H/H BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM: A RARE BLOOD GROUP

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Genetics
It occurs in individuals who have inherited two recessive alleles of the H gene (genotype is hh). These individuals do not fabricate the H carbohydrate that is the pioneer to the A and B antigens, significance that individuals may acquire alleles for either or both of the A and B alleles devoid of being able to express them. Because both parents must carry this recessive allele to convey this blood type to their children, the circumstance mostly occurs in small communities where there is a superior likelihood of both parents of a child either being of Bombay type, or being heterozygous for the h allele and so carrying the Bombay distinctive as recessive. If appropriate blood grouping or testing practices are not followed, it can direct to people with Bombay Blood Group not being detected.  This group would be considered as the O group because it wouldn’t illustrate any reaction to anti-A and anti-B antibodies just like am ordinary the O group. When a cross matching with O group is done, then it would show cross-reactivity or incompatibility. Consequently reverse grouping or serum grouping has to be performed to notice this group. [15]

CONCLUSION
While the Bombay Blood Group is the rarest blood group, it is enviable to build up cryopreservation facilities for rare donor units. Every blood bank can easily uphold a rare blood type donor file from amongst their regular voluntary donors. If the blood banks can borrow or exchange rare blood units in times of need, a lot of efforts related to rare blood groups like the Bombay Blood Group can be solved. This is only promising if each blood bank has a large numeral of devoted regular voluntary donors.

REFERENCES
1. Yu LC, Yang YH, Broadberry RE, Chen YH, Lin M. Heterogeneity of the human H blood group alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase gene among para-Bombay individuals. Vox Sang 1997; 72:36-40.
2. Fernandez-Mateos P, Cailleau A, Henry S, Costache M, Elmgren A, Svensson L, et al.  Point mutations and deletion responsible for the Bombay H null and the Reunion H weak blood groups. Vox Sang 1998; 5:37-46.
3. Simmons RT, D'senna GW. Anti-H in group O blood. J Indian Med Assoc 1955; 24:325-7.
4. Roy MN, Dutta S, Mitra PC, Ghosh S. Occurrence of natural anti-H in a group of individuals. J Indian Med Assoc 1957; 29:224-6.
5. Alosia Sister Mary, Gelb AG, Fundenberg H, Hamper J, Tippett P, Race RR. The expected "Bombay" groups OhA1 and OhA2.1. Transfusion 1961; 1:212-7.
6. 12. Aust CH, Hocker ND, Keller ZG, Arbogast JL. A family of "Bombay" blood type with suppression of blood group substance A1. Am J Clin Pathol 1962; 37:579-83.
7. Levine P, Robinson E, Celano M, Briggs O, Falkinburg L. Gene interaction resulting in suppression of blood group substance B. Blood 1955;10:1100-8.
8. Lanset S, Ropartz C, Rouseau P, Guerbet Y, Salmon C. Une familie comportant les phenotypes Bombay O h AB et O h B. Transfusion (Paris) 1966; 9:255-63.
9. Bhatia HM, Solomon JM. Further observations on Ahm and Ohm phenotypes. Vox Sang 1967; 13:457-60.
10. Bhende YM, Deshpande CK, Bhatia HM, Sanger R, Race RR, Morgan WT, et al . A new blood group character related to the ABO system. Lancet 1952; 1:903-4.
11. Watkins WM, Morgan WT. Possible genetic pathways for the biosynthesis of blood group mucopolysaccharides. Vox Sang 1959; 4:97-119.
12. Gerard G, Vitrac D, Le Pendu J, Muller A, Oriol R. H-deficient blood groups (Bombay) of Reunion Island. Am J Hum Genet 1982; 34:937-47.
13. Kaneko M, Nishihara S, Shinya N, Kudo T, Iwasaki H, Seno T, et al . Wide variety of point mutations in the H gene of Bombay and para-Bombay individuals that inactivate H enzyme. Blood 1997; 90:839-49.
14. Oriol R, Candelier JJ, Mollicone R. Molecular genetics of H. Vox Sang 2000;78:105-8.
15. Le Pendu J, Gerard G, Vitrac D, Juszczak G, Liberge G, Rouger P, et al . H-deficient blood groups of Reunion Island, II: Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and White (Reunion phenotype). Am J Hum Genet 1983; 35:484-96.

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