GLOBAL SCENARIO OF HERBAL DRUG TODAY AND TOMORROW

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About Authors:
1Bhatt Mehul K.*, 2Dr. Captain A.D.
1Department of Pharmacognosy,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies & Research Centre,
Valasan-388 326, Anand, Gujarat, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry
A. R. College and G. H Patel institute of Pharmacy,
Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand-380 015, Gujarat, India.
*mkb_0999@yahoo.co.in

Absract:
Today estimate that about 80% of people in developing countries still relays on traditional medicine based largely on species of plants and animals for their primary health care. India has one of the richest plant traditions in the world. These are estimated to by around 25,000 effect plant based formulations, used in folk medicine and known to rural communities in India. Indias share in the export of herbals is USD 63 billion which is just 0.2% of the global herbal market. So there is obviously vast scope for Indian manufacturers for entering the growing worldwide opportunity of business in herbal pharmaceutical field. We also have to focus on standardization of herbal products. Pharmaceutical export promotion council i.e PHARMEXCIL is ready to play a key role in this regards. Currently, a majority of the adverse events related to the use of herbal products and herbal medicines that are reported are attributable either to poor product quality or to improper use. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control systems and largely uncontrolled distribution channels may have been contribution to the occurrence of such events. So Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines is required.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1826

Introduction: 1-5
Today estimate that about 80% of people in developing countries still relays on traditional medicine based largely on species of plants and animals for their primary health care. Herbal medicines are currently in demand and their popularity is increasing day by day. About 500 plants with medicinal use are mentioned in ancient literature and around 800 plants have been used in indigenous system of medicine. The use of herbal medicine becoming popular due to toxicity and side effects of allopathic medicines. In India around 20,000 medicinal plant species have been recorded recently but more than 500 traditional communities use about 800 plant species for curing different disease. Plants are important sources of medicines and presently about 25% of pharmaceutical prescriptions in the United States contain at least one plant derived ingredient. Ayurveda is the most ancient system of health care. India enjoys a rich heritage of more than 1000 years of knowledge in ayurveda.

Herbal medicines obtain from plants:1, 5-10
India has one of the richest plant traditions in the world. These are estimated to by around 25,000 effect plant based formulations, used in folk medicine and known to rural communities in India. These are over 1.5 million practioners of traditional medicinal system using medicinal plants in preventive, promotional and curative applications. It is estimated that there are over 7800 medicinal drug manufacturing units in India, which consume about 2000 tones of herbs annually. During 1950-1970 approximately 100 plants based new drugs were introduced in the usa drug market including reserpidine, rescinnamine, reserpine, vinblastine and vincristine which are derived from higher plnats. From 1971-1990 new drugs such as etoposide, E-guggulsterone, artemisinin and ginkolides appeared all over the world. Plant base drugs provide outstanding contribution to modern therapeutics for example serpentine isolated from the root of Indian plant Rauwolfia serpentine in 1953, was a revolutionary event in the treatment of hypertension and lowering blood pressure. Vinblastine isolated from Catharanthus roseus is used for the treatment of hodgkins, choriocarcinoma, non-hodhkins lymphomas, leukemia in children, testicular and neck cancer. Vincristine is recommended for acute lymphocytic leukemia. Podophyllum emodi currently used against testicular small cell lung cancer and lymphomas. More than 64 plants have been found to possess significant anti-bacterial properties and more than 24 plants have been found to possess anti-diabetic properties. Teniposide and etoposide isolated from podophyllum species are used for testicular and lung cancer. Taxol isolated from Taxus brevifolius is used for the treatment of metastatic ovarian cancer and lung cancer.


Market value of herbal medicine: 1, 10-12
Indias share in the export of herbals is USD 63 billion which is just 0.2% of the global herbal market. So there is obviously vast scope for Indian manufacturers for entering the growing worldwide opportunity of business in herbal pharmaceutical field. In many countries our product can be registered and thus can gain the necessary reliability for their export. The registration guidelines for every country are different and unique hence a thought should also be given to the possibility of melting such requirements before identification of market for our product. Global awareness for quality is high and we must emphasize on quality building into the product. The manufacturing facilities and infrastructure should comply with the GMP standards. Our own drugs and cosmetics law & rules define GMP for traditional medicinal products, in schedule T and every effort should be made by each and every manufacturer so as to comply with these standards.

Standardization of herbal product:13-17
We also have to focus on standardization of herbal products. The products we offer are complex formulations and though many, products are in use as traditional medicines we must seriously work towards their standardization. The current scenario calls for regulatory data and proofs of regulations for every product to be exported. Thus standardization of herbal products has immense importance for various registration procedures in foreign countries. Pharmaceutical export promotion council i.e PHARMEXCIL is ready to play a key role in this regards to act as co-coordinator and fascinator so as to initiate various efforts. Right from cultivation of medicinal plants to exports o value added herbal formulations to international markets, opportunity is knocking India’s door. We are confident that with conscious and systematic efforts, we can achieve excellent growth in this field which would help in earning valuable foreign exchange to the country.

Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicine:18-29
Currently, a majority of the adverse events related to the use of herbal products and herbal medicines that are reported are attributable either to poor product quality or to improper use. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control systems and largely uncontrolled distribution channels may have been contribution to the occurrence of such events. In order to expand the knowledge about genuine adverse reactions to herbal medicines and to avoid wasting scarce resources for identifying and analyzing adverse events, events resulting from such situations will need to be reduced or eliminated. Member states of the WHO are therefore encourages strengthening national regulation, registration and quality assurance and control of herbal medicines. In addition, the national health authorities should give greater attention to consumer education and to qualified practice in the provision of herbal medicines.

Table 1: Size and growth of market for ISM

Market size

In million

Ayurvedic medicines

Rs. 35,000 US $ 824

Homeopathic medicines

Rs. 6,000 US $ 824

Siddha medicines

Rs. 50 US $ 824

Unani medicines

Rs. 1,000 US $ 824

On the contrary in India, herbal drugs are an integral part of the Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) which is an ancient and main stream system. Moreover, our culture is rich in herbal drugs thereby causing a high incidence of their self medication as also these drugs are sold openly. The people who are not supposed to use herbal drugs are also using them frequently. Due to these factors in our country, the number of herbal product users is highest in the world. Surprisingly the health care providers have not paid any attention in this direction. It is appreciable that now, union health ministry is working on a proposal to include the Indian system of medicine in to modern medical education. It can be useful and fruitful provided evidence based facts of herbal drugs whose use is common in our country are included in undergraduate curriculum.

We all, working together will make India a strong force in the global natural product markets. Let us all come together and work towards making India a significant player in the global herbal product exporter.

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