Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education


About Authors:
Jatin  Patel1*, Prof. Rajesh Kumar Dholpuria2, Dhiren Shah1
2(Professor, Head of Department of pharmacognosy),
1Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, INDIA

Liquid chromatography is a fundamental separation technique in the life sciences and related fields of chemistry. Unlike gas chromatography, which is unsuitable for nonvolatile and thermally fragile molecules, liquid chromatography can safely separate a very wide range of organic compounds, from small-molecule drug metabolites to peptides and proteins. Traditional detectors for liquid chromatography include refractive index, electrochemical, fluorescence, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detectors. Some of these generate two- dimensional data; that is, data representing signal strength as a function of time. Others, including fluorescence and diode- array UV-Vis detectors, generate three-dimensional data. Three-dimensional data include not only signal strength but spectral data for each point in time. Mass spectrometers also generate three- dimensional data. In addition to signal strength, they generate mass spectral data that can provide valuable information about the molecular weight, structure, identity, quantity, and purity of a sample. Mass spectral data add specificity that increases confidence in the results of both qualitative and quantitative analyses. For most compounds, a mass spectrometer is more sensitive and far more specific than all other LC detectors. It can analyze compounds that lack a suitable chromophore. It can also identify components in unresolved chromatographic peaks, reducing the need for perfect chromatography. Mass spectral data complements data from other LC detectors. While two compounds may have similar UV spectra or similar mass spectra, it is uncommon for them to have both. The two orthogonal sets of data can be used to confidently identify, confirm, and quantify compounds.


About Authors:
Arshad Hala*, Prof. Rajesh Dholpuria, Nilesh Sovasia
1Seth G. L. Bihani S. D. College Of Technical Education,
Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research,
Gaganpath, Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan 335001

1.1. Origin:-

Contract manufacturing is defined as the manufacture (or partial manufacturer) of a product to the order of one person or organization (the contract giver or customer) by another independent person or organization (contract acceptor or principle manufacturer). Manufacture in this context is identified as the act of processing or packaging a medicinal product or device to a given specification.(Shah, D.H., 2000)

Contract manufacturing should be consideration as an extension of the principal manufacturer’s operation. Consequently the principal manufacturer should require the same standards of good manufacturing practices (GMP) for a contractor’s operation as he would his own. In addition, the customer must ensure that the principle manufacturer holds the relevant legal authorizations for the work to be carried out.(Shah, D.H., 2000)

The responsibility and activities undertaken by each party need to be clearly stated in a formal agreement, separate from but additional to the legal business contract formed by the placement of an order. Commercial matters need to be appreciated as being distinct from technical matter and need to be detailed separately with due consideration for compliance with local legislation.(Shah, D.H., 2000)


About Authors:
Sahil Jasuja1*, Mahesh Kumar Kataria1
1 Department of Quality Assurance,
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical education (Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research),
Sri Ganganagar, (Raj.), India.

Regulatory involvement and environmental concerns are causing pharmacists to take a closer look at how their organizations are managing pharmaceutical waste. Each organization should evaluate its current waste management practices in comparison with state regulatory guidelines. Organizations must then develop a comprehensive plan for full compliance through segregation of waste into the appropriate waste streams. The discovery of a variety of pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, and drinking waters around the country is raising concerns about the potentially adverse environmental consequences of these contaminants. Pharmaceutical waste is not one single waste stream, but many distinct waste streams that reflect the complexity and diversity of the chemicals that comprise pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical waste is potentially generated through a wide variety of activities in a health care facility, including but not limited to intravenous (IV) preparation, general compounding, spills/breakage, partially used vials, syringes, and IVs, discontinued, unused preparations, unused unit dose repacks, patients’ personal medications and outdated pharmaceuticals. The consistent increase in the use of potent pharmaceuticals, driven by both drug development and our aging population, is creating a corresponding increase in the amount of pharmaceutical waste generated.

Radio Immunoassay of Drugs and Hormones

About Authors:
Dhiren Shah
Seth G.L.Bihani S.D.College of Pharmacy, R.U.H.S.
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, INDIA

A method has been developed for immobilisation of antisera on fresh plastic tubes through an immunochemical bridge. This type of immobilisation has been shown to be more consistent than direct adsorption on plastic. Such immunochemically coated antisera on plastic tube has been used in the development of a noncentrifugation radioimmunoassay. This assay system has been found to be technically as sound as the conventional method.


About Authors:
Krunal Parikh1*, Mr. Maheshkumar Kataria2
(assistant professor, Department of pharmaceutics)
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, INDIA

The word Patent originated from the Latin Word "Patene" which means 'to open'. A patent  is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state (national government) to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention.

Under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, patents should be available in WTO member states for any inventions, in all fields of technology, and the term of protection available should be the minimum twenty years. Different types of patents may have varying patent terms(i.e., durations).After 1972  The Act remained in force for about 24 years without any change till December 1994. An ordinance effecting certain changes in the Act was issued on 31 st December 1994, which ceased to operate after six months. Subsequently, another ordinance was issued in 1999. This ordinance was subsequently replaced by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 1999 that was brought into force retrospectively from 1st January, 1995. The amended Act provided for filing of applications for product patents in the areas of drugs, pharmaceuticals and agro chemicals though such patents were not allowed. However, such applications were to be examined only after 31-12-2004. Meanwhile, the applicants could be allowed Exclusive Marketing Rights (EMR) to sell or distribute these products in India, subject to full filment of certain conditions.