Pharmaceutical Analysis Articles

A REVIEW ON MÖSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY

About Authors
Deepak Kumar Shukla*, Nazia Shahid, Vikas Kumar Alaria
Rajasthan Pharmacy College, Bhankrota, Jaipur (Raj.)
*deepakshukla.pharma@gmail.com

Abstract
Over the past several years spectroscopy has become the preeminent technique for determining the structure of organic compounds. The study of recoilless nuclear resonant absorption or fluorescence is more commonly known as Mossbauer spectroscopy. From its first origins in 1957, it has grown rapidly to become one of the most important research methods in solid-state physics and chemistry. Mossbauer spectroscopy uses the nuclear properties to get information regarding the environment surrounding the nucleus. This technique is now valid application in diverse fields, such as solid state physics, metallurgy, chemistry and biochemistry. For example, it is possible to use this method for estimating the iron or tin content in ores, alloys and wasters in a non-destructive manner to concentration down to 0.03 percent in a short time of  the order of 10 minutes. The technique can also detect the relative percentage of  different charged states of the same atom, for example fe2+ and Fe3+ present in the material. This is somewhat difficult to get from any other technique.

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

ABOUT AUTHORS
Satish A. Patel, Kaushik P Hariyani*
Department of Quality Assurance, S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Ganpat University, Ganpat Vidyanagar – 384012, Mehsana, Gujarat, India.
*hariyanikaushik@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Tolperisone hydrochloride and Diclofenac sodium from synthetic mixture. The chromatographic separation was performed on ACE 5 C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm particle size). Mobile phase consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer pH 6, acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio of 10: 50: 40, v/v/v at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The detection wavelength was set at 267 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The calibration was linear over the concentration range of 2-30 μg/ml for Tolperisone hydrochloride and 2-30 μg/ml for Diclofenac sodium. The retention times were found to be 2.1 ± 0.14min for Diclofenac sodium and 4.7 ± 0.13min for Tolperisone hydrochloride. The mean recoveries were 100.5 ± 0.34 and 100.8 ± 0.80 for Tolperisone hydrochloride and Diclofenac sodium, respectively. The method can be easily adopted for quality control analysis.

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CHLORZOXAZONE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN COMBINATION

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Satish A. Patel, Kalpesh M. Prajapati*
Department of Quality Assurance, S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Ganpat University, Ganpat Vidyanagar – 384012, Mehsana, Gujarat, India.
*kelpex.prajapati@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and rapid RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Chlorzoxazone and Diclofenac sodium from synthetic mixture. The chromatographic separation was performed on ACE 5 C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size). Mobile phase consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer (0.02 M KH2PO4, pH adjusted to 3 using orthophosphoric acid), acetonitrile and methanol (30: 30: 40, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength was set at 279 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2-50 μg/ml for Chlorzoxazone and 2-50 μg/ml for Diclofenac sodium. The retention times were 2.8 min for Chlorzoxazone and 6.3 min for Diclofenac sodium. The mean recoveries were 101.1 ± 0.47 and 100.8 ± 0.77 for Chlorzoxazone and Diclofenac sodium, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to determine the content of both drugs from the synthetic mixture. Hence, the method can be easily adopted for quality control analysis of both drugs in mixture.

A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF MASS SPECTROSCOPY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
G.Venkateswarlu*, M.Muthukumaran, B.krishnamoorthy, Ameren nishat
Montessori Siva Sivani Institute of Science & Technology College of Pharmacy-Mylavaram,
Vijayawada, Andhra pradesh-521230
*venkateswarlu460@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The goal of this review is to provide a guide for understanding current MS technology. Mass spectrometry (MS) has progressed to become a powerful analytical tool for both quantitative and qualitative applications. Proteomics research, in particular, increasingly depends on MS technologies. Basically, any information gathered from a mass spectrometer comes from the analysis of gas-phase ions. There are three main components of a mass spectrometer: an ionization source, a mass analyzer and a detector the name ‘mass spectrometry’ is a misnomer of sorts. The mass is not what is measured; instead, mass spectrometry determines the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio or a property related to m/z .A mass spectrum is a plot of ion abundance versus m/z, although in many cases the x-axis is labelled ‘mass’ rather than m/z. The spectrum is presented in terms of Daltons (Da) per unit charge The ability of mass spectrometry analyzing proteins and other biological extracts is due to the advances gained through the development of soft ionization techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) that can transform biomolecules into ions. Regardless of the ionization source, the sensitivity of a mass spectrometer is related to the mass analyzer where ion separation occurs.  

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A REVERSED-PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR ASSAY OF AZITHROMYCIN IN POWDER FOR ORAL SUSPENSION

About Author:
Swapna.G*
Department of pharmaceutical Pharmaceutical & Quality Assurance,
Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Mangalagiri, Atmakuru, Guntur -522 203.
*swapna.goday.gs@gmail.com

Abstract
A  simple,  precise  and  accurate  reversed phase liquid chromatographic method has been  developed  for  the  assay  of  azithromycin  in  powder  for oral suspension. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Asahipak ODP 40 E(250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm)  analytical  column.  A  mixture  of  methanol–ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (0.05M)  (30:70, v/v)  (pH 9.0)  was  used  as  the  mobile  phase,  at   a  flow  rate  of 1.5 mLmin-1  and  detector  wavelength  at  210 nm. The retention time of  azithromycin was  found to be at  8.0 min. The validation of the proposed method was carried out for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and stability indicating assay. The linear  dynamic range is from   382–1208 μgmL-1 for  azithromycin. The percentage recovery  obtained  for  azithromycin is 101.0%.  The developed method can be used for pharmaceutical dosage form and  in process testing.

PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF ROCK SALT IN PRESENCE OF CITRIC ACID BY FTIR SPECTROSCOPY

ABOUT AUTHOR:
BINDU.S
ANNAMACHRYA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,
RAJAMPET,KADAPA Dist, A.P, INDIA.
sirasalabindupharmacy@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Rock salt, also known as halite is the naturally occurring crystalline salt. It is the mineral form of sodium chloride or the table salt that we use. However, rock salt does not look like the regular table salt. Instead, it naturally forms in large isometric crystals. Moreover, rock salt can be white like table salt or it can be red, orange, yellow or blue in color. The color of rock salt basically depends on the amount, and the kind of impurities present in it. Along with sodium, rock salt contains many other minerals including, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, potassium, copper and several other trace minerals. Like table salt, rock salt too has great many uses. rock salt in massive bags for the purpose of keeping down ice on the roads in the winter.

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE BY DUAL WAVELENGTH METHOD

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Hiral H. Patel*, Paresh U. Patel,
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Center for Health and Science Studies,
Ganpat University, Ganpat Vidyanagar – 384012,
Mehsana, Gujarat, India.
*patel.hiral2210@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This method describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical derivative spectroscopic methodfor the simultaneous determination of tolperisone hydrochloride (TOL) and diclofenac sodium (DIC) in bulk and synthetic mixture. In this study, dual wavelength spectroscopic method was used for simultaneous determination of tolperisone hydrochloride and diclofenac sodium using the absorbance difference at two wavelengths. The absorbance differences of 257 nm and 306.20 nm were selected for the estimation of TOL and the absorbance differences of 243.40 nm and 265.40 nm were selected for estimation of DIC. The method was found to be linear (r2>0.999) in the range of 2- 18 μg/ml for tolperisone hydrochloride. The linear correlation was obtained (r2>0.997) in the range of 2- 18 μg/ml for diclofenac sodium. The limit of determination was 0.66 and 0.27 μg/ml for tolperisone hydrochloride and diclofenac sodium respectively. The limit of quantification was 2.00 and 0.83 μg/ml. The method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of tolperisone hydrochloride and diclofenac sodium in binary mixture.

A REVIEW ON ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Rajani Pathuri*, M.Muthukumaran, B.Krishnamoorthy, Amreen Nishat
Montessori Siva Sivani Institute of Science & Technology-College of pharmacy
Mylavaram, Vijayawada, Andhrapradesh-521230
*rajani.prakash4@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Analytical methods development and validation play important roles in the discovery, development and Manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Method development is the process of proving that an analytical method is acceptable for use to measure the concentration of an API in a specific compounded dosage form which allow simplified procedures to be employed to verify that an analysis procedure, accurately and consistently will deliver a reliable measurement of an active ingredient in a compounded preparation. The analytical method validation is essential for analytical method development and tested extensively for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantization limit, and robustness. In summary, analytical method development and validation allows to confirm that an accurate and reliable potency measurement of a pharmaceutical preparation can be performed. 

A CRITICAL REVIEW ON CALIBRATION OF ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS

About Authors:
Manoranjan Thunuguntla*, B.Krishnamoorthy, M.Muthukumaran, Amreen Nishat, Vasu Naik
Montessori Siva Sivani Institute Of Science & Technology College Of Pharmacy,
Mylavaram, Krishna District,
Andhra Pradesh

* manozph@gmail.com

Abstract1:
Analytical instruments are used for specific analysis of drugs and pharmaceuticals. So, regular performance verification is made to ensure that instrument used in the analytical purpose should be properly calibrated and validated “to demonstrate that it is suitable for its intended purpose”. This article is prepared in the sense to get all the information on calibration of basic analytical instruments in laboratory and industrial scale of scientific institutions. The scope of this article is to get the procedures of calibration of analytical instruments at here. Calibration of instruments with their procedure and precautions of Thermometer, Ph Meter, Karl Fisher, Polarimeter, Conductivity Meter, Tablet Fraibilator, Hardness Tester, Disintegration Test Apparatus, Dissolution Test Apparatus, Potentiometer and U. V. Spectrophotometer are mentioned below.

EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF FRESH SOYA-BEAN OIL AVAILABLE IN BANGLADESH

ABOUT AUTHORS:
MR. Zubair Khalid labu*1, Md. Abdul Bake2, Razia Sultana3
1,3
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh,
2
Department of Pharmacy, Gono University, Savar, Dhaka 1344, Bangladesh.
* zubairlabu@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Hydrogenated soya-bean oil is the product obtained by refining, bleaching, hydrogenation and deodorisation of oil obtained from seeds ofGlycine soja Sieb. and Zucc. andGlycine max (L.) Merr. (G. hispida (Moench) Maxim.). Soya-bean oilis a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean. It is plant based and less harmful saturated fats and offers nutrition and health related benefits.  The main objective of this work has been done for the evaluation and analyzing the quality of soya-bean oil available in local market. For the examination of soyabean oil six fresh samples of different sources were collected randomly from the market. British pharmacopoeia (BP) specifications were used for the determination of acid, peroxide and iodine value. The results were compared with the standard specified by Bangladesh standard and testing institute (BSTI). After three months study we observed that physical examination of all the samples were complies with the specification and chemical examination such as, In case of peroxide value, all the samples were found to comply with the specification and only two (S-5 and S-6) of them have comparatively higher value but remain within the limit. But In case of iodine value, five samples were within the limit, and only one sample (S-6) was out of specification. After over third month analysis we observed that all the sample value were higher than from first month study. The consumers which have to take this spurious product must be careful to take this because it may be harmful if adulterated.

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