Pharmapedia

CHALLENGING ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN HEALTH CARE THE FUTURE PROSPECTS

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MODERN PHARMACIST:
One who is able to provide the patient oriented services as in developed countries is called as a modern pharmacist. Such services start from obtaining patients medication history to the feedback from the same after discharge. The componential characteristics that a modern hospital pharmacist must possess include:
1. Professional knowledge
2. Computer / IT acquaintance & skill
3. Counseling and communication skills

SMOKING-HAZARDOUS TO OUR HEALTH: ‘AN OVERVIEW’

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About Authors:
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacy,
Tirupati College of Polytechnic & Pharmacy,
Sardulgarh Road, Ratia, Dist. Fatehabad (Haryana), Pin-125051
lab_85@rediffmail.com

Abstract:
The word of smoking, drinking smoke is very famous all over the globe. The practice of Dhumrapana is commonin human beings from the last two thousand year’s to induce consciousness. Soon, the recreational use of tobacco became a part of the elite culture throughout the world and shows remarkable value in large scale productivity (multibillion dollar business)[1]. Botanically, tobacco is achieved from the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum Linn (var.macrophyll, N. chinensis Fisch), commercially cultivated on small scale tolarge extent in China, United States and India. The tobacco contains pyridine-piperidine type of alkaloids, among which the most prominent is nicotine. Nicotine, well known as natural botanical insecticide weighs 0.6-3.0% of dried leaves which is synthesized in roots and accumulated in the leaves. Smoking was practiced by early priests to diagnose, heal the bizarrepersons and to fend off evil spirits. As time passes, smoking tobacco becomes more than just a ritualistic comportment. However, the pattern has now been endorsed to the growing numbers of ailments, birth defects, and deaths. Worldwide, approximate 4.9 million and alone in United State (US), smoking is the reason for 434,000 deaths per year [2] and every day14,000 peoples diebecause of smoking-related diseases. Today, medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading sources of lung cancer, heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), and erectile dysfunctionand can also lead to teratogenic effect. Moreover, active smokers are not the only ones in severe danger but people lives around them, bystander’s or passive smoker affected much more accumulating the health-related effect brought about by the emitted dangerous chemicals (smoke) from a cigar or cigarettes. In fact, 33 percent of the nonsmoker population in the US is exposed with environmental cocktail of tobacco smoke [3].

NEXT LIPITOR® WILL ALSO BE FROM METABOLIC THERAPY

Introduction
At least one article is seen in newspaper on obesity on daily basis; no other disease is searched (and articles are read on) as frequently as obesity. Such is the menace of obesity that even fast food giant McDonald's has put an advice in few of its offices “not to eat too much fast-food”. Obesity is defined as BMI (body mass index) 30kg\m2 or more. A person with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 are considered over weight but not obese. BMI is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in humans. It is also defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg\m2). As per world health organization (WHO), BMI greater than or equal to 25 is overweight and BMI greater than or equal to 30 is obese. Obesity is a foremost health problem not only in developed nations but also in developing countries. It increases the risk of other diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular ailments, fatty liver and some forms of cancer1. Obesity is now so common in various geographies that it is beginning to replace conditions arising from malnutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant contributor to ill health. Obesity is measured using BMI and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors2. BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat3. The global epidemic of obesity results from an amalgamation of such factors as genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high-energy foods and diminished need of physical activity in prevailing situation in modern society. Obesity is no more a cosmetic issue affecting certain individuals, but a pandemic threatening global well being because it exacerbates a large number of health-related problems, both independently and in association with other ailments4,5.

JAN AUSHADHI STORE: A NEW APPROACH IN PROVIDING LOW COST DRUGS TO THE PUBLIC

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About Authors:
Rohit Gujarati, T.M.Pramod Kumar, Parasiya Sachin R.
Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs Group, Dept. of Pharmaceutics,
JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, S.S Nagar, Mysore-570015, Karnataka, India
rohitgujrati@gmail.com

Abstract
India has one of the best developed pharmaceutical industries, and produces about 20 per cent of the world’s drugs. Currently many top Indian companies are exporting generic drugs worth Rs 45,000 crore every year to many countries including the US and Europe. But ironically, drugs are beyond the reach of people in India itself, especially the poor, because their prices are very high. It is not that the cost of R&D and manufacturing is high, but that the profit margins are exorbitant and in many cases exploitative, which can be explained by reasons like, lack of proper regulation on price control (except for few DPCO drugs), prescription made by the doctors, lack of awareness in public about the generic drugs.

Government of India is taking certain steps in providing cost effective drugs to the public without compromising with the quality of the medicines. Recently Union government and regulatory bodies appear to be serious in ending the pharma-doctor nexus and curb unethical marketing practices. In its latest effort, the Medical Council of India (MCI) has directed doctors, hospitals and medical colleges to prescribe generic medicines as far as possible. This has not benefited much to the public. This Paper give a brief scenario about the various measures taken by the Govt. of India to scale down the rates of high cost medicines, among which, the concept of “jan aushadhi”, which talks about various measures taken by the Govt. of India on increasing the availability of the generic drugs throughout the country, has been highlighted.

A PORTRAYAL OF A DRUG

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About Authors:
Ashish Chauhan*1, Pradeep Arora2, Nisha Thakur3
1,2Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Sector-23, Raj Nagar, Ghaziabad, NCR-201002 (India).
3Abhilashi Institute of Life Sciences, Ner Chock, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
*ashishchauhan.info@gmail.com

Abstract:
The review encompasses the comprehensive portfolio of a drug. It includes the characterization of drug by US-FDA, on the basis of quality, nature, pharmacology and botany.

ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK: SHOCKING ERROR OF IMMUNE SYSTEM!

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About Author:
Arvind Negi
Centre for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001
arvindnegi2301@gmail.com

Abstract
Activation of immune response is developed in respect to some xenobiotic sensitization, which is supposed to prevent and protect the body from sufferings induced by these xenobiotic. But unfortunately sometime body behaves in a paradoxical manner which misguides the immune system and ultimately turned into a bizarre situation of immune function. One of such response is anaphylactic shock, which is quite fatal if untreated. This review brings insights into the molecular physiology of anaphylactic shock and how some people elicit allergic response to certain substances but not the other. This major catastrophe of the body holds an error of immune system whereas this commentary based review disclosed the synchronization of the unfortunate lessons of the immune system, which makes it a cruel to cause DEATH!

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Rakesh Gupta, Hemant Kumar Sharma, Manvendra Jaiswal, Rajeev Sharma, Narendra Nyola, Dr. Rajesh Yadav
Alwar Pharmacy College, M.I.A. Alwar,
Rajasthan, India 301001
rakeshapcpharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Experimental design is a planned interference in the natural order of events by the researcher. A selected condition or a change (treatment) is introduced. Observations or measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any change in conditions. Complex designs, usually involving a number of "control groups," offer more information than a simple group design. It involves the Experimental Design and Data Analysis. The various type of experimental design, e.g. Statistical(Randomized Blocks, Latin Square, Factorial Design), Quasi Experimental (Time Series, Multiple Time Series), True Experimental(Pretest-Posttest Control Group, Post-test: Only Control Group, Solomon Four-Group), Pre-experimental (Static Group, One Group Pretest-Posttest, Experimental One-Shot Case Study).Process Models for DOE is common to begin with a process model of the `black box' type (Quadratic model & Linear model).Full factorial designs in two levels, Full factorial designs not recommended for 5 or more factors. Replication provides information on variability, Factor settings in standard order with replication, No randomization and no center points; Randomization provides protection against extraneous factors affecting the results. Contour plot Display 3-d surface on 2-d plot Vertical axis, Horizontal axis, Lines CCD designs start with a factorial or fractional factorial design (with centre points) and add "star" points to estimate curvature; A CCD design with k factors has 2k star points, 3 types of CCD designs, which depend on where the star points are placed Circumscribed (CCC), Inscribed (CCI), Face Cantered (CCF); the value of α is chosen to maintain rotatability.

EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE TO PERSONALIZED MEDICINE – A PROSPECTIVE

About Author:
Pritish Dash
Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology (IBAB)
Bangalore, India
pr4evr@gmail.com

Abstract:
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the process of systematically reviewing, appraising and using clinical research findings to aid the delivery of optimum clinical care to patients. It is a method of healthcare decision-making that intends to combine the most reliable scientific information with individual expertise and patient preferences in order to offer the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic option for the patient. On the other hand, pharmacogenomics is a whole genome application that examines the single gene interactions with drugs. In recent years, the term personalized medicine has been introduced to represent an approach considering differences among individual patients. In modern medicine, the most important sources of evidence are clinical trials using epidemiological methods, and molecular biological and genetic methods characterizing individual patients.
This paper tries to review the rapid transformation of modern medicine from the ‘evidence-based medicine’ to ‘personalized and genomic medicine’.

BE AWARE OF ROHYPNOL: A SHORT COMMUNICATION

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Tahseen Sameena*1, S.P.Sethy, Prathima Patil, G.Naresh, Md.Owais Ashraf, Radhika
Department Of Pharmaceutics.
Sushrut Institute of Pharmacy
Taddanpally (V), Pulkal (M), Medak-502293
tahseensameena1992@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Scientific research on drug abuse indicates this as being a rising trend among the youth around the globe. An investigation into the experimentation with drugs among the youth showed a rate of increase of 8%. The study also revealed an 85.9% increase in alcohol use and 35.2% increase in tobacco use.  Furthermore, the study also suggests an increase in the rate of ecstasy and alcohol usage coupled with drugs and opiates such as heroin.  This article will thus endeavour to form a network of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) whose purpose will be the development and implementation of a joint action plan to prevent substance abuse in around the world, in order to promote active engagement of civil society in this field.

PRENATAL NUTRITION; NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS BEFORE, DURING & AFTER PREGNANCY

About Authors:
*Govind shukla1, Ms.Shivani prashar2, Ms. M.sarika3, Dr. Sunil Yadav4
1M.Pharm(Ph.D), Product Manager
2Sr. Product Executive, Shrey Nutraceuticals Pvt. Ltd. NewDelhi
3Product Analyst, Lactonova India Hyderabad
4Medical officer-in–charge, BPHC Bamore JHANSI  U.P.
*govindbbd@gmail.com

Abstract
Nutrition  before and during pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life. Prenatal nutrition addresses nutrient recommendations before and during pregnancy. Birth weight of the newborn at delivery reflects the sufficiency and the quality of maternal nutrient for the fetus during pregnancy. Prenatal nutrition has a strong influence on birth weight and further development of the infant.The present paper reviews the role of  prenatal nutrition in pregnancy.

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