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Sun Protection Cosmetics

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Sun Protection Cosmetics

Vinay Kumar SinghAbout Author
Vinay Kumar Singh.  
Head-Formulation
Kumar Organic Products Research Centre Pvt. Ltd.,
Bengaluru

While protective clothing such as hats, pants, and long sleeve shirts are the most effective blocks against these damaging rays, sun-screen products  provide remarkable protection for the skin.

Sunscreen, also known as suncream, sunblock or suntan lotion, is a lotion, Cream, spray, gel, foam, stick or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn. The image of a healthy person today does not necessarily include a deep, dark tan. Research has linked exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays to skin cancer, premature wrinkles, and other skin problems like dull & lifeless skin.
Early civilizations used a variety of plant products to help protect the skin from sun damage. For example, ancient Greeks used olive oil for this purpose, and ancient Egyptians used extracts of rice, jasmine, and lupine plants whose products are still used in skin care today. Zinc oxide paste has also been popular for skin protection for thousands of years.

Early synthetic sunscreens were first used in 1928, and the first major commercial product was brought to market in 1936, introduced by the founder of L'Oreal.


Exposure to sunlight is beneficial as well as harmful to our body. It depends on the length and the frequency of exposure, the intensity of the sunlight and the sensitivity of the individual. The very common effect of the exposure to sunlight include Erythema of the skin and formation of Tan. The development of Tan is a protective reaction of human body to minimize any damaging effect of solar irradiation.

There are three types of tanning.
i) Immediate tanning :- This is stimulated by rays between 300 nm and 660 nm and it is maximum between 340 nm and 360 nm. It starts after about one hour of exposure and begins to fade after 2 to 3 hours.
ii) Delayed Tanning :- This starts after one hour of exposure and reaches a peak after about 10 hours and fades after 100 to 200 hours. It involves the oxidation of melanin granules present in the basal cell layer of the epidermis and their migration towards the surface of the skin.
iii) True Tanning :- This starts about two days after exposure and reaches a maximum about two to three weeks later.


BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SUNLIGHT : Moderate exposure of the human body to sunlight results, psychologically and physiologically, in a general sense of fitness, peace of mind & well-being. It stimulates blood circulation, increases the formation of hemoglobin and may promote a reduction in blood pressure. It activates vitamin D and hence prevents rickets. It reduces the susceptibility of individuals to various infections.

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SUNLIGHT :
The adverse effects due to sunlight may be short term and long term effects.
Sun-burn : It is short-term effect which is a temporary damage of the epidermis. These may range in severity from a slight erythema to painful burns and blistering.
Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to intense sunlight which is commonly experienced by sailors, farmers and construction workers. This may lead to more serious hazards like photo ageing, pigmentation, skin cancer etc.

photo ageing, pigmentation, skin cancer

12,818 new cases of Malignant Melanoma were recorded in the UK in 2010. 84.5% of cases were directly attributed to exposure to sunlight, of which 52% were male.
SOLAR RADIATION : It consists of a continuous spectrum of wavelengths which ranges from Infrared through the visible light to the ultra violet region. The IR rays consist of wavelengths longer than 770 nm, visible light comprises of wavelengths between 400 nm to 770 nm and UV range is between 290 nm to 400 nm.

The UV  range is subdivided into three bands :
i) The UV-A range which has long wave uv radiation ranging from 320 nm to 400 nm with a broad peak at 340 nm. This is responsible for the direct tanning of the skin without a preliminary inflammation, possibly due to photo-oxidation of the leuco form of Melanin already present in the upper layer of the skin. But it is weak in producing erythema.
ii) The UV-B range comprising wavelengths between 290 nm and 320 nm. It is also known as the sun burn radiation or middle UV radiation having a peak of effectiveness at about 297.6 nm. This is the erythemogenic range of UV responsible for producing sun burn and irritation reactions leading to formation of melanin and development of tan.
iii) The UV-C range which is also referred as the germicidal radiation or short UV radiation consists of wavelengths ranging from 200 nm to 290 nm. It is damaging to tissue but it is largely filtered from sunlight by ozone in the atmosphere.

The A, B and C bands of UV light emit different amounts of energy and produce an erythemal reaction at different time intervals after exposure.

The purpose of Sunscreen Products is to prevent or minimize the harmful effects of solar radiation or to assist in tanning the skin without any harmful effects.

Suncare Products available in market are in different form & formats like Cream, Lotion, Spray Sunscreen, Baby & Kids Sunscreen, Sunless Tanning, Sports Sunscreen, Sunblock, Sweat free Sun block, Sweat & water resistant Sunblock, Oil free Sunscreen, Sunscreen souffl’e, Matte look Sun screen, Hydrophobic Sun block, Sunscreen stick etc.  
New product range is created especially for Summer. There are products for After Sun exposure like Soothing After Sun gel.

Now a days, these products are marketed with herbal/natural actives. Many products have ingredients like Comfrey plant extract for anti-irritation properties, Sandalwood, Pineapple extract, Aloe Vera juice, Seaweed extracts, Grape seed extract etc. Some plants have natural defenses against the damaging rays of the sun. For example the single-cell alga called Dunaliella Bardawil that thrives in the Dead Sea and the Sinai desert makes its own sunscreen. Scientists at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, isolated the protein that this plant produces when sunlight gets too intense. The protein acts as a solar deflector by funnelling the light. Search for many such harmless natural sunscreen is going on to satisfy the growing need & demand of Consumer.
Depending on the mode of action, sunscreens can be classified into physical sunscreens (i.e., those that reflect the sunlight) or chemical sunscreens (i.e., those that absorb the UV light).
In 2016, the global sunscreen ingredients market reached 44,000 tonnes with volumes forecast a CAGR of 4% over 2016-2021.

Following sunscreens are used in formulating A Sunscreen Product.
para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) and its derivatives, Avobenzone, Anthranilates, Salicylates, Cinnamic acid derivatives, Dihydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives, Trihydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives, Hydrocarbons, Dibenzalacetone and
benzalacetophenone, Naphthosulphonates, Octocrylene,Dihydroxy-naphthoic acid and its salts, ortho & para hydroxy biphenyl disulphonates, Coumarin derivatives, Quinine salts, Quinoline derivatives, Uric acid and violuric acid, Tannic acid and derivatives, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide etc.

The world is constantly changing and sun protection is no longer limited to traditional sun care products. Consumers are increasingly aware of the effects of UV radiation on skin health and appearance all year around and this is driving demand for sunscreen ingredients worldwide.

Sunscreens are becoming essential ingredients in a wide range of products, from traditional sun protection and daily skin care to hair care, colour cosmetics and bath and shower products. As a result, there are an increasing number of new products and claims reaching the market.
We at Kumar Organic Products offer following Sunscreen actives like Koptrizon, Kopcotrizinol and Kopsorb-M.

KOPTRIZON : ETHYL HEXYL TRIAZONE
It is a new generation, chemical sunscreen that gives the highest photo-stable absorption of all available UVB filters today. It is Very effective UV-B filter (range = 320-290nm) with a peak protection at 314nm, having excellent compatibility with other UV filter. It is oil soluble, has very low skin penetration activity and preserves the skin’s immune system. A small concentration (1-3%) makes a high contribution to SPF. Small concentration is sufficient to absorb UV rays. Koptrizon has high absorptivity over 1,500 at 314 nm and it also protects against free radicals. The polar nature of Koptrizon gives good affinity to the keratin in the skin, and is completely insoluble in water, so that it can be used in formulations that are particularly water resistant. It is very stable in light, having ability to filter UV rays even when exposed to intense radiation. It can be used up to 5%.

KOPCOTRIZINOL: Diethylhexyl butamido triazone
A chemical sunscreen agent that's very oil soluble and requires relatively low concentrations to achieve high SPF values (it gives an SPF 12.5 at the max allowed concentration of 10%). It protects in the UVB and UVA II range (but not in UVA I) with a peak protection at 310 nm. It's particularly suitable for water-repellent and water-resistant formulations. It is super photostable. It looses 10% of its SPF protection abilities only in 25 hours when 2 hours counts already as "photostable" in the world of chemical sunscreens.

KOPSORB:  (BISOCTRISOLE)
Kopsorb is the first UV filter using micro fine organic particle technology. It offers Broadest UV protection due to microfine particles. Kopsorb combines the best of both worlds, organic and inorganic: Organic Like High UV-absorption like soluble organic filters, Inorganic like Insolubility increased path length by scattering. It is a highly efficient sunscreen due to its triple action: UV absorption by a photo-stable organic molecule, light scattering and light reflection by its microfine structure.

It is a broad-spectrum ultraviolet radiation absorber, absorbing UVB as well as UVA rays particularly UVA I. It also reflects and scatters UV. It is a hybrid UV absorber, an organic UV filter produced in microfine organic particles (< 200 nm), like microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. Where other organic UV absorbers need to be dissolved in either the oil or water phase, it dissolves poorly in both and is applied as invisible particle. It shows very little photodegradation and has a stabilizing effect on other UV absorbers, octyl methoxycinnamate in particular and has synergistic effect with oil soluble UV filters. It is the only white-colored UV filter.
When formulated into a sunscreen, it has minimal skin penetration and it shows no estrogenic effects in vitro. It is approved in the EU and other parts of the world with maximum authorized concentration of 10% in cosmetics.

Women consumers, especially in urban areas, became well aware of the benefits of using sun protection. Sun care will largely be driven by launch of new sun care products and sun care products are increasingly accepted by consumers.
The global sunscreen cream market size amounted to about 8.5 billion U.S. dollars in 2019, and was forecast to reach over 10.7 billion U.S dollars by 2024.

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