From the above study we concluded that both ethanolic and aqueous, seed extracts of Gynocardia Odorata roxb.have antidiabetic activity, but the aqueous extract of Gynocardia Odorata roxb.showed more significance then ethanolic extract.

EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF FRESH SOYA-BEAN OIL AVAILABLE IN BANGLADESH

ABOUT AUTHORS:
MR. Zubair Khalid labu*1, Md. Abdul Bake2, Razia Sultana3
1,3
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh,
2
Department of Pharmacy, Gono University, Savar, Dhaka 1344, Bangladesh.
* zubairlabu@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Hydrogenated soya-bean oil is the product obtained by refining, bleaching, hydrogenation and deodorisation of oil obtained from seeds ofGlycine soja Sieb. and Zucc. andGlycine max (L.) Merr. (G. hispida (Moench) Maxim.). Soya-bean oilis a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is plant based and less harmful saturated fats and offers nutrition and health related benefits.  The main objective of this work has been done for the evaluation and analyzing the quality of soya-bean oil available in local market. For the examination of soyabean oil six fresh samples of different sources were collected randomly from the market. British pharmacopoeia (BP) specifications were used for the determination of acid, peroxide and iodine value. The results were compared with the standard specified by Bangladesh standard and testing institute (BSTI). After three months study we observed that physical examination of all the samples were complies with the specification and chemical examination such as, In case of peroxide value, all the samples were found to comply with the specification and only two (S-5 and S-6) of them have comparatively higher value but remain within the limit. But In case of iodine value, five samples were within the limit, and only one sample (S-6) was out of specification. After over third month analysis we observed that all the sample value were higher than from first month study. The consumers which have to take this spurious product must be careful to take this because it may be harmful if adulterated.

MODERN METHODS OF VOLATILE OIL EXTRACTION: A REVIEW

About Authors:
*Kambham Venkateswarlu, Billu Guruprasad
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha College of Pharmacy,
Palluru, Chittoor-517132, Andhra Pradesh, India.
*k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compoundsfrom plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the "oil of" the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove.

Extractions use two immiscible phases to separate a solute from one phase into the other. The distribution of a solute between two phases is an equilibrium condition described by partition theory. Boiling tea leaves in water extracts the tannins, theobromine, and caffeine (the good stuff) out of the leaves and into the water. More typical lab extractions are of organic compounds out of an aqueous phase and into an organic phase.

A REVIEW ON BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FICUS SPECIES

About Author:
T.Siva kala*, D.Swarnalatha, M.Sreenivasulu, C.Gopinath.
Annamacharya College Of Pharmacy,
Rajampet, Kadapa.
*tallam.sivakala@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
Numerous plants synthesize substances that are useful in the maintenance of health in humans and animals with a view that to increase the wide range of medicinal usages, the present day entails new drugs with more potent and desired activity with less or no side effects. The genus ficus constitutes one of the largest genera of medicinal plants. There are about 511 ficus trees existing in Asia, Malaysia, Pacific island and Australia,132 species occur in central and south America and 112 of ficus occur in Africa ,South of Sahara and Madagascar.(1)The wordficolin,which appears similar toFicusand refers to a lectin like compound combining the first parts of the words for fibrinogenand collagen.

AN OVERVIEW OF MIRACULOUS VEGETABLE DRUG - DIOSCOREA (YAM)

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Prashanta kr. Deb1, Tejendra Bhakta2*,
1Dept. of Pharmacy, Tripura University; Suryamaninagar –799 022, Agartala, Tripura (w).
2Regional Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Abhoynagar – 799005, Agartala, Tripura (w).

shaandeb2010@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Dioscorea is a slender twining annual herbs distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical region of the world. Dioscorea is a fascinating plant with many uses in the history of the development of modern pharmacy. The number of species is quite overwhelming (over 600) and the Ethno-botanical uses are most interesting. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae. They are tuberous herbaceous perennial climber, growing to 2–12 m or more tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, mostly broad heart-shaped. The flowers are individually inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, with six petals; they are mostly dioecious, with separate male and female plants, though a few species are monoecious, with male and female flowers on the same plant. The fruit is a capsule in most species, a soft berry in a few species. Several species, known as yams, are important agricultural crops in tropical regions, grown for their large tubers. Some species produces large cylindrical tubers penetrating deep into the ground, while other varieties produce small or large tubers close to the soil surface. Sometimes 1-2 tubers are produce at the base of the plant while in the other cases cluster of tubers are observed. Many of these are toxic when fresh, but can be detoxified and eaten, and are particularly important in parts of Africa, and Asia.

EVALUATION OF ANTIDOTE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF MUSA SAPIENTUM LINN. ON RATS

About Authors:
Vishnu Dev 1*, Rajiv saxena 2
1 Truba Institute of pharmacy, Bhopal.
2 Assoc. Professor, Truba Institute of pharmacy, Bhopal
*vishnudev2007@rediffmail.com

Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate the anti-dote activity of the methanolic and aqueous extract of musa sapientum. The extract was evaluated by physical and serum biochemical parameters as TC and TG. Anti-dote activity of both extract was determined by acute and chronic codeine poisoning,
Acute opioid intoxication and overdose are common causes of presentation to emergency departments. Although naloxone, a pure opioid antagonist, has been available for many years, there is still confusion over the appropriate dose and route of administration. This article looks at the reasons for this uncertainty and undertakes a literature review from which a treatment algorithm is presented.
The anti-dote activity of musa sapientum leaves against codeine induced acute and chronic poisoning was studied in Wistar albino rats. The various fractions of the leaf extract were administered orally (200 mg/kg) simultaneously with codeine (32m g/kg) for 5-10 days. At the end of the experiment, levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol content were measured. Administration of codeine produced a CNS depressant activity and causes poisioning. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared to normal control. physical observation indicated that simultaneous administration of the fractions delayed the onset of toxicity. All the fractions prevented the poisoning damage caused codeine overdose. The leaves of musa sapientum protected the CNS against codeine damage which may be due to its antagonist activity of codeine.

STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL DRUGS/PRODUCTS: BOON TO INDIAN PHARMA MARKET

About Author:
Swati Manik
Department of Pharmacognosy,
I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab
swatimanik@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT:-
There is a great demand of the herbal drugs from both the developing as well as developed nations because of their efficacy, safety and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic molecules. These drugs also offer therapeutics for age-related disorders like memory loss, osteoporosis, immune disorders, etc. for which no modern medicine is available. It shows the promisingcontribution of herbal drugs in both economy and health concern, thus, it is ground enough to invest on their development.As the effectiveness and acceptability of the herbal products greatly depends upon its quality. The lack of standardization is the key factor due to that India despite of its rich traditional knowledge, heritage of herbal medicines and large biodiversity has a dismal share of the export to the world market. Therefore, the quality assurance of herbal drug/products is the need of an hour. Hence, standardization has become an essential component of the herbal drug/products that ensures the benefits of the herbal drugs.
Thus, by standardization of herbal drugs/products the Indian herbal market and even the export of herbal medicines will increase, making “India the Pharma Power House”.

STUDY OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTIA & CALOTROPIS PROCERA IN FLOWER EXTRACT

About Authors:
*1Krishna Das Gupta, 2Dileep Bharti
1M.Pharm(P'cology), NRI Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences(NIPS), Bhopal
2Asst professor, NIPS, Bhopal(MP)
*krishna.gupta384@gmail.com

1.INTRODUCTION
Inflammation is defined as the local response of living mammalian to injury due to agent. It is a body reaction in order to eliminate or limit the spread of injurious agent as well as to remove the consequent necroses cells and tissues.
Inflammation is protective and defensive mechanism of the body. During inflammatory conditions various pathological changes are take place. The production of active inflammatory mediators is triggered by microbial products or by host proteins such as proteins of the complement, kinins and coagulation systems that are themselves are activated by microbes and damaged tissues.

The inflammatory process is closely intertwined with the process of repair. Both of these processes proceed simultaneously; however the repair activities of either tissue regeneration or scarring predominate after the injurious agent has been eliminated. The inflammatory process may be destructive to tissues when activated repeatedly or in appropriately such as in autoimmune diseases in which native antigens are recognized as foreign by the individual’s immune system.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL CREAM

About Authors:
*1Bhuwanchandra Joshi, 2Mr.Nardev Singh
1
Division of Pharmaceutical Science, SGRRITS
2Assitant Professor
Division of Pharmaceutical Science
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute Of Technology And Sciences,
Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
*bhuwan.joshi000@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
The cosmetics are the utility product used extensively throughout the world for maintaining and improving general appearance of face and other part of body e.g. skin, eye, hair, hand, etc. herbal cosmetics are the preparation which represent cosmetics associated with active bio-ingredients, neutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
Cosmetics are products that are used to cleanse and beautify the skin. The first recorded use of cosmetics is attributed to Egyptians in 4000 B.C. Pharmaceuticals are essentially drug products and are defined as products that prevent, mitigate, treat or cure disease and affect the structure or function of the body.

HEALING ANXIETY WITH HERBS

About Author:
Bhatt Mehul K,
Asst.professor, PhD continue
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies & Research Centre,
Valasan-388 326, Anand-380 015, Gujarat, India.
mkb_0999@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:
Now-a-days many people of the world are suffering from anxiety, stress and depression. They experience feelings of anxiety before an important event such as exam, business deal or first date. Anxiety disorders however are illness that fills peoples lives with unreal & imaginary fear that are chronic, unremitting and can grow progressively worse. By now, most of us know that anxiety is quite a common complaint and many people have tried some of the various medications used for anxiety. But many don’t know that there are a variety of herbs available used to treat anxiety in natural way. This article includes, “What is Anxiety?” Herbs used to cure Anxiety, depression, and Stress”, and “Natural Self-Healing”.

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