Pharmacognosy Articles

BIOMARKERS

About Author:
Maanasa.B,
Sri Sai Aditya Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research,
Andhrapradesh

ABSTRACT:
Biomarkers in general used as an indicator of the biological response, pathological response and pharmacological responses and mostly used in scientific fields. Specifically, biomarkers indicate change in expression or the protein nature that correlate with disease progression. An ideal biomarker must be sensitive, specific and accurate and must be able to reveal the nature of disease / able to predict the outcome of the tumor reoccurrence. There are different types of biomarkers individualizing different roles like diagnostic biomarkers, detection biomarkers, prognostic biomarkers, predictive biomarkers. These biomarkers are used throughout the clinical trials process of cardiology, neurology and oncology and the present article describes the biomarkers.

Antibacterial Activity of Mussa acuminata Colla- medium (Interest to Wild Edible Plants of Tribal People of Tripura)

About Authors:
Jyotirmoy Das Choudhury, Dr. Biplab De,
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
Regional Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology. Abhoynagar, Agartala,
Tripura(W)

INTRODUCTION
Nature always stands as a golden mark to exemplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. The biotic & abiotic elements of nature are all interdependent. The plants are indispensable to man for his life. The knowledge of drug has accumulated over  thousands of years as a result of man’s inquisitive nature so that today we posses many effective means of ensuring health care.
In the part, almost all the medicines used were from the plants, the plant being men’s only chemist for ages. The history of medical plants dates back to RIG VEDA, perhaps the oldest repository of human knowledge, which was written in about 4500-1600 B.C. then there is the Ayurveda which given us detail accounts of many herbal drugs. Most of the medicinally active substance are identified in the 19th & 20th centuries was used in crude form. But now in modern days we use to take drug in the form of dosage form.

A REVIEW ON WOUND HEALING AGENTS OBTAINED FROM NATURAL SOURCES

About Authors:
Saravana Kumar K, Ramesh Y*,  
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Seshachala College of Pharmacy,
Tirupathi – Chennai High way,  
Puttur-517 583,  Chittoor (dist),
A.P., India

Abstract
Plants and their extracts have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Wound healing is complicated process that involves four phases: (i) coagulation begins immediately after injury, (ii) Inflammation which begins within hours, (iii) Proliferation which begins within days, (iv) Remodeling up to period of week, months, up to year. The phyto medicine for wound healing are not only cheap and affordable but are also purportedly safe as hypersensitive reactions are rarely encountered with the use of these agents. Mainly these crude drugs are obtained from various climatic conditions Collection, cultivating, Harvesting & Isolation of active ingredients to treat various types of diseases.

Quantitative Estimation of Piperine in Ayurvedic Formulations by HPTLC

About Authors:
Ujjwal S. Yeotkar*, Mahendra Nimbhorkar, Tushar A. Deshmukh, Vijay R. Patil
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Tapi Valley Education Society’s,
Hon’ble, Loksevak Madhukarrao Chaudhari College of Pharmacy,
North Maharashtra University,
Faizpur- 425 503,
Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT
Churna are important group of formulation used by Ayurvedic physicians to treat various types of diasease. Trikatu and Pimpali churna, as per Ayurvedic literature is used for the treatment of resperatory disorders. In the present study,an attempt has been made to develop a HPTLC  method of quantitative estimation of marker compound, piperine in laboratory prepared authentic formulation and a marketed formulation of Trikatu and Pimpali churna. The stationary phase used was precoated silica gel G 60 F 254 plates. The mobile phase containing n- Hexane-ethyl acetate, (5:5 v/v ), was used to separate the spot of Piperine. Plates were developed to a distance of 8 cm at room temperature. Spectrodensitometric scanning was performed by TLC scanner III (CAMAG) in absorbance mode at the wavelength of 339nm. The  Rf  values of  piperine was 0.44± 0.02. The method was validated in terms of Linearity, Accuracy and  Precision. The linearity curve found to be linear in between 200–900 ng/spot. The limit of Detection (LOD) and limit of Quantification (LOQ) were found to be  1 ng and  3 ng respectively. The mean results from % Recovery was found to be, laboratory formulation contain 85.13% and 83.47% while the commercial formulation shows 96.65%, and 90.32% respectively. The proposed method can be used to determine Piperine from Ayurvedic formulations.

A STUDY ON ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ACACIA LEAUCOPHLOEA BARK EXTRACT IN PYLORUS LIGATED RATS

About Authors:
Kapil Patel, Supriya Hazra Das
Department of Pharmacology
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College,
Kim, Surat – 394118,
Gujarat, India

Abstract:  
Peptic ulcer is a condition where benign lesions of gastric or duodenal mucosa occur at a site where the mucosal epithelium is exposed to acid and pepsin, due to imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Acacia leucophloea, a deciduous tree found throughout India is reported to be used in gastric ulcer in traditional medicine. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of Acacia leucophloea in pylorus ligation ulcer model in rats. Acacia leucophloea was administered for 7 days and on 8th day 30 min prior to the induction of ulcers. Pretreatment with Acacia leaucophloea showed significant ulcer protection against pylorus ligation ulcer model as compared to control. Thus, the ulcer protective and healing effects of Acacia leucophloea may be due to its effect on both offensive and defensive factors. The present findings suggest that Acacia leucophloea has antiulcer properties.

EFFECT OF RHIZOBIUM SEED INOCULATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH OF GREEN GRAM, BENGAL GRAM AND GROUNDNUT CROPS

About Authors:
Dr. M.B.SULOCHANA, PRASHANTH GADGI
Department of Biotechnology,
Gulbarga University,
Gulbarga, Karnataka,India

ABSTRACT
To determine the effect of rhizobium inoculation and nitrogen fertilizer on performance of Green gram, Bengal gram and Groundnut. Investigations were done in pot culture experiment under natural conditions. The research material consists of Green gram, Bengal gram and Groundnut varieties with treatment of seeds and Nitrogen fertilizer at 60kg/ha for green gram and Bengal gram, 120kg/ha for Groundnut. These treatments were compared against control (no inoculation). Data were recorded on Plant Growth parameters (seed germination, nodulation index, plant height at maturity, wet weight and dry weight) and soil nitrogen levels at the end of experiment. Among all treatments plant with seed inoculation was found effective in all three legume varieties compared to soil with nitrogen fertilizer and control.

Anti Inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Acacia leucophloea Roxb stem bark

About Authors:
Rajesh Gupta1*, Arun Kumar2, Aiswarya G3 , Santanu Roychowdhury1
1Department of Pharmacognosy,
Sri Sai College of pharmacy, Dalhousie road,
Badhani, Pathankot-145001,
Punjab, India.
2Department of Pharmacy,
BPS Mahila Vishwavidyalaya,
Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat
Haryana,India
3JDT Islam College of Pharmacy,
Vellimadukunnu, Calicut,
Kerala, India

ABSTRACT
The plant Acacia leucophloea Roxb is reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. The present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening of Acacia leucophloea Roxb, stem bark in vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract by using Carrageenan induced paw oedema and cotton pellet –induced granuloma model.The cotton pellet granuloma method is widely used to evaluate the transudative and proliferative components of the chronic inflammation. The moist weight of the cotton pellet correlates with the transuda; the dry weight of the pellet correlates with the amount of the granulomatous tissue. Administration of stem bark methanol extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. and phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg b.w.) appears to be effective in inhibiting the dry weight of the cotton pellet. These data support the hypothesis of the greater effect of the extract on the inflammation mediators in the immediate response of inflammation in rats.

Pharmacognostical and Pharmacological studies of Holoptelea integrifolia – An overview

About Authors:
Soujanya J, Silambujanaki P, Leela Krishna V
Department of Pharmacology, SRM College of Pharmacy,
SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203,
Kancheepuram Dist.,
Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract
Holoptelea integrifolia, Planch. is a widely used herb in traditional medical systems of India.It is an important pollen allergen of India andsensitizes almost 10% of the atopic population in Delhi.Various parts of Holoptelea integrifolia, a roadside plant, are indicated by Charaka Samhitha, Sushrutha Samhitha and other traditional systems for the treatment of inflammations, acid gastritis, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, intestinal worms, vomiting, wounds, vitiligo, leprosy, filariasis, diabetes, haemorrhoids, dysmenorrhoea and rheumatism.The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its pharmacological, traditional and phytochemical properties

PLANTS AS RICH SOURCE OF ANTIMALIGNANT AGENTS

About Authors:
Das Saumya1*, Basu saumya Priya1, Das Manas Kumar2, Das Sanjita1
1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET, Greater Noida, U.P., India.
2. Department of Pharmacy,
IEC-CET,
Greater Noida, U.P.,
India.

Introduction
Cancer has been one of the greatest scourges of mankind since time immemorial. It may be regarded as a series of malignant diseases characterized by (i) abnormal growth of cells (ii) ability to invade adjacent tissues and even distant organs and (iii) the eventual death of the affected patient if the tumor has progressed beyond the stage where it can be successfully removed. The incidence of cancer is expected to rise worldwide notably because of increase in life expectancy, changes in lifestyle patterns and environmental factors. Over the years, an increased understanding of cancer at cellular, molecular and genetic levels is opening up enormous opportunities to interrupt its initiation and progression. Although rapid strides have been made in treatment of cancer, there still remain many stumbling blocks in achieving cancer prevention and cure.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE TERMINALIA ARJUNA BARK

About Authors:
Amol A. Dambal
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka,
Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.

ABSTRACT:
The Bark of Terminalia arjuna is considered as a  Cardioprotective and hypolipidemic in folklore medicine. In present investigation, the detailed pharmacognostic study of Terminalia arjuna Bark is carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical evaluation.

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