Pharmacognosy Articles

Phytopharmacological Activities of Terminalia Species

About Author:
Sandeep Kaur
M.Sc. Microbiology (Hons.) in 2012
Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar,
Punjab- 143001.

Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. India is sitting on a gold mine of well-recorded and traditionally well practiced knowledge of herbal medicine. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value and Terminalia plant (Baheda) is one of them. Terminalia species (Family: combretaceace) including Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula are widely used medicinal plants throughout India and popular in various Indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Sidda and Unani. Terminalia chebula, is called ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet, because of its extraordinary power of healing. Terminalia plant has been demonstated to possess multiple pharmacological and medicinal activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer & tumor and wound healing activity. In the Indian Sytem of Medicine, whole plant including stem bark, fruit, root bark and seeds are used as astringent, cooling, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, tonic in fractures, ulcers, spermatorrhoea, leucorrhoea, cough, excessive perspiration and skin disorders. Phytoconstituents such as glucoside, tannins, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethylgalate, gallylglucose and chebulanic acid are mainly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharamacological activities of the plant1.

Formulation and evaluation of herbal ointment for wound healing and anti marking activity by using Vitis venifera and Annona reticulata seeds extracts

About author:
Gowthami Royal,
Mother Theresa institute, Tirupati

The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the two activities that are anti marking and wound healing activities by Ethanolic extracts of Annona reticulata and Vitis venifera with combination of honey , ghee and neem oil. The both Annona reticulata (custard apple) and Vitis venifera (grapes) are well known plants in Indian traditional medicine. According to the literature reference and Indian traditional use, both Vitus andAnnona were selected for evaluation of wound healing potentiality and anti marking capability. Phyto chemical studies revealed Ethanolic extract of Annona seeds have alkaloids, phytosterol, fixed oil, fats, phenolic compounds, tannins, proteins, amino acids and flavonoids. The studies revealed in case of grape seed extract which is having Linoleic acid, Oleic acid and Palmitic acid. Ethanolic extract of seeds of Annona reticulata and grape seed extract with other ingredients were examined for the activity in the form of ointment in wound models on rat. These formulations for test showed adequate response as compared to standard drug in terms of healing time, marks and tensile growth.


About Authors:
Marvinkumar I. Patel*, Jyoti P. Patel, Ravi P. Patel, Hitesh P. Patel
Nootan Pharmacy College,
Visnagar, Gujarat


Allicin is a novel molecule obtain from garlic. It is a molecule which is biologically active and give a good activity again so many disease in the treatment. It has mainly the virtu of killing the microorganisms which can not be killed by the regular antibiotics. It is not widely used in the pharmafield till today but widely used as food supplement but it has a wide scope to use as a novel tool to treat gastric cancer and microbial infection.

Development of validated spectrophotometric method for routine analysis of an Ayurvedic formulation, Pancasama Churna

About Authors:
Megha Sharma,
M.Pharma (quality assurance)
Shoolini university of life sciences,
Bhajol, Solan, Himachal Pradesh.

Traditional medicine, especially ayurveda, is gaining tremendous popularity in modern times due to several reasons. Though, there is still a lack of scientific tests to evaluate the quality, quantity, potency, safety and efficacy of ayurvedic formulations. Need of the hour is to develop simple routine analysis methods to eliminate the problems faced by both practitioners and patients due to sub standard medicines.[4]

Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic extract of Aerial parts of Emblica officinalis on Carragenin induced rat paw edema

About Authors:
Gourab Saha*, Sabitri Bindhani, Niranjan Kumar Manna
Department of Pharmaceutics,
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda,
Berhampur – 760002, Orissa, India


This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the Carragenin-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model).Methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to ketoprofen and indomethacin.


About Authors:
Ajay Rana
M.Pharm, Shoolini University of Life Sciences,


Medicinal herbs constitute important source of drugs. Treatment of diseases with medicinal herbs is called phytothrepary. The study of chemistry of plant derived drugs is known as phytochemistry. Medicinal herbs have given us a number of important drugs, which are mainstays of treatment in synthetic system of medicine. Ayurveda, Siddha, Homeopathy and Herbalism are completely dependent on plants for formulations. Salicin, a glycoside isolated from Salix alba attracted the researchers in the 19th century and it provided us with most potent weapon, Acetyl-salicylic acid for killing pain. The article highlights the historical usage and pharmacogonosy of medicinal herbs containing salicin.

Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic extract of Root of Achyranthes aspera on Carragenin induced rat paw edema

About Authors:
Gourab Saha*1, Akshaya Kumar Malana, Dr. Sambhit Parida2
1. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 760002, Orissa, India
2 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 760002, Orissa, India


This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model).Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to diclofenac and indomethacin.

Simple spectroscopic Methods for estimating Brain Neurotransmitters, Antioxidant Enzymes of Laboratory animals like Mice: A review

About Authors:
Habibur Rahman1, M.C Eswaraiah2
1Department of Pharmacology,
2Dept. of Pharmacognosy,
Anurag Pharmacy College,
Ananthagiri (V), Kodad (M),
Nalgonda (Dt.), A.P-508206, India

Brain neurotransmitters like Dopamine, serotonin, Adrenaline, Glutamate and enzymes like Acetyl cholinesterase (AchE), Mono amino-oxidase (MAO-A & MAO-B) levels and antioxidant enzymes like Superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase etc play important roles in different complex neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease(AD), Parkinsonism, depression etc. But biochemical estimation of these parameters is very difficult to conduct in simple laboratory. This review is a collection of simple spectroscopic methods to determine the common brain neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes.

Evaluation of Anti-diarrhoeal activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Allophylus serratus against Castor oil-induced diarrhea in wistar rats

1 Department of Pharmacology, P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2 Sri Padmavathi School Of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India

The ethanolic leaf extract of Allophylus serratus shown significant (p<0.05) antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with  castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. The results obtained revealed that the leaf extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhoea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine. The extract tested at 200 and 400 mg/kg like the standard drug, loperamide significantly inhibited the frequency of defecation droppings compared to untreated control rats. This result is in support of previous claims in respect of antidiarrhoeal herbs.


About Authors:
A. Srilakshmi, SK. Afsar, B. Priyanka, G. Jyothi Reddy, R.E.Amrutha, B.Jagadeesh babu, C. Raja ram
1. Department of Pharmacology,
P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy,
Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.

ALLOPHYLUS SERRATUS is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various risk factors like analgesia, inflammation, ulcers, and wounds. The aqueous extract of the leaf was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by formalin. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract had a good analgesic effect characterized by a reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. Similarly, the extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 0.05ml of 10% formalin. These results were also comparable to those of ibuprofen, the reference drug used in this study. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. This study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant in several communities for conditions such as stomachache, pain and inflammations.