A REVIEW ARTICLE ON ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TAGETES ERECTA

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About Author:
Bandana patel
Shri Ram Institute Of Technology
Jabalpur(M.P.) 482002
Vandanapatel.mbbs@gmail.com

Abstract:
Tagetes erectus
leaf  were evaluated against various gram +ve and gram–ve bacteria and fungi, ethanol extracts exhibited very satisfactory inhibitory activity. Further studies involving the isolation, characterization and purification of the chemical compounds of the plant and screening for antibacterial and antifungal may result in the development of a potent entity which will be of lower toxicity and a high therapeutic value to the mankind.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1592

INTRODUCTION
Tagetes erecta, the Mexican marigold, also called Aztec marigold, is a species of the genus Tagetes native to Mexico and Central America. Despite its being native to the Americas, it is often called African marigold. In Mexico, this plant is found in the wild in the states of San Luis Potosí, Chiapas, State of México, Puebla, Sinaloa, Tlaxcala, and Veracruz. This plant reaches heights of between 50–100 cm (20–39 in). The Aztecs gathered the wild plant as well as cultivating it for medicinal, ceremonial and decorative purposes. It is widely cultivated commercially with many cultivars in use as ornamental plants.


Physico chemical parameters:
The parameter was done to evaluate the percentage of total ash, water soluble acid insoluble ash were calculated as per Indian Pharmacopoeia. The extract of the powdered leaves were prepared with the different solvents for the study of extractive value. Fluorescence analysis was also carried out for the powder as well as different extracts.

Powder analysis: Preliminary analysis of the powder of leaf of Tagetes erectus were carried out with different chemical reagents.

Preliminary phytochemical analysis: For the Preliminary phytochemical analysis, the extract was prepared by weighing 100gm of dried powdered leaf and were subjected to maceration with different solvants as per the Polarity, Ethanol, Hydro-alcoholic, and finally with Aqueous. The extracts were filtered in each step, concentrated, and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporator. The extracts were dried over desiccators and the residues were weighed. The presence and absence of the primary and secondary phytoconstituents was detected by usual prescribed methods.

Plant material: The leaves of Tagetes erectus were collected from the wild sources of Shirpur forest, and it was identified and authenticated by Dr. Sagar Kshirsagar, Dept. of Botany, SSVPS, College of science, Dhulia. A voucher specimen is placed in the Dept. of Pharmacognosy for further reference. The collected plants were washed, dried and were pulverized with the help of mechanical grinder and was passed through sieve no 40, and stored in closed vessels for future use. The fresh leaves were used for Microscopy Identification.

Pharmacognostic Studies: Morphological Studies were carried out by using simple determination technique, the shape, size, color, odour, margin and apex. Apex of the leaf . Microscopic Studies were carried out by preparing of thin hand section of leaf. The sections were cleared with alcohol and stained as per the Protocol. Histochemical reaction were applied with Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid and Phloroglucinol and were mounted in Glycerin for identification of Lignified Elements, Iodine Solution for Identification of Starch Grains, 60% Sulphuric Acid for Calcium Oxalate Crystals in the powdered leaf by reported methods .

Macroscopic Characters of Leaf:
The transverse section of the leaf showed following characters. The leaf is generally dorsiventral in nature and it consisted of two major regions namely the Lamina region and Midrib. The lamina region consisting of upper and lower epidermis, spongy mesophyll region, which consisting of palisade cells and few crystals of calcium oxalate. The midrib region consisted byxylem and phloem. At the lower portion collenchyma cells which were completely arranged, above that loosely packed parenchyma cells were observed.

Powder Microcopy: The green colored powder was used for the study. The powder was stained with phloroglucinol and concentrated hydrochloric acid. It was mounted in glycerin and examined under 10 X and then magnified with 40 X. On microscopical examination it showed prism shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Trichomes were unicellular and uniseriate covring, vessels were spiral in nature, starch grains were spherical in nature, and fibres were long, slender and non-lignified in nature.

Fluorescence Analysis: The powder drug and extracts were subjected to fluorescence analysis as per the standard procedure.

Physicochemical Parameters: The powdered drug was evaluated for its physic-chemical parameters like Ash values: Acid Insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water insoluble ash, extractive values (Alcohol and water soluble values) and loss on drying.

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis: The Alcoholic and Aqueous extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis for their presence of the constituents. It showed the presence of Flavonoids, tannins, phenols and glycosides
Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, which are widely distributed through out the plant kingdom. To date about 3000 varieties of flovonoids are known1. Many have low toxicity in mammals and some of them are widely used in medicine for maintenance of capillary integrity2. Flavonoids exhibit several biological effects such as antiinflammatory, anti

hepatotoxic and anti-ulcer actions3,4. They also inhibit enzymes such as aldose reductase and xanthine oxidase. They are potent antioxidants and have free radical scavenging abilities. Many have antiallergic, antiviral actions and some of them provide protection against cardiovascular mortality. They have been shown to inhibit the growth of various cancer cell lines in vitro, and reduce tumour development in experimental animals. In this review we have attempted to describe the present status of their classification, pharmacological/biochemical effects and their therapeutic potential.

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