Pharmacognosy Articles

Terminalia arjuna: Phytochemistry, pharmacognosy and pharmacological studies

About Author:
Amol.A.Dambal,
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka,
Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.

ABSTRACT:
The herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for the treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Terminalia arjuna has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. The plants contain Arjunilic acid, Triterpine glycosides like Arjunetosides I, II, III, IV, Arjunine and Arjunetein. The bark is rich in Saponnins, natural anti-oxidants (flavonoids-arjunone,arjunolone,leteilin), gallic acid, ellagic acid , phytosterols, rich in minerals like ca,  mg, zn and co, reducing sugars & coloring matter. It has been reported as Cardio tonic, Hepato-protective, Immunomodulatory, Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory, Antibacterial and Antiulcer properties.The current study is therefore carried out to provide requisite phytochemical and Pharmacological detail about the plant. The plant is cultivated in different parts of India on a small scale at present However; systematic information on different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information.

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS

About Authors:
Kataria Sahil, Aggarwal Ashutosh, Middha Akanksha, Sandhu Premjeet
Seth G. L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan,
INDIA

INTRODUCTION
Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood.
There are three major types of diabetes:
•    Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. Many patients are diagnosed when they are older than age 20. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown. Genetics, viruses, and autoimmune problems may play a role.

•    Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. It makes up most of diabetes cases. It usually occurs in adulthood, but young people are increasingly being diagnosed with this disease. The pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body does not respond well to insulin. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it, although it is a serious condition. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to increasing obesity and failure to exercise.

Natural Anticancer drugs and Recent Developments in it

About Authors:
Kaushal Chovatiya, D.R. Mundhada
Agnihotri College of Pharmacy, Wardha,
Maharashtra, India.

Abstract:
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional cancer therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient’s lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. The demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the treatment of cancer is therefore escalating. There is compelling evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that highlight the importance of compounds derived from plants “phytochemicals” to reduce the risk of colon cancer and inhibit the development and spread of tumors in experimental animals. More than 25% of drugs used during the last 20 years are directly derived from plants, while the other 25% are chemically altered natural products. Still, only 5-15% of the approximately 250,000 higher plants have ever been investigated for bioactive compounds. The advantage of using such compounds for cancer treatment is their relatively non-toxic nature and availability in an ingestive form. An ideal phytochemical is one that possesses anti-tumor properties with minimal toxicity and has a defined mechanism of action. As compounds that target specific signaling pathways are identified, researchers can envisage novel therapeutic approaches as well as a better understanding of the pathways involved in disease progression. Plant derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anticancer agents. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine and topotecan are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as combrestatin, betulinic acid and silvesterol are in clinical or preclinical development.An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer and recent state of development of anticancer drugs regarding Natural Products.

Phytochemical Examination of Corchorus olitorius roots

About Authors:
D.Ramadevi and S.Ganapaty*
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry,
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam -530 003, India

Abstract
The fusidic acid(ent-16α-acetoxy-3β-dihydroxy-4β,8β,14α-trimethyl-18-nor-5β,10α-cholesta-(17z)-17(20),24-dien-21-oic acid) together with known compounds β-sitosterol, 2-methylanthraquinone, scopoletin, betulinic acid, corchoroside –A and cannogenol  from  the root extract of Corchorus olitorius. Out of these compounds, 2 - methyl anthraquinone and fusidic acids were new to the genus Corchorus and reported for the first time from C.olitorius. The triterpenoid antibiotic fusidic acid was  obtained earlier from a fungi (Fusidium coccineum) , is now reported from the plant C.olitorius.  Occurance  of coumarins in Corchorus genus are rare, but the author could isolate scopoletin, a coumarin from this species.

A REVIEW ON PHARMACOGNOSY OF CYPERUS SPECIES

About Authors:
Honey Jain, Neha Batra
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur National University,
Jaipur

ABSTRACT
The family Cyperacea includes approximately 3000 species of which about 220 species are identified as weeds and of which 42% of these weeds are in the genus Cyperus. Both purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus L.) are problem weeds in many parts of the world. Nutsedges originate from tropical and subtropical areas. . The plant produces rhizomes, tubers, basal bulbs and fibrous roots below ground, and rosettes of leaves, scapes, and umbels above ground.  C. rotutdus consists of rhizome and stolon having a number of wiry roots, stolon 10-20 cm long having a number of rhizomes, crowded together on the stolons, rhizomes bluntly conical and vary in size and thickness.The rhizomes are initially white and fleshy with scaly leaves and then become fibrous, wiry, and very dark brown with age. Purple nutsedge is readily distinguished from yellow nut sedge and other sedges by its purplish brown spikelets and scaly or wiry rhizomes that often bear chains of tubers.Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical components of this herb are polyphenol, flavonol glycoside, alkaloid, saponins, sesquiterpenoids and essential oil. Rhizome of the plant is used in fever,arthritis,diuretic, nervine tonic, treatment of diarrhea and dysentery ,leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea, and blood disorders. Leaves and seeds are rich in volatile oil and act on digestive system. Fruits are used as carminative , diuretic tonic, stomachic. Oil is fungicidal and bactericidal.

EMBELIA RIBES : A POTENTIAL HERB

About Authors: 
Neha batra, honey jain
School of pharmaceutical science,
Jaipur National University, 
Jaipur

ABSTRACT
Herbal and natural products of folk medicine have been used for
centuries in every culture throughout the world.Embelia ribes burm f. also known as Vidanga is one of the oldest herbs in Indian traditional medicine.This species is reported to be vulnerable in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states of India and at a lower risk in Kerala state of peninsular India. Embelia ribes traditionally used as appetizer, carminative, laxative,  Anthelmintic  and  in liver diseases. Embelin as main consistuents of Embelia ribes having medicinal and pharmacological properties. The plant also  contains quercitol and fatty ingredients; an alkaloid christembine, a resinoid, tannins and minute quantities of a volatile oil. Embelia ribes posses many pharmacological action like analgesic, anti-fertility, antioxidant, antiandrogenic  and many more.

Pharmacognostical & Phytochemical Evaluation of Stem Bark of Ficus bengalensis Linn. : A Hypoglycaemic Plant

About Authors:
Namdeo K.P. Dr.1, Bodhake S. H.1,  Dwedi J. Dr.2, S. Shamim Dr.3 , Saifi Alimuddin3*
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, CG.
2Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Rajasthan.
3Translam Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Meerut.

Abstract
Ficus bengalensisis an indigenous plant belonging to family Moraceae possessing varied medicinal properties like antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic and also tender ends of hanging roots are prescribed to stop vomiting. Standardization is a method of assuring a minimum level of active ingredients in the extract and is becoming increasingly important as a means of ensuring a consistent supply of high quality phytopharmaceutical products. The World health Organization (WHO) emphasized the need to ensure quality control of medicinal plants products by using modern techniques and applying suitable standards. The following protocols for standardization of raw materials have been developedas authentication, foreign matter, macroscopic and microscopic examination, ash valueand extractive value, loss on drying, moisture content, Total flavonoid, total phenolic and total tannin contents determination of heavy metals, microbial contaminationand chromatographic profile(TLC &HPTLC).

Clerodendrum Serratum.(L) : Traditional Uses And Recent Findings

About Authors:
Jatin Sharma*, Dharmendra kumar{Sr. Lecturer}, Amarjeet Singh
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Shobhit University,
Meerut

Abstract
Objective: Clerodendrum serratum.(L)belong to family Verbenaceae a have long history as source of potential chemotherapeutic agents in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine.Clerodendrum serratum (L), Ban-Bakri is commonly known as Bharangi in Hindi and Bhargavi in Sanskrit. It is found from 1000 to 1800 meters above mean sea level. It is distributed in warmer regions of Deccan and Carnatic, West Coast districts of Tamil Nadu, Kumaon, Sikkim, and Assam.Clerodendrum serratumis one of the important plants from traditional system of medicine found all over the world.

Keyfinding: This review is intended to provide the currently available information on traditional and local knowledge, ethnobotanical and ethnomedical issues, identification of pharmacologically important molecules, and biochemical and pharmacological studies of this useful plant.

Summary: Clerodendrum serratum has been cited in many indigenous systems of health care for the treatment of variety of disorders. An extensively used as folk medicines for years have been investigated for their chemical constituents and biological activity to confirm these traditional claims.

CANCER THERAPY BY USING VARIOUS NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS

About Author:
YOGESH KUMAR SHARMA*1,  ANIL SHARMA2,
1. SIDDHI VINAK COLLEGE OF SCIENCE & HIGHER EDUCATION ALWAR,
2. GAYAN VIHAR COLLEGE OF PHARMACY JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

Abstract
Oxidation is a natural process that occurs anytime a substance combines with oxygen like the browning of sliced apples or rusting of metals. When it occurs constantly, putting our health at risk. Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Free radical damage may lead to cancer. Antioxidants interact with and stabilize free radicals & may prevent some of the damage free radicals otherwise might cause cancer. Antioxidants are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in other foods including nuts, grains ands some meats, poultry and fish. The battle to conquer cancer is an international effort for the treatment of cancer. Currently we have about 30 chemotherapeutic agents and out of these nearly one third are natural products.The aim of this review is to know that how might antioxidants prevent cancer. So prospective study of antioxidants, & its mechanism and potential  use in cancer therapy is presented.

The Preliminary Screening of Acalypha indica for Anti- Microbial and Anti-Helmintic Activity

ABOUT AUTHORS:
V. Karuna Sree*, G. Ramesh , T. Prathusha Showri, B. Sudheer Kumar, D. Chaitanya Kumar.
* Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy
K.V.S.R.Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical sciences,
Vijayawada-10, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract:
The  present study  was  carried  out  to  evaluate  the anti-microbial  &  anti-helmentic  activity  of  both  alcoholic  and  water  extract  of  the  whole  plant Acalypha  indica  belongs  to  the family Euphorbiaceae . The alcoholic  and  water  extract  of  whole  plant  of  Acalypha  indica was investigated  for  its  in vitro anti-microbial  activity  by  agar  diffusion  method  &  anti-helmentic  activity  . The  crude alcoholic  and  water  extract  of  plant  inhibited  the  growth  of  both  gram-positive  bacteria   and  gram-negative  bacteria  . The gram-negative  bacteria  tested appeared  to  be  more  susceptible  to  the  extract  than  the  gram-positive  bacteria. The alcohol extract also showed significant anti-helmentic activity  against Pheretima  posthuma . The anti-microbial  &  anti-helmentic  activity  of  both  alcoholic  and  water  extract  by  comparing  with  standard  Streptomycin & Albendazole respectively.

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