PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS LINN. FLOWER EXTRACTS (FAMILY: MALVACEAE)

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About Author:
Krishn Kumar Agrawal*, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta, Anju Verma, Kishan Singh
Institute of Pharmaceutical Research,
GLA University 17-Km. stone, NH-2 Mathura-Delhi Highway,
P.O. Chaumuhan, Mathura-281406 (U.P.) India
*krishn.agrawal@rediffmail.com

Abstract
The objective of the present study to investigate the anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (family: Malvaceae) against Indian earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). The preliminary phytochemical screening of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis showed the presence of sterols, glycosides, alkaloids, proteins, mucilage and flavonoids. Various standards such as Piperazine citrate, Albendazole and Pyrantel pamoate at concentration of 20mg/ml were used to compare anthelmintic activity with the extracts at the same concentration in terms of paralysis time and death time of worms. The result revealed the potential usefulness of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower against helminthiasis infection.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1400

1.      Introduction:
Hibiscus is a large genus that contains herbs, shrubs and trees widely distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical region of world. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) is commonly known as jasut in Hindi and China rose in English. It is a native of China and grown throughout in India as an ornamental plant. Plant can be propagated by cutting from mature wood of current growth. It is an evergreen woody, glabrous, showy shrub of 5-8 ft in height. Leaves are bright green, ovate, coarsely toothed above, flower are solitary, axillary, bell shaped, large 4-6 inch in diameter with pistil and stamens projecting from the centre [1].

Folklorically the flowers are used as demulcent, emollient, refrigerant, aphrodiasic emmenagogue and as anthelmintic [2]. A decoction of flower is used in bronchial catarrh. The dark red petals in the form of mucilaginous infusion are used in ardor-urinae, strangury, cystitis and other irritable conditions of the genito-urinary tract [3]. The flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were reported to possess various activity such as analgesic[4], anticonvulsant[5], antidiabetic[6], antipyretic[7], wound healing[8], antibacterial[9], immunomodulatory[10], antiestrous[11], antioxidant[12] and hair growth[13].

Helminthiasis is the most prevalent infections globally but is more common in developing countries with under nourished people and environmental hygiene. They affect the host by secreting toxins, causing blood loss, injury to organs and intestinal obstruction. Anthelmintic drug have tendency to kill, expel or paralysis of worm and which are present in the intestinal canal. There is no systemic or scientific study on anthelmintic activity in spite of its traditional use. So the present study was focused to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of various extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn flower.

 

2.      Material and Methods:
2.1 Plant material:

The flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn were collected from the gardens of Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh and aunthentified by Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India and a herbarium specimen was deposited in the department of pharmacognosy with Ref. No. 13374.

2.2 Preparation of extracts:
The flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were collected from gardens of Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) and dried in shade and coarsely powdered. It was than passed through the sieve no. 20. A weighted quantity (360g) of the powder drug was extracted with petroleum ether (60-800C) using soxhlet extractor. Defatted drug was subjected to ethanolic extraction and extract was dried by distilling off the solvent and then dried in desiccator. The marc collected after ethanolic extraction was subjected to aqueous extraction by maceration process for seven days consecutively and then extract was dried by evaporating the water and stored for further activity.    

2.3 Animal:
Adult Indian earth worms (Pheretima posthuma) were collected from the moist soil as well as water logged area of Mathura district and washed with normal saline to remove all faecal matter were used for the anthelmintic activity. The earth worms of 3-6 cm in length and 0.1-0.3 cm in width were used for the experimental protocol due to their anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworms parasites of human beings.

2.4 Drugs and chemicals:
Piperazine citrate, albendazole and pyrantal pamoate were used as standard drugs. Petroleum ether (60-80), Ethanol, Di methyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium chloride were used in various part of experiment.

2.5 Phytochemical screening:
The preliminary phytochemical screenings were conducted for the petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower to find out the presence of various phytochemical constituents. The result of preliminary phytochemical screening was showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, mucilage and sterols. Data is shown in table.

Sr. No.

Chemical constituents

Pet. Ether extract

Ethanolic extract

Aqueous extract

1.

Alkaloids

-

+

+

2.

Sterols

+

-

-

3.

Proteins

-

-

-

4.

Tannins

-

+

+

5.

Amino acid

-

-

-

6.

Glycosides

-

+

+

7.

Mucilage

-

+

+

8.

Flavonoids

-

+

+

9.

Reducing sugar

-

+

+

10.

Saponin

-

-

-

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