Navjeet Singh*, Mrinal and Rubal Thakur
Dreamz College of Pharmacy, Khilra, Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants and derived medicine are widely used in traditional culture all over the world and they are becoming increasingly popular in modern society as natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals. Tagetes erecta Linn Known as “genda phool” (Marigold) belong to the family Astraceae, native to Mexico, Central America, Bolivia and Colombia. All parts of this plant used for medicinal purposes. It contained wide range of chemical constituents thiophenes, flavanoids, cartenoids, triterpenoids, oxycaroteniod and xanthophylls. This review article focus on the pharmacological actions like antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, hepatoprotective activity, wound healing property, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. This review is a step to open insight for therapeutic efficacy of Tagetes erecta.


Md. Nazmul Islam Prottoy1*, Md. Asad Ullah1, Bishajit Sarkar1, Sohana Hossain1, Aisha Siddiqua Boby1, Yusha Araf2
1Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which affects the people of almost all ethnic groups around the world severely. The effect of this disease involves lifelong suffering and has no permanent cure till now. Although different medications are available in the market but they are not accessible to every person due to their high cost, requirement of frequent administration and inability to alleviate diabetes permanently.  Plant derived compounds are being commonly used by many people, specifically by those in rural areas of many countries as ayurvedic source of antidiabetic agents and these are more preferable to everyone due to their less toxicity and side effects. These compounds work by variety of mechanisms which involve different interactions between effective compounds and target proteins in the metabolic pathway. Molecular docking study helps in determining the interaction between specific ligands and receptors to specify the best lead that fits the target.  This study has been designed to investigate the interactions with the aid of computational simulation tool between medicinal plant derived antidiabetic agents (Aegeline, Gallic Acid, Mangiferin and Quercetin) and a glucose metabolism regulatory target enzyme involved in type II diabetes, Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta (GSK3B) to assist potential antidiabetic drug search from natural source.

ADME/T test assists in determining various physicochemical and pharmacological properties of lead molecules like their extent of adsorption inside the cell, extent of metabolism, solubility, blood brain barrier permeability, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity   etc. which are the major prerequisites before marketing a drug. Quercetin performed well in overall experiment suggesting the best finding of the experiment.

However, further in vitro/in vivo study is required to find out the best remedy of diabetes.


Mohammad Sarowar Uddin*, Md. Arafat Jakir, Md. Shalahuddin Millat, Shafayet Ahmed Siddiqui
Nokhali Science and Technology University
Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh

Atorvastatin calcium is a poorly water soluble compound marketed in Bangladesh under bio-waiver conditions. The present study aimed to develop formulation and drug excipients compatibility study of Atorvastatin calcium (50 mg) sustain release tablet and optimize the final formula. The tablet were formulated by direct compression method and the results obtained were extrapolated. Solid dispersion of Atorvastatin calcium was prepared by using Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Methyl cellulose, Lactose, Guar gum, Xanthan gum & Magnesium Stearate. The in vitro equivalence test was carried out in three different media. Test results were subjected to statistical analysis to compare the dissolution profiles. Other general quality parameters of these tablets such as weight variation, friability, thickness, hardness and disintegration time were also determined according to established protocols. Final formulation of solid dispersed Atorvastatin calcium revealed that successfully improvement of solubility as well as dissolution of Atorvastatin calcium in long time. This study could be very much helpful for better bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug avoiding first pass metabolism. Finally, we can claim that prepared tablets are proved to be promising dosage form for sustained drug delivery of Atorvastatin calcium by reducing dosing frequency and increasing the patient compliance.


Pomila*; Anjali Sidhu
Department of chemistry,
Punjab Agriculture University,
Ludhiana, Punjab, India

The current review frameworks different approaches of synthesis and various biological activities of allyl sulfides. The food-based natural products (allyl sulfides) are major organo-sulfur constituent of garlic had been studied extensively due to their moderate toxicity accompanied by number of biological applications such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial, antibiotic, antimutagenic and detoxification etc. The broad-spectrum application of allyl sulfides inspires us to do advance research on it.

Hypertension and Pregnancy : an important issue

Misba Khan1, Mudasir Maqbool 2*
1Mader-E-Meharban Institute of Nursing Sciences and Research, SKIMS, Soura ,Jammu and Kashmir, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar-190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the common medical disorders in pregnancy. It has effects both on expectant mother and foetus. The impact due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity is very high in India and other developing countries. The incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension in India is about 7-10% of all antenatal admission. Severe forms of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy like eclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy complicate 1 in 10 pregnancies, often associated with maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Pregnancy induced hypertension is one of the common medical disorders of pregnancy. It complicates 6 to 8% of pregnancies and is the third common cause for maternal mortality and morbidity next to haemorrhage and infections. 18% of maternal deaths are due to pregnancy related hypertension complications. It affects both mother and foetus. Hypertension during pregnancy predisposes to complications like eclampsia, abruptio placentae, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pulmonary oedema, blindness, cerebrovascular haemorrhages, HELLP syndrome, foetus growth restriction and foetal demise. Controlling hypertension in pregnancy prevents complications both in mother and foetus. There are various theories for the aetiology of pregnancy induced hypertension. The common pathophysiological changes seen are imbalance between vasoconstrictor thromboxane and vasodilator prostacyclin resulting in generalised vasospasm. This leads to endothelial damage resulting in release of vasoactive substances. This causes decreased intravascular volume and increased extravascular volume. The effects of this are placental insufficiency resulting in complications. Controlling hypertension in pregnancy using antihypertensive drugs brings down these complications. In this review, we will briefly discuss about Pregnancy induced Hypertension, its pathophysiology, diagnosis and its management.


Sadanand Dhananjay Khair
College Government College of pharmacy Karad, Maharashtra, India

Non communicable diseases are those diseases which are mostly chronic and rarely acute this are not contagious in nature they are not transfer from one person to another. Referred to as a "lifecycle" sickness, in light of the fact that most of these maladies are preventable ailments, the most widely recognized reasons for non-communicable disease  (NCD) incorporate tobacco use (smoking), liquor misuse, less than stellar eating routines (high utilization of sugar, salt, immersed fats, and trans unsaturated fats) and physical inertia. In India as well as world level although there is food of vehicles, motorbikes, gadgets like mobile phones, cameras ,smart phones computer related materials still at level of human being may he or she be poor or rich educated or non-educated  having a good job or jobless or unmarried or divorced man suffering from disease which are difficult to treat because of pollution at every level at every level of soil, water ,food, agricultural products, air pollution human being are facing no of respiratory disease like C.O.P.D.,emphysema asthma etc. Non communicable disease are those type of disease which do not spread from person to person. They either present since birth or developed during growing stages. Common reasons for this type of disease are infection with various agents, pollution, changing life style, using chemical things rather than herbal things, using high amount of drug of abuse


Abdul Kader Mohiuddin, Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh

Skin is the barrier that segregates the body from the outer environment. Besides protecting the body from water loss and microorganism infection, it has an important cosmetic role. Young and beautiful appearance may have a positive influence on people’s social behavior and reproductive status. Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen is said to have indulged in daily donkey-milk baths, a practice which apparently required over 700 donkeys to accomplish. The alpha hydroxy acids in the milk is believed to be anti-aging and skin-softening agents. Tang-dynasty ruler and sole female emperor of China, Wu Zetian, maintained a lifelong interest in skincare formulas. She mixed her “fairy powder” (made of carefully harvested and prepared Chinese motherwort) with cold water in order to wash her face each morning. The empress was a famed beauty well into her old age. The most hair-raising entrant in this list, 16th century Hungarian countess Elizabeth Báthory is infamous for being one of the world’s first documented female serial killers. Most of her life is shrouded in mystery and legend—the most famous story being that she would regularly bathe in the blood of her female victims. Mary, Queen of Scots, the ill-fated and attractive adversary of Elizabeth I, spent her sixteenth-century happier days on her estate in Edinburgh, Scotland, where her beauty regimen was said to include white-wine baths. In addition to wine’s antiseptic alcohol content, it was also was thought to improve complexion in general. Crème Céleste, a favorite product of empress Elisabeth (Sisi) of Austria, was a concoction of spermaceti (a wax found in the head of sperm whales), sweet almond oil, and rosewater. She would apply this daily and at night, she was known to coat her face in raw veal and crushed strawberries, kept in place with a custom-made leather mask. The skin folds are indicative of an aged personality, but not youthfulness. So, everyone wants to look younger for whole of the life, which lead to the discovery of many surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities to improve the youthfulness. Since the introduction of Botox in 2002 after FDA approval more aesthetic procedures using Botox were performed by aestheticisms involving plastic surgeons and dermatologists. However, many scientists are now starting to view physical aging as a disease process. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in aging reveal an intricate series of signals, markers, and pathways, all of which are programmed to monitor and control the lifespan of a cell as it ages. By studying these molecular events and pathways, the field of anti-aging will be furthered by the use of more and more cosmetics.

As the most voluminous organ of the body that is exposed to the outer environment, the skin suffers from both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors. Skin aging is characterized by features such as wrinkling, loss of elasticity, laxity, and rough-textured appearance. This aging process is accompanied with phenotypic changes in cutaneous cells as well as structural and functional changes in extracellular matrix components such as collagens and elastin. With intrinsic aging, structural changes occur in the skin as a natural consequence of the biological changes over time and produce a certain number of histological, physiological, and biochemical modifications. Intrinsic aging is determined genetically (influence of gender and ethnic group), variable in function of skin site, and also influenced by hormonal changes. Visually it is characterized by fine wrinkles. By comparison, “photoaging” is the term used to describe the changes occurring in the skin, resulting from repetitive exposure to sunlight. The histological, physiological, and biochemical changes in the different layers of the skin are much more drastic. From a mechanical point of view, human skin appears as a layered composite containing the stiff thin cover layer presented by the stratum corneum, below which are the more compliant layers of viable epidermis and dermis and further below the much more compliant adjacent layer of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Upon exposure to a strain, such a multi-layer system demonstrates structural instabilities in its stiffer layers, which in its simplest form is the wrinkling. These instabilities appear hierarchically when the mechanical strain in the skin exceeds some critical values. Their appearance is mainly dependent on the mismatch in mechanical properties between adjacent skin layers or between the skin and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, on the adhesive strength and thickness ratios between the layers, on their bending and tensile stiffness as well as on the value of the stress existing in single layers. Gradual reduction of elastic fibers in aging significantly reduces the skin’s ability to bend, prompting an up to 4-fold reduction of its stability against wrinkling, thereby explaining the role of these fibers in skin aging. Anti-aging medicine is practiced by physicians, scientists, and researchers dedicated to the belief that the process of physical aging in humans can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed through existing medical and scientific interventions. This specialty of medicine is based on the very early detection and prevention of age-related diseases. Physicians practicing anti-aging medicine seek to enhance the quality of life as well as its length, limiting the period of illness and disability toward the end of one’s life. Anti-aging medicine encompasses lifestyle changes (diet and exercise); hormone replacement therapies, as needed, determined by a physician through blood testing (DHEA, melatonin, thyroid, human growth hormone, estrogen, testosterone); antioxidants and vitamin supplements; and testing protocols that can measure not only hormone levels and blood chemistry but every metabolic factor right down to the cellular level.


Abdul Kader Mohiuddin
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh

The most frequent causes of death in the United States and globally are chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, lung diseases, and diabetes. Behavioral factors, particularly tobacco use, diet and activity patterns, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, and avoidable injuries are among the most prominent contributors to mortality. Projections of the global burden of disease for the next two decades include increases in noncommunicable diseases, high rates of tobacco-related deaths, and a dramatic rise in deaths from HIV/AIDS. Worldwide, the major causes of death by 2030 are expected to be HIV/AIDS, depressive disorders, and heart disease. At the same time, in many parts of the world, infectious diseases continue to pose grim threats, especially for the very young, the old, and those with compromised immune systems. Malaria, diarrheal diseases, and other infectious diseases, in addition to AIDS, are major health threats to the poorest people around the world. And, like chronic diseases, their trajectory may be influenced by the application of effective health behavior interventions. Substantial suffering, premature mortality, and medical costs can be avoided by positive changes in behavior at multiple levels. Most recently, there has been a renewed focus on public health infrastructure to plan for emergencies, including both human-made and natural disasters. During the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in public, private, and professional interest in preventing disability and death through changes in lifestyle and participation in screening programs. Much of this interest in disease prevention and early detection has been stimulated by the epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases as leading causes of death, the aging of the population, rapidly escalating health care costs, and data linking individual behaviors to increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection of behavior pattern, health seeking behavior and monitoring status in both developed and under-privileged countries. The pharmacists have a vital role to play which is discussed along with comparison.

Findings: Developed or under developed country, patients have a separate behavior pattern which develops and worsen with disease progression mostly. So many factors are behind but one thing clearly understood that the handling of such situation is a provider’s function, a challenge they have to face along with treatment intervention.

Research Limitations: Very few articles found in matters regarding along with a very less interest paid by general people to talk about healthcare matters. It was very difficult to bring out facts of irrational patient behavior, giving it a substantial figure to discuss in this article. However, the major limitation is the article could be a comparison of behaviors of developed and under-privileged countries which requires an enormous exposure and financial support. However, the sole focus was to detail mysterious patient behavior and a greater part is covered.

Practical Implication: The soul of this article was to detail about patient behavior, both in Bangladesh and developed countries. Along with students, researchers and professionals of different background and disciplines, eg. Pharmacists, marketers, doctors, nurses, hospital authorities, public representatives, policy makers and regulatory authorities have to acquire much from this article.

Social Implication: Patient behavior is the Sole of healing system and a scope for pharmacists and other healthcare providers to work with in both developed or under developed countries. The article should contribute an integrated guideline for patient compliance, demand rational behavior and last but not the least a silvery lining to better pharmacists’ dealings with them in near future



Khushbu Patel1, Divya chauhan1, Rabiya Sodha1, Kinjal Vadhwani1, Kapil Daxini2
Department of pharmacy
1Parul Institute of Pharmacy, Waghodiya, Limda, Vadodara, Gujarat
2Sigma Institute of Pharmacy, Bakrol, Vadodara, Gujarat

Proteins and peptides are mostly desirable in many diseased states. Most widely employed method of administration for therapeutic proteins and peptides is Parenteral route. Requirement of repeated injections is because of short in vivo half-life response in poor patient compliance. Non-invasive drug delivery routes such as nasal, transdermal, oral, and pulmonary offer several benefits over parenteral administration. Low permeability and intrinsic physicochemical properties across biological membrane limits protein delivery via adjective routes. Delivering through nanostructured delivery carriers is one of the method to improve protein and peptide absorption. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have illustrated significant benefits over other delivery systems. This article summarizes the application of polymeric NPs for protein and peptide drug delivery following nasal, oral, ocular, pulmonary, transdermal, and parenteral administrations. The aim of review is to highlight and explore technological developments in the field of soft matter nanocarriers for the delivery of proteins and peptides via the eye, the nose, the skin, and the lungs and to provide insights in advantages, practicability and limitations of recent advances.



Dr Rinku mathappan, Sukriti Vishwas
Gautham College of Pharmacy, Bangalore – 560032


Glimepiride is an anti-diabetic drug with shorter half-life of 5 hrs. Glimepiride penetration into skin is difficulty. To study effects the penetration of glimepiride using different surfactants using dibutylpthalate.

Glimepiride transdermal Patches are prepared by using solvent casting method.  Eudragit E -100, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 60 are used as a penetration enhancers. Dibutylpthalate acts as a plasticizer for the penetration enhancement.

The present study was to formulate and evaluate transdermal drug delivery system of Glimepiride. Results were evaluated for Thickness, Tensile strength, Folding endurance, and Drug content and In vitro penetration study was performed by using Franz diffusion cell. The drug content in transdermal patch F-1 shows 98,F-2 shows 93, F-3 shows 92.the drug permeation through matrix membrane shows good release with Eudragit E-100 copolymer and surfactant SLS. In comparison with three surfactants SLS gives good release for glimepiride with Eudragit E-100 matrix membrane.

From the results glimepiride with SLS anionic surfactant shows good penetration. Dibutylpthalate acts a plasticizer which improves the penetration of glimepiride.