Memory Enhancing Activity of Methanolic Extract of Selaginella Bryopteris in Swiss Albino Mice

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About Author: Neeraj Kumar Garg*1, Pankaj Khatri1, Sangeeta Gupta2, N. Ganesh2
1. School of pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur (Raj.)
2. Incharge, Department of research, jawahar lal Nehru cancer Hospital and Research centre, Idgah hills Bhopal 462001 (M.P.)

Abstract
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder currently without an effective treatment. Impairment of memory is the initial and most significant symptom of Alzheimer disease (AD). The present study was under taken to investigate the effect of Selaginella bryopteris (popularly known as sanjeevani, Family: Selaginellaceae) on learning and memory. Two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) of methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris were administered for 7 successive days in separate group of animals. The dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. of the methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris significantly improved learning and memory of mice. Antioxidant property of Selaginella bryopteris may be contributing favourably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action. In the present investigation of Selaginella bryopteris have shown promising memory enhancing agent in the entire laboratory models employed.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1106

Introduction
Ayurveda is the oldest medical science in the Indian sub-continent and has been practiced since the 12th century BC. Its objective is to accomplish physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by adopting preventive health promoting and holistic approach towards life.

Neurodegenerative disease often effect mental performance in particular memory processing. (Trond M, 2003). Alzheimer disease is a progressive Neurodegenerative brain disorder that is slow in onset but leads to dementia, unusual behaviour, personality changes and ultimately death (Dhingra et al., 2004).

Selaginella bryopteris commonly called “Sanjeevani” belong to family – Selaginellaceae a xerophytic plant found hills of tropical areas, particularly the Arawali mountain, terrain from east to west in India. The plant grows luxuriantly during rains exhibiting a lush green velvety land scape. The whole plant has been shown to have many medicinal uses like: Anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, anti-leshmanial, apoptosis, burning sensation of urine (Sah NK et al., 2005; Pankaj, 2008; Olef Kunert et al., 2006; Olef Kunert et al., 2008)

Objective
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Selaginella bryopteris popularly known as “Sanjeevani” on learning and memory in mice.

Material and method
Plant material
The plant of Selaginella bryopteris was identified and authenticated by Dr. M. S. Parihar, HOD, horticulture department R.A.S. Agriculture College Sehore (M.P.). The plant of Selaginella bryopteris was collected from a high range of Ediki district, Kerala, India in the months of January 2009. The plant was shade dried at room temperature, grind to moderately fine power and stored in air tight containers.

Experimental  Animals
Swiss albino mice (25-30 g) of either sex were used for the study. The animals were housed in group of four in polypropylene cages, under standard laboratory conditions of temperature (25?2oC), lighting (0800-2000 h) and relative humidity (50?5%). The animals had free access to standard pellet chow (Green feed, New Delhi) and water. The animals were acclimatized for a period of minimum 7 days. Experiments were conducted between 0900 and 1400 hrs. The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Animals Ethics Committee (IAEC) of Jawahar Lal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Bhopal, M.P. and care of laboratory animals was taken as per CPCSEA guidelines (Reg. No. 500/1A/2002/CPCSEA).

Prepration of 50% methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris

Defatting of Plant Material
Powdered drug was subjected to extraction with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extraction was continued till the defatting of the material had taken place.

Extraction with 50 % Methanol
The defatted marc of the drugs was subjected to extraction with 50 % methanol in a soxhlet apparatus. The extraction was continued for a period of 4-5 days. The extract was then concentrated and finally vacuum dried to a constant weight.

Drugs
Drugs such as Shankhpushpi syrup(Dabur pharma, India) and Tween 80 (Ranchem, India) were used in the present study.

Experimental protocol:
In the present investigation, the mice were divided into four group (Pandey S, 1999).

Group 1 control group served as a normal saline

Group 2 standard group (Positive control) served Shankpushpi syrup 200 mg/kg body weight.

Group 3 Test group served as a methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris 250 mg / kg body weight.

Group 4 Test group served as a methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris 500 mg/kg body weight respectively.

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