Medicinal Attributes of Meldrum’s Acid

About Authors: Sahil Sharma

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1083

One hundred years ago Scottish chemist Andrew Norman Meldrum synthesized a substance [1] that later obtained his name. To date Meldrum’s acid is one of the most useful reagents in the synthesis of heterocycles. In contrast to the great popularity of Meldrum’s acid, its discoverer remains almost unknown for the majority of chemists.
Andrew Norman Meldrum [2] was born on 19th March, 1876, in a small burgh, Alloa, Scotland. In 1899 he received his B.Sc. with ?rst-class honors (chemistry) from the University of Aberdeen, where he worked as a research assistant with Francis Robert Japp [3].  
In his ?rst independent publication [1], he studied the reaction between acetone and malonic acid and, following the suggestion of Prof. Japp, employed a mixture of acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid as condensing agent. From elemental analysis data, in conjunction with previous results and the acidic properties of the ?nal compound, he formulated the structure of the product to be β-lactone of β-hydroxyisopropylmalonic acid 1 (Scheme 1).

A Review on Complex Enhancer

About Authors: Shahin Shahida, Seema Kathait

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1082

In this report, we explored the mechanisms underlying keratinocyte-specific and differentiation-specific gene expression in the skin. We have identified five keratinocyte-specific, open chromatin regions that exist within the 6 kb of 5' upstream regulatory sequence known to faithfully recapitulate the strong endogenous keratin 5 (K5) promoter and/or enhancer activity. One of these, DNase I-hypersensitive site (HSs) 4, was unique in that it acted independently to drive abundant and keratinocyte-specific reporter gene activity in culture and in transgenic mice, despite the fact that it was not essential for K5 enhancer activity. We have identified evolutionarily conserved regulatory elements and a number of their associated proteins that bind to this compact and complex enhancer element. The 125-bp 3' half of this element (referred to as 4.2) is by far the smallest known strong enhancer element possessing keratinocyte-specific activity in vivo. Interestingly, its activity is restricted to a subset of progeny of K5-expressing cells located within the sebaceous gland. The other half of HSs 4 (termed 4.1) possesses activity to suppress sebocyte-specific expression and induce expression in the channel (inner root sheath) cells surrounding the hair shaft. Our findings lead us to a view of keratinocyte gene expression which is determined by multiple regulatory modules, many of which contain AP-2 and/or Sp1/Sp3 binding sites for enhancing expression in skin epithelium, but which also harbor one or more unique sites for the binding of factors which determine specificity. Through mixing and matching of these modules, additional levels of specificity are obtained, indicating that both transcriptional repressors and activators govern the specificity.


About Authors: Mayank Panchal1*, Biren Shah1, Krishna Murti1, Megha Shah1
1*Department of Pharmacognosy,
Vidyabharti Trust College of Pharmacy,
Umrakh, (Gujarat) INDIA

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1081

Moringa oliefera Lam. is one of the best known and most widely distributed and naturalized species of a monogenetic family Moringaceae. The roots of plant were extracted with ethanol by soxhlet technique and aqueous extract of roots are prepared by maceration technique. Both the extracts are subjected to phytochemical screening. Require quantity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from the plant which is used as test drug in Streptozotocin induced diabetic model. The present investigation is undertaken to study the effect of the potential hypoglycemic effect of Moringa oliefera Lam. in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced Diabetes Mellitus.

Nanotechnology in Cancer Therapy

About Authors: Debojyoti Adak
M.Pharm in Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Jharpokharia

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1080

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapy is not much safer medication for cancer therapy. Now a day a new technology is developing regarding medication that is nanotechnology. As medication it is well known as nanomedication. It is based on the particle size between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers. Nanomedicine application areas include drug delivery, therapy, diagonistic, imaging and antimicrobial techniques.This article aims at giving an overview of the present status of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.

Prescription Monitoring of Antihypertensive Drug Utilization for Uncomplicated Hypertension Patients in a Tertiary Hospital: A Cross Sectional Study in the Inpatient Wards

About Authors: N. V. R. Praveen Kumar. T, Mohanta. G. P, Sudarshan. S# and Parimalakrishnan. S.
Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University,
Annamalai Nagar – 608002.Tamil Nadu, India.
# Department of Medicine, Rajah Muhtiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University,
Annamalai Nagar – 608002.Tamil Nadu, India.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1079

The study was conducted to identify and evaluate the Prescription Monitoring of Antihypertensive Drug Utilization for Uncomplicated Hypertension Patients.

This was a prospective observational study and was approved by IRB.  The study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital, which is located at southern part of India having 1210 beds.  Totally 1262 prescriptions were studied.

Total distribution of patients with respect to age group showed that highest number of patients was found in the age group of 60-69 years (31.3%) and least was found between 20-29 years age group (1.1%). Majority of males in the study population (43.29%) were found to have both the habits of smoking and alcohol. Among concomitant diseases that were related to hypertension Coronary artery disease was highest (67.78%) and giddiness was least (1.7%). In case of diseases unrelated to hypertension Type II diabetes mellitus was observed as highest (38.7%) and acute gastroenteritis was recorded least (5.68%). Overall 43.5% patients were treated with single antihypertensive drug and 53.8% were treated with antihypertensive drug combinations.

Herbal Drug Development and Pharmacological Potential of Some Herbs

About Authors: Amit Tamiya (M.Pharm), Dr. Gopal Rai,
Department of Pharmacology Shri Ram Institute of Technology,
Jabalpur (M.P.), India

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1078

In the recent time the science is proved the new aspects of herbal medicine, as therapy to treat disease, known as phytotherapy, is to be developed. It include the nutritional sciences, in it the phytochemicals that are ingested in the form of complex mixtures that are incompletely characterized in the past whose scientific study is being performed. The new methodologies developed in the area of nutritional sciences can inform phytotherapy research, opportunities for observational studies. Randomized clinical trials of single - herb interventions are relatively easy to justify its pharmacological effect. However, phytotherapy is the natural therapy, using lifestyle advice, nutrition and individually use of the combination of herbs, for the restoring the homeostasis. Now the clinical trial evaluated, this approach is useful in a wide range of conditions, Central nervous system, Hepatoprotective, mental disorder including chronic disease, associated with the human being.

Emerging Applications of Gold Nanoparticles in Field OG Drug and Gene Delivery

About Authors: Akanksha Patel1, S. P. Pawar2
1. M.Pharm, sem-II, Department of Pharmaceutics, A. R. College of pharmacy, V. V. Nagar - 388120, Anand Gujarat, India
2. Associate Professor, Department of Pharmaceutics, A. R. College of pharmacy, V. V. Nagar - 388120, Anand, Gujarat, India

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1074

Recent years development in nanotechnology has opened up new horizons in the field of drug and gene delivery. Gold nanoparticles are one of the most versatile platform of nanotechnology. Here the emerging applications of them are discussed. Various approaches like direct drug conjugates, surface modification and light stimulus to achieve desired goals are utilized. Most promising applications of gold nanoparticles is organ targeting. Liver targeting, brain targeting and tumour targeting is achieved precisely with gold nanoparticles. Magnetic targeting in combination with iron nanoparticles can also be achieved with gold nanoparticles. Photodynamic and photothermal therapies for the destruction of tumours is possible with gold nanoparticles due to their unique property, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Gene delivery is the forthcoming application of gold nanoparticles. DNA can be made available to the site in intact form. Gold Nanoparticles are also used for the management diabetes. Gold nanoparticles are a good carrier for insulin. Gold nanoparticles are popular for the delivery of anticancer agents. New applications are still emerging for delivery of anticancer agents with gold nanoparticles. Due to their unique optical characteristics they are also used in the field of diagnostics. They have therefore been proposed as contrast agents for bioimaging, or as heating devices. Acoustic signals obtained are then utilized. This imaging technique allows recognition of early biochemical, physiological, and anatomical changes before manifestation of gross pathological changes.

Patent Search

About Authors: Patel Rahul G.
Quality Assurance Devision,
Arihant School of pharmacy and Bioreseach institute,
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1071

Patent right can be conformed  to any invention which can fulfill the criteria of novelty, non obviousness and commercial utility .To check the novelty and non obviousness aspect of invention, patent search and prior art search are very essential. Every country  has its own patent right. As India is growing very rapidly in pharmaceutical sector, there is a need of information about the patent search. Patent search has to be done for both granted patents and published patents as well as for  research publications. There are number of databases are available to do patent search which includes ..
(1) Free databases like google patents, USPTO, EPO, Free patents online etc.
(2) Paid databases like scifinder, micropat, patent insight pro etc.
Each databases have its own merits and demerits. Hear we have included statements  and all databases regarding patent search also how to file a patent in more than one country by single patent application.

The objective of this paper would be to provid ready reckner to any researcher  who would like to begin their patent search and will get better idea regarding scopes and limitation of his search to develop research strategy accordingly.

Estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil and Atorvastatin Calcium in Tablet Dosage Form by HPLC Method

About Authors: Venkata Suresh Babu Aluri*
Department of pharmaceutical Analysis,
Adhiparasakthi College of Pharmacy,
Melmarvathur, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu - 603319 (INDIA)

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1077

A simple, specific, sensitive, rapid, precise and economical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) and Atorvastatin calcium (ATC) in tablet dosage form by using acetonitrile- phosphate buffer pH 3.0 (40:60 v/v) as a solvent system. The method was carried out on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 (15 cm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5µm particle size) column, at flow rate 0.9 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 252 nm. The retention time of OLM and ATC was 3.19 and 4.63 min, respectively. The two drugs follow Beer-Lambert’s law over the concentration range of 8 – 40 µg/mL for OLM and 4 – 20 µg/mL for ATC. Validation of proposed method was carried out for its accuracy, precision, specificity and ruggedness according to ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be successfully applied in routine work for the determination of Olmesartan medoxomil and Atorvastatin calcium in combined dosage form.

A Review of High - Throughput Screening Approaches for Drug Discovery

About Authors: Ashwini K. Reddy, Swetha, Gauthami, Srivally, Masoom - M.Pharm, Helen Sheeba - Assistant Professor. Malla Reddy Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hyderabad.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1076

HIGH - THROUGHPUT screening (HTS) is an approach to drug discovery that has gained widespread popularity over the last three or four years. HTS is the process of assaying a large number of potential effectors of biological activity against targets (a biological event). The methods of HTS are applied to the screening of combinatorial chemistry, genomics, protein, and peptide libraries. The goal of HTS is to accelerate drug discovery by screening large libraries often composed of hundreds of thousands of compounds (drug candidates) at a rate that may exceed 20,000 compounds per week. This paper will focus on assay adaptations, robotic equipment, and implementation strategies that allow HTS programs to be successful. Ultrahighthroughput screening (UHTS) issues (testing of 100,000 compounds / day) will also be discussed.