Pharmacognostical and Pharmacological studies of Holoptelea integrifolia – An overview

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About Authors:
Soujanya J, Silambujanaki P, Leela Krishna V
Department of Pharmacology, SRM College of Pharmacy,
SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203,
Kancheepuram Dist.,
Tamil Nadu, India

Holoptelea integrifolia, Planch. is a widely used herb in traditional medical systems of India.It is an important pollen allergen of India andsensitizes almost 10% of the atopic population in Delhi.Various parts of Holoptelea integrifolia, a roadside plant, are indicated by Charaka Samhitha, Sushrutha Samhitha and other traditional systems for the treatment of inflammations, acid gastritis, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, intestinal worms, vomiting, wounds, vitiligo, leprosy, filariasis, diabetes, haemorrhoids, dysmenorrhoea and rheumatism.The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its pharmacological, traditional and phytochemical properties

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1209

Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. is traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. It thrives in deep porous soil with good drainage but becomes stunted and crooked on poor shallow soil. It is a moderate light demander and is not frost-hardy. It coppices well. The tree sheds its seeds during the hot season and they germinate at the commencement of the rains. Protection from the sun in early stages is beneficial. The rate of growth is fast. The bark and the leaves and twigs when crushed emit an unpleasant odor (WOA, 1997). The tree has a mucilaginous bark, which is boiled, and the juice squeezed out and applied to rheumatic swellings, the exhausted bark is then powdered and applied over the parts covered by the sticky juice.[1]

Monkey’s favourite fruit It is a Monkey´s favourite seasonal fruit. During extensive surveys in Patalkot valley of Madhya Pradesh and Dangs in South Gujarat, came across many important uses of the trees and herbs by the local inhabitants. Tribals in both these remote areas of India use Holoptelea in many herbal practices. It has been used to cure rheumatoid, piles, laryngitis and many more. In an interesting conversation with a village head in Patalkot, came to know that Monkeys eat Holoptelea fruits after conceiving or delivering babies. It is assumed that it gives strength and immunity. [2]                                  

The plant belongs to family Ulmaceae. It is commonly known as Indian Elm Tree. The flowering time of the tree is January to February, whereas, fruiting is seen in April to May. Holoptelea integrifolia is a large deciduous tree distributed throughout the greater part of India up to an altitude of 2,000 ft. It is sometimes grown on the road side. Trees or shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Winter buds with scales, rarely naked; axillary budsdeveloped; terminal bud usually dying backearly.

Macroscopic characters
Leaves Leaves (7.5-12.5 by 3.2-6.3cm) are elliptic-ovate, acuminate, entire (those of the seedlings and shoots often serrate), glabrous, base rounded or subcordate in shape. Leaves simple, alternate or rarely opposite, usually distichous, petiolate; leaf blade pinnately veined, basally 3(or 5) -veined, margin entireor serrate. Stipules usually membranous, caduceus, upper epidermis dark green in colour, lower epidermis lighter in colour.

Flowers Flowers usually male and hermaphrodite mixed, greenish yellow, polygamous and found in short racemes or fascicles at the scars of fallen leaves. Monochlamydeous, bisexual, or rarely unisexual or polygamous. Perianth lobes 4-9, imbricateor rarely valvate, persistent or caducous. Stamensusually equal in number to and opposite perianth lobes, opposite, basally adnate to tepals; filaments distinct; anthers 2-celled, longitudinally fissured. Pistil2-carpellate, Inflorescences axillary. Style very short (2.5-4 mm.long); stigmas 2, linear. Sepals often 4, pubescent, 1.5-2.5 mm. long.

Fruits Fruits are sub-orbicular with membranous wing. Ovary superior, 1(or 2) -loculed; ovule1, suspended, anatropous; integuments2. Fruitsamara, drupes, or winged nutlets, apically usually with persistent stigmas. Endosperms canty or absent; embryo erect, curved, or involute; cotyledonsflat, curved, or flexed.

Wood The wood is light yellow with an unpleasant odour when freshly cut, lustrous, somewhat interlocked-grained, medium and even-textured, moderately heavy. It can be kiln-seasoned successfully and retains its brightness and colour. Well seasoned wood is fairly durable in sheltered and well ventilated locations; for use in exposed places the wood requires to be given a pressure antiseptic treatment.

Bark Bark of the tree remains grey, pustular, exfoliating in somewhat corky scales. It may be pulped and made into hard boards and insulation boards. It contains lignin, cellulose, pentosans and ash. It is mucilaginous and used in external applications for rheumatism.

Seed Seedling epigeous. It yields 37.4% of yellow oil. The seed cake contains lysine, glutamic acid and histidine.

Timber It is used for brush backs and handles of dusting brooms, for which it is very suitable. It is also used for indoor building purposes, cheap furniture, cabinet work, carving, ploughs, yokes, carts and carriages, combs, shoe heels, mathematical instruments, warper bobbins for jute mills, cotton reels, dugout boats and for making charcoal.

Microscopic characters

The upper epidermis consists of small barrel shaped paranchymatous cells. In surface view they appear wavy in outline and trichomes are present on both the surfaces of leaf, more along the midrib region and less along the lamina. The covering trichomes are simple, unbranched, uniseriate, unicellular structures, apex blunt and walls smooth.  Stomata are present on the lower surface. Leaf type is dorsiventral. The palisade consists a single layer of regular, long,  columnar cells, beneath which is a 3 to 4 layered mass of closely packed cells filled with chloroplast. Stomata represented by anomocytic type. Some oil glands are present in the lower epidermis
In the midrib region cortex consists of 5 to 7 layers of paranchymatous cells. The vascular bundle is ovoid in shape. Mass of xylem and phloem shows different structures. Below the vascular bundle a zone of sclerenchymatous tissues are present. In between the upper epidermis and the vascular bundle 6 to 7 layer of irregular shaped collenchyma cells are present. The vascular bundle is collateral and open endark. There are few layers of cambium in between the xylem and phloem. The phloem consists of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma. Xylem consists of xylem vessels, tracheids and parenchyma. Xylem is seen on the upper side whereas phloem is seen towards the lower side of the epidermis. [3]  

The outline of the transverse section of the stem is nearly circular covered with many unicellar, uniseriate trichomes. The outermost multilayered periderm consists cork cambium and secondary cortex. The cork layer is interrupted at many places due to the presence of lenticels. The cortex is multilayered consists of parenchymatous cells. The primary phloem remains as patches of crushed tissue. The secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Vessels are present in broken conditions and crushed form. The xylem is represented by both primary and secondary xylem tissue. It consists of vessels and tracheids. The primary xylem towards pith. The secondary xylem consists of large vessels and xylem parenchyma. Xylem is found in the form of continuous medullary rays. The pith is large and remains to the central part of the stem. It consists of thin walled parenchymatous cells having many intercellular spaces. The pith regions have oil droplets. The vascular bundle is collateral and open endark.



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