Pharmacognosy Articles

ALZHEIMER DISEASE AND CONTRIBUTION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AND HERBALTRADITIONAL DRUGS IN THE TREATMENT OF ALZHEIMER DISEASE

About Authors:
Himani sharma
B.pharm; mahakal institute of pharmaceutical studies,
Ujjain (m.p.); rgpv
shimani53@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Among the several identified types of dementia, Alzheimer's dis­ease (AD) is the most common. In 1906 a German physician, Dr. Alois Alzheimer, specifically identified a collection of brain cell abnormalities as a disease which is a degenerative brain disorder. Today, this degenerative brain disorder bears his name, and when found during an autopsy, these plaques and tangles mean a definite diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).  This article provides a general idea of some main causes ofAlzheimer's disease, use of various prospects of nanotechnology herbal medicines and intended to explain the therapeutic effectiveness of various herbal medicines in the treatment of Alzheimer disease.

A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON TUMARI (TREWIA NUDIFLORA LINN.)

About Authors:
N. Balakrishnan*, Mayank Srivastava, Pallavi Tiwari
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Technocrats Institute of Technology-Pharmacy,
Bhopal-462021(MP), India.
*pharmacobala@gmail.com

Abstract
Medicinal plants have main and cheap source of unique phytoconstituents, they are used extensively in the development of new drugs against various diseases and disorders. The 80% of world population especially in the developing countries relies on the traditional system of medicine for primary choice to treat diseases. Trewia nudiflora Linnbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is one of the important medicinal plant in Indian systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha,etc. It is used as stomachic and alterative in flatulence, gout, rheumatism and malignancy especially leukemia and hepato- biliary affections etc.  The decoction of shoots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora is used to treat excessive bile and sputum. The leaves are applied on wounds to heal them with good efficiency. It contains a pyridine alkaloid, N-methyl-5-carboxamide-2-pyridone. Hence,an attempt has been made in this review paper to explore various phytochemical and pharmacological studies carried out on this plant.


REVIEW ON AEGLE MARMELOS (L) CORR: MEDICINAL VALUES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES, FORMULATIONS, TOXICITY STUDIES

About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu
Graduate Student
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha College of Pharmacy, Palluru,
Gudipala Mandal Chittoor-517132, Andhra Pradesh, India.
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Over the last few years, rehears have aimed at identifying and validating plant derived substances for the treatment of various diseases. Similarly it has been already proved that various parts of plants such as Leafs, fruits, seeds etc. provide health and nutrition promoting compounds in human diet. The Bael (Aegle Marmelos) (L) Corr) is another Indian plant, which has enormous traditional uses against various diseases. The present review aims to compile medicinal values of Aegle Marmelos generated through the research activity using modern scientific approaches and innovative scientific tools.
It is called 'Shivadurme', the tree of Shiva, and is one of the sacred trees of the Hindus. Leaves are offered in prayers to Shiva and Parvathi since ancient times.

EFFECT OF CRYOPRESERVATION, LYOPHILIZATION ON DNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL OF ACACIA ARABICA, ACACIA SINUATA, PROSOPIS SPICIGERA, ADENANTHERA PAVONINA AND ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS

About Authors:
Hardik R. Patel
Industrial Biotechnology from Sardar Patel University,
Gujarat, India.
hardikigbt@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cryopreservation and lyophilization of plant germplasm has obvious advantages over in vitro storage in term of space saving and improved phytosanitation. We compared cryopreserved and lyophilized leaf as sources for genomic DNA isolation by CTAB protocol and PVP protocol.Our results showed that cryopreservation of leaf tissue yielded high molecular weight genomic DNA. The DNA was suitable for restriction-enzyme digestion and as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. While these results rule out cryopreserved  tissue as a source for DNA isolation, the ability to freeze-dry, powder, and efficiently store voluminous tissue samples for later use in DNA and protein isolation could be of great benefit to laboratories involved in  molecular genetics and molecular biology.

REVIEW ARTICLE ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THESPESIA POPULNIA SEEDS

About Author:
Sharad kumar awasthi

Shri Ram Institute Of Technology,
Jabalpur (M.P.) 482002.
Sharad20n@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Thespesia populnia seeds were dried and then grinded to obtain fine powder. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts and etheral extract of thespesia seeds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against E.coli, B.subtilis with the comparison control (Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin) for bacteria. The extract showed good inhibitory activity on the microbes.

Emblica Officinalis A Review

About Authors:
Mohd Farhan
Department of Pharmacology,
Vidyabharti college of pharmacy
Amravati.
farhan.pharma66@gmail.com

Abstract:
The herbal medicine are in the great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary health care because of their large biological activities, higher safety margin and lesser cost. one of the common traditional herbal drug is Emblica officinalis, commonly known as Amla, is a member of a small genus Emblica (Euphorbiaceae). It grows in tropical and subtropical parts of China, India, Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purpose. The fresh (or) the dry fruit is used in traditional medicines for the treatment of diarrhoea, jaundice and inflammations. The pulp of the fruit is smeared on the head to dispel headache and dizziness Emblica officinalis leaves and fruit have been used for fever and inflammatory treatments by rural populations in its growing areas. The earlier study have demonstrated potent anti-microbial, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-tumour and anti-ulcerogenic activities in the fruits of Emblica officinalis. Leaf extracts have been shown to posses anti- inflammatory activity. vitamin C, tannins and flavanoids present in amla have very powerfull antioxidant activity. Due to rich in vitamin C amla is successfully use in the treatment of human scurvy.

A REVIEW ON QUALITY CONTROL OF HERBAL DRUGS

About Authors:
R.C. Gedar1*, Rakesh Sharma2, Sanjeev Sharma2
1Seth G. L. Bihani S. D. college of technical education, IPSDR, Sriganganagar (Raj.)
2J. C. D. M. Pharmacy College, Sirsa (Hry.)
*rcgedar@gmail.com

Abstract
This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy and quality control of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA markets alone, this will reach about $7 billion and $5 billion per annum, respectively, in 1999, and hasthus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies. Insufficient data exist for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety. The idea that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is false.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION OF ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS Roxb. LEAF AND SEED

About Authors:
Awan Bharti
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute of Pharmacy,
Datia, M.P.
bhartiawan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. (Family: Elaeocarpaceae) commonly known as Rudraksha. Rudraksha beads, the holy beads scientifically called as Elaeocarpus Ganitrus. It possesses good medicinal value and with religious, medicinal and spiritual significances. Present investigation deals with macroscopic, microscopic. Microscopic studies revealed the presence of cuticle, epidermis, collenchyma, vascular bundle, xylem and phloem, hard endocarp, seeds with membranous seed coat.


EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS, MONO OR POLYHERBAL FORMULATION

About Authors:
Dhiren Shah*1, Jatin Patel, Krunal Parikh
m.pharmacy
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education, R.U.H.S.
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, INDIA
*dhiren.pharmacist@gmail.com

Abstract :
Involved Evaluation and Standardization techniques for crude drugs, mono or Polyherbal Frormulation. They involved the macroscopic techniques, microscopic techniques, physical evaluation and biological evaluation. They also involved the Quantitative analysis of Organophosphorus insecticides, Organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides, microbial content determination.

APPLICATION OF LC-MS

About Authors:
Jatin  Patel1*, Prof. Rajesh Kumar Dholpuria2, Dhiren Shah1
2(Professor, Head of Department of pharmacognosy),
1Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, INDIA
*Patelj313@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
Liquid chromatography is a fundamental separation technique in the life sciences and related fields of chemistry. Unlike gas chromatography, which is unsuitable for nonvolatile and thermally fragile molecules, liquid chromatography can safely separate a very wide range of organic compounds, from small-molecule drug metabolites to peptides and proteins. Traditional detectors for liquid chromatography include refractive index, electrochemical, fluorescence, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detectors. Some of these generate two- dimensional data; that is, data representing signal strength as a function of time. Others, including fluorescence and diode- array UV-Vis detectors, generate three-dimensional data. Three-dimensional data include not only signal strength but spectral data for each point in time. Mass spectrometers also generate three- dimensional data. In addition to signal strength, they generate mass spectral data that can provide valuable information about the molecular weight, structure, identity, quantity, and purity of a sample. Mass spectral data add specificity that increases confidence in the results of both qualitative and quantitative analyses. For most compounds, a mass spectrometer is more sensitive and far more specific than all other LC detectors. It can analyze compounds that lack a suitable chromophore. It can also identify components in unresolved chromatographic peaks, reducing the need for perfect chromatography. Mass spectral data complements data from other LC detectors. While two compounds may have similar UV spectra or similar mass spectra, it is uncommon for them to have both. The two orthogonal sets of data can be used to confidently identify, confirm, and quantify compounds.

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