A REVIEW ON MUSSAENDA SPECIES

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About Authors:
Bharathi.V*, SwarnaLatha.D, M.Sreenivasulu

Annamcharya college of pharmacy, newboyana pally, rajampet(M),
kadapa(dt). Andhara Pradesh, India.
*bharu.v.net@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants have played an essential role in the development of human culture. Many of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants, for example aspirin. The present study was concentrated on past work reported on the some mussaenda species and study of different activities and phyto constitutions reported on mussaenda species. The genus Mussaenda (rubiaceae) is an important source of medicinal natural products, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides and only a few number of species reported positive for alkaloids and tannins. Many Mussaenda species were reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory in different models, analgesic, antimicrobial, diuretic, antiphlogistic and antipyretic, acute gastroenteritis and dysentery, anti- fertility activity, antiviral property , antibacterial effect rarely for hepato protective activity and wound healing activity.


Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1613

INTRODUCTION OF MUSSAENDA SPECIES:
Mussaendas
are increasingly popular for the showy color they provide during much of the year in South Florida landscapes(14). The mussaendas are a group of highly ornamental shrubs suited to tropical and subtropical climates with a bright future, both as landscape plants and as potted floral decorations(14). Some species of Mussaenda have been used in Chinese and Fijian traditional medicine.

They're members of the large Rubiaceae family, which also contains Gardenia, Ixora, Pentas and Coffea (coffee).

The most distinctive feature of Mussaenda (and some other genera of the Rubiaceae) is that the floral display is primarily derived from the calyx, with some individual flowers within an inflorescence carrying an enlarged petaloid sepal. Some cultivars have all five sepals enlarged. These are called calycophylls or sometimes semaphylls (that is, a structure which signals a pollinator). In many publications, these are erroneously referred to as bracts.

There are Mussaenda species native to Africa, Madagascar, Asia and the Pacific. Commonly cultivated species include Mussaendaphilippica, M. erythrophylla, M. frondosa and Pseudomussaendaflava (also referred to as Mussaendaflava, M. glabra, M. luteola, M. lutea or M. incana in various publications).

University of the Philippines Los Baños has been active over many decades in breeding these ornamentals and is responsible for the popular cultivars 'Queen Sirikit', 'Doña Aurora' and 'Doña Luz'. Many more cultivars have been developed in the Philippines, although not widely available in Australia.

Many are named after First Ladies and other notable women of the Philippines, hence the Spanish form of address "Dona" in some cultivar names. 'Queen Skirit' was named after the Queen of Thailand to commemorate a visit to the Philippines.

The major attractionsof mussaendas in the landscape is their extended flowering period. They will loosen their leaves and go dormant through the cooler and drier winter, but put on a spectacular display throughout the warm, wet months. If conditions are suitable, they can flower year-round. They have poor drought and cold tolerance.


External characters:
Herbaceous but woody in the lower portion, erect, cylindrical, branched, differentiating in the nodes and internodes, internodes are hairly, ramal, cauline, simple, opposite decussant, petiolate, interpetiolate stipules are present, ovate, margin entire, apex acute, unicostatereculate venation, dichasialcyame. Bracteates, pedicellate, complete hermaphrodite, action morphine but mature and older flowers are zygomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous & yellow in color. Sepals five, poly sepalous one sepal is slightly larger than the remaining four. All sepals are same shape and color persistant, valvate aestivation rose color. Petal five gamopetalous, corolla tube elongated funnel shaped, valvate aestivation, yellow in color, coronary structures are present in the  form of silky hairs. Stamens five polyandrous, epipetalous, dithecous, basifixed, introrse. Bicarpellary, syncarpous, inferior binocular, may ovules, axilepalcentation, style long with two stigmatic lobes.

In addition to their role in the garden, mussaendas have potential as potted floral gifts. Research in the Phillpines investigating appropriate treatment including growth regulators and selection of suitable hybrids is aimed at developing this market. Given that Mussaendas can bloom year-round in suitable climates, there is presumably no daylength requirement. This gives them a particular advantage over Poinsettia as a floral Christmas decoration in parts of the world where flowering must be artificially induced.

As research and hybridisation work progresses, cultivars with new colours, growth habits, climatic tolerances and amenability to propagation could mean that we'll be seeing more of these these flamboyant shrubs in our lives in the future.

Phytochemical constituents reported from Mussaendaspecies:
The phytochemistry of Mussaenda species has been studied extensively since 1990s. Iridoids, flavonoids and triterpenes are the common chemical ingredients distributed in Mussaenda species. The most recognized compounds in Mussaendas are the iridoids and triterpenesaponins. Iridoid glycosides, Mussaenoside and shanzhiside methyl esterhave been reported from Mussaendaparviflora and Mussaendashikokiana. (18)

The leaves of M. arcuatayield Astragalin,isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-O-beta-Drutinoside and the two phenylpropanoid derivatives as melilotoside and dihydromelilotoside(09) Mussaendosides M and N are the saponins from M.pubescens(07). Mussaein A, Mussaein B and MussaeinC (12) are the monoterpenes from M.pubesens.

Mussaendapubescensis reported to contain several triterpenes and triterpenoidsaponins namely mussaendosides U, V, M, O, P and Q(13). M.macrophylla afforded Mussaendoside W 7(08). A new compound Sanzhilactonealong with mussaenoside, barlerin, lupeol and beta-D-glucose has been obtained from the stem of M. incana(01) . Quercetin, rutin, hyperin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, beta sitosterol, saponin occurs in M.raiatensi(15)

Aureusidin(29)iridoid glycosides(18) two novel triterpenoidsaponins, named mussaendosides U(1) & V(2) (28)mussaendosides A- C ; M & N with cyclolanostene type aglucone(26,27) mussaendosides G(1) & K(2) two new triterpenoidsaponin(12) and three monoterpenes  from M.pubescenswere reported .

Pharmacology

MussaendapubescensAit.f It has been used in Chinese folk medicine as a diuretic, antiphlogistic and antipyretic.
·         It is also used to detoxify mushroom poisons and terminate early pregnancy(02,03).

M. macrophylla Triterpene glycosides from the stem barhas been shown to be active against oral pathogens (08).

M. frondosa has been found to possess antibacterial effect (05).

Mussaendaphillipica The sepals of cultivars are active (19).
·         Sanshiside methyl ester posssess antiviral property (10).
·         Non glycosidiciridoids like Mussaein are cytotoxic (06).

Mussaendapubescens exhibited anti-RSV activity with 50% inhibition. (16).

Mussaendaerythrophylla Diuretic, antiphlogistic, antipyretic and effective in laryngopharyngitis, acute gastroenteritis and dysentery(02) and also anti- fertility activity.

Some species of Mussaendahave been used in Chinese and Fijian traditional medicine.

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