Articles

A Review on Piperacillin - Tazobactam in Febrile Neutropenia

About Author: Uday Venkat Mateti1*, Srikala Patha2
1. Department of Pharmacy Practice  & Pharm.D, St Peter’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rohini Hospital, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India
2. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bharat Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), KIMS Hospital, JNTU, Hyderabad, India

Abstract
The mortality rate of febrile neutropenia (FN) has diminished steadily but remains significant. Overall mortality rates are 5% in patients with solid tumors (1% in low-risk patients) and as high as 11% in some hematological malignancies. Piperacillin/Tazobactam is a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against most Gram-positive, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria. Piperacillin/Tazobactam is effective and well tolerated in patients with febrile neutropenia.  Guidelines for the Management of Febrile Neutropenia in Oncology Patients and the 2010 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Prevention and treatment  for febrile neutropenia recommends as initial treatment in patients with FN who are at high risk of serious infections. In comparative clinical trials against various other antibacterial regimens. Piperacillin/Tazobactam has shown higher clinical success rates, particularly in the treatment of patients with febrile neutropenia. Piperacillin/Tazobactam has shown clinical as well as the economic advantages over other antibacterial regimens in the treatment of febrile episodes in patients with neutropenia. It is likely to reduce overall treatment costs of moderate to severe febrile neutropenia by increasing initial treatment success thereby reducing the length of hospital stay and the use of additional antibacterials. Present data regarding clinical efficacy, safety and costs would support the use of Piperacillin/Tazobactam as an empirical first-line option in moderate to severe febrile episodes in patients with neutropenia.

Impact of Mycotoxin in the Program Cell Death / Necrosis

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research Fellow)
Center of Experimental Medicine and Surgery,
Institute of Medical sciences,
Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi, India

Abstract
Genetic instability caused by secondary metabolites produced by fungus. These  mycotoxins are chemical compound which are naturally toxic to cells. Because of ability to generating ROS and RNS caused oxidative stress. Due to their toxicity properties implicate apoptosis and form cancer cell. DNA replication are going to impaired and become damage. Mycotoxins are suppressed tumor suppressing gene and convert proto-oncogene in the oncogene. In this review we explain the control exposure of mycotoxins and provides guidelines to farmers because they are directly contact to these compounds.

Does Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetic Mellitus

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research Fellow)
Center of Experimental Medicine and Surgery,
Institute of Medical sciences,
Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi-221005, India

Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached endemic scope and is an important risk factor for heart failure (HF).Itself indicated as a group of different disease due to destruction of insulin. A large number of therapy available in the management of this but most prominent therapy uses due to their unique properties; stem cell therapy. A stem cell with extensive proliferative nature may provide a precious source of islet progenitor cells. Through transplantation of insulin-producing cells offers a promising therapy to profligate diabetes. A number of studies have demonstrated that a progenitor/stem-cell population can be expanded in vitro to generate large numbers of islet progenitor cells. However, efficient and directed differentiation of these cells to an endocrine pancreatic lineage has been difficult to achieve. They review growing of the islet cells obtained from embryonic stem cell, or adult human tissues which produced insulin to treatments of diabetic patients.

Prebiotics and its Role in Therapy

About Author: Mr. Rupajit Bhattacharjee, M.Pharm

What are Prebiotics?
Prebiotics are components present in foods, or that can be incorporated into foods, which yield health benefits related to their interactions with the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).
Prebiotics can be defined as “nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth of one or a limited number of bacterial species in the colon, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, which have the potential to improve host health.” Prebiotics are, simply speaking, the “food” for beneficial bacteria.

“The Unknown Mystery of Death - Risk Factor for Development of Cancer Cervix in Indian Women.”

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research fellow)
Institute of Medical science (CEMS)
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi - 221005

Abstract
India, the disease accounts for an estimated 24 percent of India’s cancer cases among women and additionally 74,000 indian women die annually from the disease, which results from the abnormal growth of cells in the cervix (the narrow opening of the uterus or womb). Cervical cancer is the most common disorder among middle-aged women which increased the mortality rate  in  Indian rural women as compared urban due to lack of  their awareness and  don’t acquire appropriate education .  Uncontrolled growth (cancer) in the cervix is not a single type. It is not usually associated with hereditary genetic factor but also a number of other factors (Chemical, Physical , environmental and biological ) indirectly heighten the risk of cervical cancer by increasing the likelihood that a woman will contract an HPV infection. These factors include early age at first intercourse and multiple sex partners. National Cancer Control Program emphasizes the importance of early detection and treatment. But the country has no organized screening program, and many Indian women lack information about the disease and access to prevention and treatment facilities. Therefore, it is most of important to reduced rate of women mortality through proper management.

Montreal Protocol – A Mission to Save Planet Earth

About Author: Ashish Chauhan
M.Pharm (Pharmaceutical Chemistry)
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar (Punjab).

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
(A Protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer)

Ozone Layer

  • The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3).
  • This layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is damaging to life on Earth.
  • It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 30 to 40 kilometres above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.
  • The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson.
  • Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobson meter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground.
  • Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day.
  • The "Dobson unit", a convenient measure of the columnar density of ozone overhead, is named in his honour.

REVIEW ON OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors: Divya Gupta,
M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics),
Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun

Introduction
In the words of Hughes and Mitra2: “ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavours facing the pharmaceutical scientist...The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye render this organ exquisitely impervious to foreign substances...The challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage...The primitive ophthalmic solutions, suspensions and ointment dosage forms are clearly no longer sufficient to combat some present virulent diseases...”

Eye is a unique and very valuable organ. This is considered a window hinge. We can enjoy it and look at the world body. There are many eye diseases that can affect the body and loss of vision as well. Therefore, many eyes in drug delivery systems are available. They are classified as traditional and new drug development system. Topical application of drugs to the eye is the most popular and well-accepted route of administration for the treatment of various eye disorders. The bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs is, however, very poor due to efficient protective mechanisms of the eye. Blinking, baseline and reflex lachrymation, and drainage remove rapidly foreign substances, including drugs, from the surface of the eye [1].

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON STABILITY OF SUSPENSION

About Authors:
DIPAK KUMAR DASH
M.PHARM, PHARMACEUTICS
HIMALAYAN PHARMACY INSTITUTE, SIKKIM

SUSPENSION
Pharmaceutical suspension may be defined as coarse dispersions in which insoluble solids are suspended in a liquid medium. Insoluble solids may have a size range from 10 to 1000 µm.

STABILITY OF SUSPENSION
It is important to understand that suspensions are kinetically stable, but thermodynamically unstable, system.
Physical stability is defined as the condition in which the particles remain uniformly distributed throughout the dispersion without any signs of sedimentation. It is difficult to achieve this condition. Hence the definition can be restated as –if the particles settle they should be easily resuspendable by moderate amount of shaking.

Antimicrobial Activity of Plants Belong to Solanaceae Family

About Authors: Ajay Kumar Pathak,
Analytical Science Division,
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research,
19 University Road, Delhi, 110007

Introduction
The plant kingdom comprises many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value, which are yet to be explored. A large number of plants are constantly being screened for their possible medicinal value.[12] The use of plant extracts in traditional medicine has been going on from ancient time.[13] Herbalism and folk medicine, both ancient and modern, have been the source of much useful therapy.[14-16] In the recent years, the development of resistance of pathogens against antibiotics has become a difficult issue caused by the indiscriminate use of modern antibiotics.[17-23] Therefore, the demand for new and effective antimicrobial agents with broad spectrum activities from natural sources are increasing day by day. Infectious diseases account for approximately one-half of all deaths in tropical countries. The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials.

Nanotechnology Cure the Uncontrolled Growth of Cells: Cancer

About Authors: Rinki Verma,
Research fellow,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005

Abstract
Cancer is caused by damage of genes which control the growth and division of cells. Detection/diagnose/treatment is possible by confirming the growth of the cells and treated by rectifying the damaging mechanism of the genes or by stopping the blood supply to the cells or by destroying it. Conventional detection method of the cancer is not more efficient than nanotechnogical detection method. Nano Particles (NP) being of a few of nano meters size and the cells being of the size of few microns, NP can enter inside the cells and can access the DNA molecules/Genes and therefore, there is a possibility that the defect in the genes can be detected. The conventional treatment is less sensitive than the nanotechnology methods, certain NP can be designed to absorb preferentially certain wave length of radiation and if they enters in the cancerous cells, they will burn them So, Nanotechnology can be used to create therapeutic agents that target specific cells and deliver toxin to kill them.

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