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Pharmacognostical and Pharmacological studies of Holoptelea integrifolia – An overview

About Authors:
Soujanya J, Silambujanaki P, Leela Krishna V
Department of Pharmacology, SRM College of Pharmacy,
SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203,
Kancheepuram Dist.,
Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract
Holoptelea integrifolia, Planch. is a widely used herb in traditional medical systems of India.It is an important pollen allergen of India andsensitizes almost 10% of the atopic population in Delhi.Various parts of Holoptelea integrifolia, a roadside plant, are indicated by Charaka Samhitha, Sushrutha Samhitha and other traditional systems for the treatment of inflammations, acid gastritis, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, intestinal worms, vomiting, wounds, vitiligo, leprosy, filariasis, diabetes, haemorrhoids, dysmenorrhoea and rheumatism.The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its pharmacological, traditional and phytochemical properties

PLANTS AS RICH SOURCE OF ANTIMALIGNANT AGENTS

About Authors:
Das Saumya1*, Basu saumya Priya1, Das Manas Kumar2, Das Sanjita1
1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET, Greater Noida, U.P., India.
2. Department of Pharmacy,
IEC-CET,
Greater Noida, U.P.,
India.

Introduction
Cancer has been one of the greatest scourges of mankind since time immemorial. It may be regarded as a series of malignant diseases characterized by (i) abnormal growth of cells (ii) ability to invade adjacent tissues and even distant organs and (iii) the eventual death of the affected patient if the tumor has progressed beyond the stage where it can be successfully removed. The incidence of cancer is expected to rise worldwide notably because of increase in life expectancy, changes in lifestyle patterns and environmental factors. Over the years, an increased understanding of cancer at cellular, molecular and genetic levels is opening up enormous opportunities to interrupt its initiation and progression. Although rapid strides have been made in treatment of cancer, there still remain many stumbling blocks in achieving cancer prevention and cure.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE TERMINALIA ARJUNA BARK

About Authors:
Amol A. Dambal
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka,
Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.

ABSTRACT:
The Bark of Terminalia arjuna is considered as a  Cardioprotective and hypolipidemic in folklore medicine. In present investigation, the detailed pharmacognostic study of Terminalia arjuna Bark is carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical evaluation.

Terminalia arjuna: Phytochemistry, pharmacognosy and pharmacological studies

About Author:
Amol.A.Dambal,
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka,
Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.

ABSTRACT:
The herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for the treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Terminalia arjuna has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. The plants contain Arjunilic acid, Triterpine glycosides like Arjunetosides I, II, III, IV, Arjunine and Arjunetein. The bark is rich in Saponnins, natural anti-oxidants (flavonoids-arjunone,arjunolone,leteilin), gallic acid, ellagic acid , phytosterols, rich in minerals like ca,  mg, zn and co, reducing sugars & coloring matter. It has been reported as Cardio tonic, Hepato-protective, Immunomodulatory, Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory, Antibacterial and Antiulcer properties.The current study is therefore carried out to provide requisite phytochemical and Pharmacological detail about the plant. The plant is cultivated in different parts of India on a small scale at present However; systematic information on different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information.

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS

About Authors:
Kataria Sahil, Aggarwal Ashutosh, Middha Akanksha, Sandhu Premjeet
Seth G. L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan,
INDIA

INTRODUCTION
Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood.
There are three major types of diabetes:
•    Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. Many patients are diagnosed when they are older than age 20. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown. Genetics, viruses, and autoimmune problems may play a role.

•    Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. It makes up most of diabetes cases. It usually occurs in adulthood, but young people are increasingly being diagnosed with this disease. The pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body does not respond well to insulin. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it, although it is a serious condition. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to increasing obesity and failure to exercise.

Natural Anticancer drugs and Recent Developments in it

About Authors:
Kaushal Chovatiya, D.R. Mundhada
Agnihotri College of Pharmacy, Wardha,
Maharashtra, India.

Abstract:
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional cancer therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient’s lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. The demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the treatment of cancer is therefore escalating. There is compelling evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that highlight the importance of compounds derived from plants “phytochemicals” to reduce the risk of colon cancer and inhibit the development and spread of tumors in experimental animals. More than 25% of drugs used during the last 20 years are directly derived from plants, while the other 25% are chemically altered natural products. Still, only 5-15% of the approximately 250,000 higher plants have ever been investigated for bioactive compounds. The advantage of using such compounds for cancer treatment is their relatively non-toxic nature and availability in an ingestive form. An ideal phytochemical is one that possesses anti-tumor properties with minimal toxicity and has a defined mechanism of action. As compounds that target specific signaling pathways are identified, researchers can envisage novel therapeutic approaches as well as a better understanding of the pathways involved in disease progression. Plant derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anticancer agents. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine and topotecan are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as combrestatin, betulinic acid and silvesterol are in clinical or preclinical development.An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer and recent state of development of anticancer drugs regarding Natural Products.

Phytochemical Examination of Corchorus olitorius roots

About Authors:
D.Ramadevi and S.Ganapaty*
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry,
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam -530 003, India

Abstract
The fusidic acid(ent-16α-acetoxy-3β-dihydroxy-4β,8β,14α-trimethyl-18-nor-5β,10α-cholesta-(17z)-17(20),24-dien-21-oic acid) together with known compounds β-sitosterol, 2-methylanthraquinone, scopoletin, betulinic acid, corchoroside –A and cannogenol  from  the root extract of Corchorus olitorius. Out of these compounds, 2 - methyl anthraquinone and fusidic acids were new to the genus Corchorus and reported for the first time from C.olitorius. The triterpenoid antibiotic fusidic acid was  obtained earlier from a fungi (Fusidium coccineum) , is now reported from the plant C.olitorius.  Occurance  of coumarins in Corchorus genus are rare, but the author could isolate scopoletin, a coumarin from this species.

A REVIEW ON PHARMACOGNOSY OF CYPERUS SPECIES

About Authors:
Honey Jain, Neha Batra
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur National University,
Jaipur

ABSTRACT
The family Cyperacea includes approximately 3000 species of which about 220 species are identified as weeds and of which 42% of these weeds are in the genus Cyperus. Both purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus L.) are problem weeds in many parts of the world. Nutsedges originate from tropical and subtropical areas. . The plant produces rhizomes, tubers, basal bulbs and fibrous roots below ground, and rosettes of leaves, scapes, and umbels above ground.  C. rotutdus consists of rhizome and stolon having a number of wiry roots, stolon 10-20 cm long having a number of rhizomes, crowded together on the stolons, rhizomes bluntly conical and vary in size and thickness.The rhizomes are initially white and fleshy with scaly leaves and then become fibrous, wiry, and very dark brown with age. Purple nutsedge is readily distinguished from yellow nut sedge and other sedges by its purplish brown spikelets and scaly or wiry rhizomes that often bear chains of tubers.Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical components of this herb are polyphenol, flavonol glycoside, alkaloid, saponins, sesquiterpenoids and essential oil. Rhizome of the plant is used in fever,arthritis,diuretic, nervine tonic, treatment of diarrhea and dysentery ,leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea, and blood disorders. Leaves and seeds are rich in volatile oil and act on digestive system. Fruits are used as carminative , diuretic tonic, stomachic. Oil is fungicidal and bactericidal.

EMBELIA RIBES : A POTENTIAL HERB

About Authors: 
Neha batra, honey jain
School of pharmaceutical science,
Jaipur National University, 
Jaipur

ABSTRACT
Herbal and natural products of folk medicine have been used for
centuries in every culture throughout the world.Embelia ribes burm f. also known as Vidanga is one of the oldest herbs in Indian traditional medicine.This species is reported to be vulnerable in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states of India and at a lower risk in Kerala state of peninsular India. Embelia ribes traditionally used as appetizer, carminative, laxative,  Anthelmintic  and  in liver diseases. Embelin as main consistuents of Embelia ribes having medicinal and pharmacological properties. The plant also  contains quercitol and fatty ingredients; an alkaloid christembine, a resinoid, tannins and minute quantities of a volatile oil. Embelia ribes posses many pharmacological action like analgesic, anti-fertility, antioxidant, antiandrogenic  and many more.

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Pharmacognostical & Phytochemical Evaluation of Stem Bark of Ficus bengalensis Linn. : A Hypoglycaemic Plant

About Authors:
Namdeo K.P. Dr.1, Bodhake S. H.1,  Dwedi J. Dr.2, S. Shamim Dr.3 , Saifi Alimuddin3*
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, CG.
2Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Rajasthan.
3Translam Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Meerut.

Abstract
Ficus bengalensisis an indigenous plant belonging to family Moraceae possessing varied medicinal properties like antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic and also tender ends of hanging roots are prescribed to stop vomiting. Standardization is a method of assuring a minimum level of active ingredients in the extract and is becoming increasingly important as a means of ensuring a consistent supply of high quality phytopharmaceutical products. The World health Organization (WHO) emphasized the need to ensure quality control of medicinal plants products by using modern techniques and applying suitable standards. The following protocols for standardization of raw materials have been developedas authentication, foreign matter, macroscopic and microscopic examination, ash valueand extractive value, loss on drying, moisture content, Total flavonoid, total phenolic and total tannin contents determination of heavy metals, microbial contaminationand chromatographic profile(TLC &HPTLC).

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