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5. MARKETED PRODUCTS OF  NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Nanotechnology
today is growing very rapidly and has infinite applications in almost everything we do. The medicine we take, food we eat, chemicals we use, car we drive and much much more.

mknano offers large variety of nano products in various forms as mentioned below:

A) Carbon Nanotubes:
Single wall (SWNT), Double wall (DWNT), Multiwall (MWNT), (alligned/tangled/dispersable), OH, COOH Functionalized SWNT/MWNT, Industrial Grade SWCNTs, MWCNTs, Conducting (Metallic) and Semiconducting SWCNTs, MWCNT Nonwoven Papers, CNT Foam, Special application CNTs.

Other Nanotubes (Metals, Compounds, and Oxides/Hyroxides)

B) Quantum Dots:
Cadmium Mercury Telluride (CdHgTe), Cadmium Selenide (CdSe), Cadmium Selenide/Zinc Sulfide (CdSe/ZnS), Cadmium Sulfide (CdS), Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Cadmium Telluride/Cadmium Sulfide (CdTe/CdS), Lead Selenide (PbSe), Lead Sulfide (PbS)

C) Nano Dry Lubricant Powders:
Tungsten Disulfide (WS2), Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2), Hex-Boron Nitride (hBN), Graphite,
Specially formulated Nano Lubricant Additive Powders to improve lubricity and save energy.

D) Nano Powders:

Table: 6 list of nanopowders

Alumina

Aluminum

Aluminum nitride

Aluminum oxide

Antimony pentoxide

Antimony tin oxide

Brass

Calcium carbonate

Calcium chloride

Calcium oxide

Carbon black

Cerium

Cerium oxide

Cobalt

Cobalt oxide

Copper

Copper oxide

Gold

Hastelloy

Hematite

Indium

Indium tin oxide

Iron

Iron-cobalt alloy

Iron-nickel alloy

Iron oxide

Iron oxide, transparent

Iron sulphide

Lanthanum

Lead sulphide

Lithium manganese-oxide

Lithium titanate

Lithium vanadium-
oxide

Magnesia

Magnesium

Magnesium oxide

Magnetite

Manganese oxide

Molybdenum

Molybdenum oxide

Montmorillonite-clay

Nickel

Niobia

Niobium

Niobium oxide

Silicon carbide

Silicon dioxide

Silicon nitride

Silicon nitride-
Yttrium oxide

Silicon nitride-
Yttrium oxide-
Aluminum oxide

Silver

Stainless steel

Talc

Tantalum

Tin

Tin oxide

Titania

Titanium

Titanium diboride

Titanium dioxide

Tungsten

Tungsten carbide-cobalt

Tungsten oxide

Vanadium oxide

Yttria

Yttrium

Yttrium oxide

Zinc

Zinc oxide

Zirconium

Zirconium oxide

Zirconium silicate

E) Elements:
Ag; Al; Au; B; C (diamond); C (Graphite); Co; Cr; Cu; Fe; Mn; Mo Ni; Sn; Si; Ti; TiH2; W; Zn

F) Compounds:
AlN; B4C; BN (hexagonal/cubic); B3N4 (hex.); CaS; CrB; Cr3C2; CrN; FeS; GaN (spher.); GaP; HgI2; InP; LaB6; Mo2B; Mo2C; MoS2; NbC; NbN; PbS; SiC; Si3(C0.5N0.5)4; Si3N4; TaC; TaN; TiB; TiC; TiC0.8N0.2; TiC0.7N0.3; TiC0.5N0.5; TiN; VC; VN; WB; WC; WC/Co; WN; ZnS; ZrB2; ZrC; ZrN

G) Single Metal Oxides:
Al2O3; Al(OH)3; B2O3; Bi2O3; CeO2; CoO; Co3O4; CrO3; Cr2O3; CuO; Dy2O3; Er2O3; Eu2O3; Fe2O3; Fe3O4; Gd2O3; HfO2; In2O3; In(OH)3; La2O3; MgO; Mg(OH)2; Mn2O3; Mn3O4; MoO3; Nd2O3; NiO; Ni2O3; PbO; Pr6O11; Sb2O3; SiO2; Sm2O3; SnO2; Tb4O7; TiO2 (anatase/rutile); VO; V2O3; V2O5; WO3; Y2O3; ZnO; ZrO2

H) Multielement Oxides:
BaCO3; BaFe12O19; BaSO4; BaTiO3; CaCO3; Ca5(PO4)F; CoFe2O4; CuFe2O4; MgAl2O4; MgFe2O4; Li4Ti5O12; NiFe2O4; In2O3:SnO2; Li2CO3; LiCoO2; LiMn2O4; SrAl12O19; SrAl12O19; SrCO4; SrFe12O19; SrTiO3; Y3Al5O12 ZnFe2O4

I) Nanoparticle Dispersions:
Nanoparticle dispersions are available in water, 2-Propanol, Toluene, Ethylene Glycol etc.

J) Element Nanoparticle Dispersions:
Carbon (Nanodiamond), Carbon (Carbon nanotubes), Cobalt, Copper, Gold, Iron, Platinum, Silicon, Silver, Titanium

K) Oxide Nanoparticle Dispersions:
Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3), Iron Oxide (Red, Yellow), Silicon Oxide (SiO2), Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Anatase/Rutile, Zinc Oxide (ZnO)

L) Rare Earth Oxide (REO) Nanoparticle Dispersions:
CeO2, Dy2O3, Er2O3, Gd2O3, Ho2O3, Sm2O3, Y2O3, ZrO2

6. Applications of nanotechnologies
The anticipated economic potential of nanotechnologies is phenomenal. It is predicted that a multitude of applications will be found for nanoparticles and affect many sectors of activity.

A) Automobile and aerospace industries:
reinforced and lighter materials; adhesives; more efficient electrical and magnetic rheological liquids; scratch-resistant, elastic, dirt-repelling exterior paints with colour effects; lighter, faster, safer vehicles; more durable and more reliable roads, bridges, pipelines and railway systems; anticorrosion coatings; sensors optimizing engine performance; ice detectors on aircraft wings, recyclable, longer-lasting tires; incombustible plastics.

B) Electronics and communications industries:
high-density memories and miniaturized processors; new solar cells, batteries and combustion cells; optoelectronic components, including lasers; faster processing speeds; greater data storage capacity; pocket electronic libraries; coupling silica with organic substances; logical digital components; ultra fast compact computers and electronic games with quantum electronics, wires and computers; brightly lit flat screens.

C) Chemical and materials industries:
multifunctional and more efficient ceramics, pigments, powders and catalysts; lighter and stronger wires; corrosion inhibitors and corrosion-resistant alloys; adhesiveless bonding technologies; new welding technologies; functional layers (thermal insulation, anti-adhesive, antistatic); photoactive and selfcleaning paints, windows and clothing; membranes for separation of materials (water treatment, dialysis); structured catalysts; ultra resistant coatings; extremely hard and resistant cutting tools.

D) Pharmaceutical, biomedical and biotechnology industries:
new drugs and active agents, including cosmetics, sun creams and protective creams; new antiallergenic medical adhesive surfaces; improvement of existing drugs, customized drugs delivered only to specific organs of the body; biocompatible surfaces for implants; nanoparticle-based oral vaccines; production of magnetic nanoparticles from biological media and production of biocompatible materials; tissue engineering and regeneration; neuron-transistor interfaces.

E) Healthcare:
Nanomaterials will allow physicians to do a better job of viewing, treating and repairing the body’s interior: the implanting of miniaturized diagnostic media to obtain early diagnoses; in surgery, tissue engineering and implants with nanotechnological coatings that can improve biocompatibility and bioactivity; multifunctional sensors; DNA analysis; manufacturing of ultraprecision devices, analytical and positioning systems, better optical systems; novel means of remedying severe handicaps such as deafness, blindness or certain paralyses; membranes for dialysis; preventive medicine with highly sensitive minisensors, microlaboratories, highdensity microchips; early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cancer; biodetection of pathogens; protein detection, tissue engineering; destruction of tumours by heating.

F) Energy:
New generation of photovoltaic cells; more economical lighting; batteries and compact combustion cells with large internal surfaces; hydrogen storage in nanotubes; quantum dot lasers; more efficient conversion of solar and wind energy; intelligent windows; more efficient insulating materials.

G) Manufacturing sector:
precision engineering for production of new generations of microscopes and measuring instruments; new processes and new tools for manipulating matter at the atomic level; nanopowders incorporated into bulk materials with special properties, such as sensors that detect imminent failures and monitor measurement controls; manufacturing of biologically inspired materials.

H) Environment and ecology:
selective chemistry; colloidal membranes; selective catalysts; protection of sensitive organisms and reduction of CO2 emissions; functional non-toxic layers of multifunctional sensors for environmental depollution; production of ultrapure water from seawater, better use, recovery and recycling of existing resources, more efficient and less harmful pesticides and fertilizers; specific real-time chemical and multisubstance analyzers.

I) Process security:
compact zeolite reactors; new bonding technologies; production of copies (credit and debt cards, bank notes); adjustment of standards at the atomic scale, self-organized processes; quality control at the atomic scale; manufacturing processes with sensors leading to production with less defects.

J) Defense:
detectors of chemical and biological agents; much more efficient electronic circuits; much more resistant materials and coatings; light, high-performance textiles that repair themselves; miniaturized surveillance systems; more precise guidance systems.

K) Others uses:

  • Some nanomaterials are already in commercial use. Examples include the use of metallic oxides in ceramics, zinc, iron, cerium and zirconium oxides, anti-scratch coatings for lenses, and in certain cosmetics and in sunscreens.
  • It is estimated that the skin protection and skin care market uses 1000 to 2000 metric tons of metallic oxides annually.
  • Clays with nanometric dimensions are integrated into certain materials to increase their strength, hardness, heat resistance and fire resistance.
  • Nanotubes are already used as coating to minimize and dissipate static electricity in fuel lines and in electronics, in electrostatic paints and as flame retardants for certain plastics. Also, bandages, cardiac valves, non-streaking paints and unwrinklable and anti-stain fabrics containing nanometric components are being produced.
  • Exploratory studies are under way to use quantum dots in diagnosis and medical therapy and for self-assembly of nanoelectric structures.
  • Several composites displaying specific mechanical, optical, electrical or magnetic properties use nanoparticles. For example, monolayer or multilayer carbon fibers would allow control of the conductivity of certain plastics; they would be used in antistatic packaging. Carbon black, part of which has a nanometric dimension, is already widely used to reinforce tires. Composite materials based on nanometric-dimensioned clay and plastic are widely used, particularly for automobile bumpers.
  • Although certain zeolites, titanium, zinc and iron oxides, carbon black and silica are the only nanoparticles currently produced in high tonnage, it nonetheless remains that, in the years ahead, nanoparticles will contribute to the improvement of a many products in various sectors. Major advances are expected in the short term in electronics, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine.

7. NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR HEALTH EFFECTS
Nanoparticles have exceptional physical, chemical and electrical properties. What about their biological properties and interactions with the human body? Do they present a health risk for the workers who produce, handle, transform or use them?

There are two major reasons for modifying nanoparticle surfaces. First, a surface coating is frequently used to prevent aggregation of particles, but little data is available on the toxicity of these coated nanoparticles. Second, many modifications have been made to nanoparticle surfaces to modify their behavior in the human body and develop new medications.

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