Pharmacognosy Articles

Herbal medicine in Treatment of Heart disease: Cardioprotective Activity of Terminalia belerica

About Authors: Firoj Alam*, Vipra tomar, Ameena khatoon
Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University,
Lucknow (U.P.)

ABSTRACT
Cardioprotection and prevention of cell ischemia/necrosis have been therapeutic targets for a long time. New therapies are needed to treat myocardial ischemia because current treatmenthas only its own limitation on survival and annual costs. The fruit is reported to have hepatoprotective, purgative, choleretic, and hypotensive effects. In a clinical study, Terminalia belerica was found to possess antispasmodic, anti-asthmatic and anti-tussive effects. The fruit extracts of Terminalia belerica have been evaluated for anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial and anti-HIV-1 activity. The plant is known to lower the levels of lipid in hypercholesterolemic animals and thus  prevent the development of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction; Triphla and Terminalia belerica reduced the serum glucose level and showed marked antioxidant properties in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Polyphenols with proteins may be the probable cause of the inhibitory. Gallic acid: 3,4,5- trihydroxybenzoic acid is demonstrable the hepatoprotective action extract of Terminalia belerica. The presence of saponins, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, tannins and proteins show the analgesic agent used in the management of chronic pain. Phenolic contents of T. bellerica having antioxidant activity.and reduced the level of cholestrol.and also reduced the serum trasminase, and bilirubin. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity and its anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipedemic, Antihypercholesterolemic and cardiotonic effects, it will provide an accessible and cheaptraditional medicine source for treatment of cardiac disease in developing countries.

A Review Article on Linum Usitatissimum a Life Saving Drug Now a Days

About Author: Amarjeet Singh1, Dharmendra Kumar2, Jatin Sharma2, Dr. H. S. Lamba3
1. Subharamania Bharti College Of Science& Technology, Board of Technical Education, Delhi
Holambi Khurd, Delhi-82
2. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University
NH-58 modipuram, Meerut, U.P India
3.H.R.Institute of Pharmacy, U.P. Technical University
Morta,Ghaziabad,U.P.India

Abstract
Flax
 (also known as common flax or linseed, binomial name: Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum of the family Linaceae. Its origin is uncertain,but it is regarded as indigenous to India.It is cultivated extensively as a source of fibres in Egypt,Algeria,Spain,Italy and Greece while as a source of oil in Turkey, Afghanistan and India.In Russia, it is cultivated for both oil and fibre.Flax seeds come in two basic varieties: (1) brown; and (2) yellow or golden. Most types have similar nutritional characteristics and equal amounts of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Linseed  contains numerous beneficial components includingalpha-linolenic acid (ALA), cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin, linustatin, neolinustin), unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid), soluble flaxseed fiber mucilage (D-xylose, L-galactose, L-rhamnose, d-galacturonic acid), lignans (secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG)), monoglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, sterol esters, hydrocarbons (protein), phenylpropane derivatives.

Antioxidant Activity of Flowers and Leaves of Tabernaemontana Divaricata Linn.

About Author: C. Stalin*, S. Kamalasivam, E. Hariharan,
Pallavan College of Pharmacy,
Kancheepuram, Tamilnadu.

Abstract:
Tabernaemontana divaricata a common garden plant in tropical countries has been used as a traditional medicine. However, no recent review articles of T. divaricata, particularly discussing its pharmacological properties, are available. In present study, the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of flowers and leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata linn were evaluated . Free radicals have been regarded as a fundamental cause of different kinds of diseases. They cause biochemical damage in cells and tissues, which result in several diseases such as arteriosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, renal failure, aging, cancer, etc. Compounds that can scavenge free radicals are thus effective in ameliorating the progress of these related diseases. T.divaricata L. known locally as ‘Nandiyavattom’ belonging to the family, Apocynaceae a common plant in India, profoundly used in Ayurvedic medicine as  Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Anodyne, Diuretic property.1 The objective of the present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic extract of leaves and flower of Tabernaemontana divaricata (TALE & TLFE). Invitro antioxidant activity such as Reducing power ability ,  NBT reduction assay, Deoxyribose degradation assay was performed and was concluded that the ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata showed significant antioxidant activity.

Phytochemicals - A New Class of Feed Additives

About Author: Manoj Dupati, Shiva Kumar, Sharadamma K. C. and Radhakrishna P. M.
Provimi Animal Nutrition India Pvt Limited,
Yelahanka New Town, Bangalore – 560 106,
Karnataka, India

Plants have provided human beings for all needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, ?avours and medicines. In particular plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems like Ayurvedic, Unani, and Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs which are being used in modern medicine too. This article highlights and provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants having specific biological activity and finds use as feed additives ensuring better health and productivity of live stock.

Aphrodisiac Activity of Bombax Ceiba Linn. Extract in Male Mice

About Author: 1) Pankaj H. Chaudhary, M.Pharm
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Government College of Pharmacy,
Kathora Naka, Amravati – 444604, Maharashtra, INDIA.
2) Somshekhar S. Khadabadi*. M.Pharm., PhD.
Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Government College of Pharmacy,
Kathora Naka, Amravati – 444604, Maharashtra, INDIA.

Abstract
In the present study, the aphrodisiac activity of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae) root extract was investigated. The extract (400 mg/kg body wt./day) was administered orally by gavage for 28 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p < 0.05). The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF (p < 0.05). These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male mice.

Memory Enhancing Activity of Methanolic Extract of Selaginella Bryopteris in Swiss Albino Mice

About Author: Neeraj Kumar Garg*1, Pankaj Khatri1, Sangeeta Gupta2, N. Ganesh2
1. School of pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur (Raj.)
2. Incharge, Department of research, jawahar lal Nehru cancer Hospital and Research centre, Idgah hills Bhopal 462001 (M.P.)

Abstract
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder currently without an effective treatment. Impairment of memory is the initial and most significant symptom of Alzheimer disease (AD). The present study was under taken to investigate the effect of Selaginella bryopteris (popularly known as sanjeevani, Family: Selaginellaceae) on learning and memory. Two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) of methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris were administered for 7 successive days in separate group of animals. The dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. of the methanolic extract of Selaginella bryopteris significantly improved learning and memory of mice. Antioxidant property of Selaginella bryopteris may be contributing favourably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action. In the present investigation of Selaginella bryopteris have shown promising memory enhancing agent in the entire laboratory models employed.

Antimicrobial Activity of Plants Belong to Solanaceae Family

About Authors: Ajay Kumar Pathak,
Analytical Science Division,
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research,
19 University Road, Delhi, 110007

Introduction
The plant kingdom comprises many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value, which are yet to be explored. A large number of plants are constantly being screened for their possible medicinal value.[12] The use of plant extracts in traditional medicine has been going on from ancient time.[13] Herbalism and folk medicine, both ancient and modern, have been the source of much useful therapy.[14-16] In the recent years, the development of resistance of pathogens against antibiotics has become a difficult issue caused by the indiscriminate use of modern antibiotics.[17-23] Therefore, the demand for new and effective antimicrobial agents with broad spectrum activities from natural sources are increasing day by day. Infectious diseases account for approximately one-half of all deaths in tropical countries. The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials.

A Review on Complex Enhancer

About Authors: Shahin Shahida, Seema Kathait

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1082

Abstract
In this report, we explored the mechanisms underlying keratinocyte-specific and differentiation-specific gene expression in the skin. We have identified five keratinocyte-specific, open chromatin regions that exist within the 6 kb of 5' upstream regulatory sequence known to faithfully recapitulate the strong endogenous keratin 5 (K5) promoter and/or enhancer activity. One of these, DNase I-hypersensitive site (HSs) 4, was unique in that it acted independently to drive abundant and keratinocyte-specific reporter gene activity in culture and in transgenic mice, despite the fact that it was not essential for K5 enhancer activity. We have identified evolutionarily conserved regulatory elements and a number of their associated proteins that bind to this compact and complex enhancer element. The 125-bp 3' half of this element (referred to as 4.2) is by far the smallest known strong enhancer element possessing keratinocyte-specific activity in vivo. Interestingly, its activity is restricted to a subset of progeny of K5-expressing cells located within the sebaceous gland. The other half of HSs 4 (termed 4.1) possesses activity to suppress sebocyte-specific expression and induce expression in the channel (inner root sheath) cells surrounding the hair shaft. Our findings lead us to a view of keratinocyte gene expression which is determined by multiple regulatory modules, many of which contain AP-2 and/or Sp1/Sp3 binding sites for enhancing expression in skin epithelium, but which also harbor one or more unique sites for the binding of factors which determine specificity. Through mixing and matching of these modules, additional levels of specificity are obtained, indicating that both transcriptional repressors and activators govern the specificity.

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY STUDIES OF MORINGA OLIEFERA ROOTS

About Authors: Mayank Panchal1*, Biren Shah1, Krishna Murti1, Megha Shah1
1*Department of Pharmacognosy,
Vidyabharti Trust College of Pharmacy,
Umrakh, (Gujarat) INDIA

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1081

Abstract
Moringa oliefera Lam. is one of the best known and most widely distributed and naturalized species of a monogenetic family Moringaceae. The roots of plant were extracted with ethanol by soxhlet technique and aqueous extract of roots are prepared by maceration technique. Both the extracts are subjected to phytochemical screening. Require quantity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from the plant which is used as test drug in Streptozotocin induced diabetic model. The present investigation is undertaken to study the effect of the potential hypoglycemic effect of Moringa oliefera Lam. in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced Diabetes Mellitus.

Herbal Drug Development and Pharmacological Potential of Some Herbs

About Authors: Amit Tamiya (M.Pharm), Dr. Gopal Rai,
Department of Pharmacology Shri Ram Institute of Technology,
Jabalpur (M.P.), India

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1078

Abstract
In the recent time the science is proved the new aspects of herbal medicine, as therapy to treat disease, known as phytotherapy, is to be developed. It include the nutritional sciences, in it the phytochemicals that are ingested in the form of complex mixtures that are incompletely characterized in the past whose scientific study is being performed. The new methodologies developed in the area of nutritional sciences can inform phytotherapy research, opportunities for observational studies. Randomized clinical trials of single - herb interventions are relatively easy to justify its pharmacological effect. However, phytotherapy is the natural therapy, using lifestyle advice, nutrition and individually use of the combination of herbs, for the restoring the homeostasis. Now the clinical trial evaluated, this approach is useful in a wide range of conditions, Central nervous system, Hepatoprotective, mental disorder including chronic disease, associated with the human being.

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