Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic extract of Root of Achyranthes aspera on Carragenin induced rat paw edema

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About Authors:
Gourab Saha*1, Akshaya Kumar Malana, Dr. Sambhit Parida2
1. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 760002, Orissa, India
2 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 760002, Orissa, India

*gourab.pharma2012@gmail.com

Abstract
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model).Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to diclofenac and indomethacin.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1280

Introduction
The search for new pharmacologically active agents obtained by screening natural sources and plant extracts has led to the discovery of many clinically useful drugs that play a major role in the treatment of human diseases. In India, a small proportion of wild plants have been investigated both phytochemically and pharmacologically. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is a wild tropical plant. Betaine and achyrathine are the principle alkaloids identified from the whole plant. The isolated achyranthine is used in traditional medicine to treat many ailments and is also recommended for the treatment of menstrual disorder. The leaves of Achyranthes aspera are used in the treatment of gonorrhoes. The roots of Achyranthes aspera are used in treatment of cancer, stomach troubles and bladder stones. The seeds of Achyranthes aspera are used in treatment of renal dropsy, bronchial affections and bladder stones. The branches are used as tooth brushes. Further, a decoction of flowers and barks is given for hemoptysis and dysmenorrhea. We report here on the anti- inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model) in male albino rats.

Materials and methods:
Animals

Healthy adult cross-breed albino male rats (150–200 g) were used in the study. The animals were kept in plastic cages (four per cage) under standardized animal house conditions with continuous access to pellet feed and tap water. Every effort was made to minimize animal suffering and to reduce the number of animals used in this study.

Plant material
The fresh plant of Achyranthes aspera were collected from the Malkangiri district of Orissa in the month of September.

Extraction:
The air-dried root (50 g) was powdered and extracted with methanol (50–60ºC) for 6 h using the Soxhlet extraction process. The extract was subjected to vacuum distillation under reduced pressure. Here the solvent distillated off and concentrated into syrup mass then to it 5ml of concentrated HCl was added and then allow to still the mixture under reflux for 2 hours. Then kept the mixture for cooling below 5ºC for 2 hours. Then it was filtered under vacuum. Then the filtered was made alkaline pH 9 with 10% ammonia solution before addition of few drops of boiling water to the precipitate. Then allow the mixture into reflux for 2 hours. Then cooled at room temperature and filter it under vacuum. The precipitate was taken and dried properly to make the powder form.

Anti-inflammatory activity:

Carrageenan-induced paw edema
Thirty five male albino rats were utilized for studying carrageenan induces hind paw edema. The rats were divided into three groups. The suspension of  the drug (test as well as standard to respective groups) were administrate intramuscularly 30 min before injection of carrageenan  paw volume was measured and the percentage inhibition of edema at different time interval was calculated.

Table 1: Acute anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera, indomethacin (reference drug), diclofenac (reference drug) on Carrageenan induced paw edema in male albino rats.

 

Group

Edema rate (%)

1 hr

2 hr

3 hr

4 hr

5 hr

 

Control

 

0.41 + 0.02

 

0.64 + 0.04

 

0.70 + 0.03

 

0.72 + 0.03

 

0.74 + 0.03

 

Diclofenac

0.19 + 0.02

(50)

0.29 + 0.03

(52.31)

0.41+ 0.03

(43.08)

0.49 + 0.05

(30.14)

0.55 + 0.04

(24)

 

Indomethacin

0.19 + 0.02

(52.38)

0.20 + 0.03

(67.99)

0.22 + 0.03

(67.61)

0.25 + 0.03

(64.38)

0.36 + 0.09

(50.67)

Extract (methanolic achyranthes aspera)

0.20 + 0.01

(54.76)

0.29 + 0.01

(56.92)

0.50 + 0.01

(30.99)

0.59 + 0.04

(20.55)

0.60 + 0.03

(18.67)

Results
The results obtained are summarized in Table 1. As shown, all the doses of methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera tested caused a significant (p < 0.05) and marked reduction in paw edema (32–40.5%) compared to control at each time point measured. Indomethacin and diclofenac also impaired the edema formation, but this anti- inflammatory effect was much stronger (55–68%).

References

  • Bhatterjee SK (2001): Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 3rd ed. Jaipur, Pointer Publisher, pp. 11
  • Hostettmann K (1997): Strategy for the biological and chemical evaluationof plant extracts. Presented at: International Conferenceon Biodiversity and Bioresources: Conservation and Utilization,23–27 November, Thailand, abstr. no. 178.
  • Pharmacopoeia of India, Vol. 11, 3rd edition, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Page – 64.
  • Arregoni – mastellie, E (1977) inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, spectrum publications Inc New York Page – 119 to 120.
  • Kavinavis, Vetricholvan T, Liango R, Jaykar B (1966) anti- inflammatory action of volatile oil of toddalin artatica, Indian J. pharm science. Page 67 to 70.

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