Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education

COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY - MODERN SYNTHESIS APPROACH

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Sunil Shastri*, Harsh Narang.
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Sriganganagar, Rajasthan.
sunil11044@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The Combinatorial Chemistry is a scientific method in which a very large number of chemical entities are synthesized by condensing a small number of chemical compounds together in all combinations defined by a small set of chemical reactions.

Combinatorial technologies provided a possibility to produce new compounds in practically unlimited number. New strategies and technologies have also been developed that made possible to screen very large number of compounds and to identify useful components of mixtures containing millions of different substances. Instead of preparing and examining a single compound, families of new substances are synthesized and screened. In addition, combinatorial thinking and practice proved to be useful in areas outside the pharmaceutical research Such as search for more effective catalysts and materials research. Combinatorial chemistry became an accepted new branch within chemistry.
The aim of this project is to provide a basic introduction to the field of combinatorial chemistry describing the development of major techniques and some applications. 

PRESCRIBING TREND OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN SRI GANGANAGAR DISTRICT: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Amarjeet Singh*, Sudeep Bhardwaj, Ashutosh Aggarwal
Department of Pharmacology,
Seth G. L. Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan 335001, India
*amarjeetsingh024@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective
: The choice of drug for the treatment of hypertension changes at short intervals. Drug utilization studiesconducted at regular intervals help to guide the physician in prescribing drugs rationally. The present study was done toanalyze the prescribing patterns of antihypertensive drugs in a NorthIndian  hospital.

Material & method: A retrospective, crosssectional analysis of prescriptions of antihypertensive cases admitted in Medicine in-patient wards of civil hospital of Sri Ganganagar was conducted. All the prescription files with diagnosis ofessential hypertension were analyzed. Prescriptions for hypertension with other co-morbid conditions were also included. Frequency and proportions of utilization of antihypertensive medications were charted and figured.

Result: During the studyperiod, there were 435 prescriptions for essential hypertension. The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive medications were:  monotherapy (42.06%), (57.94%) of patients were on multiple drugtherapy, the most favored fixed drug combination being diuretics with angiotensin receptor blockers (31.74%).

Conclusion: The present study revealed that Angiotensin receptor blockers arethe drugs of choice as monotherapy and as combination therapy for hypertensives. This pattern of prescription is also supported by the current JNC VIII guidelines for the treatment of hypertension.

RISK ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN PATIENT ON ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MEDICATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Amarjeet Singh*, Sudeep bhardwaj, Ashutosh aggarwal
Department of Pharmacology,
Seth G. L. Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research
amarjeetsingh024@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:
The purpose of this study was to examine the risk assessment of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in patient on antihypertensive medication.

Material & Method: In the present study total 30 patient with essential hypertension of both sex with mean age (48.6±0.8313) were recruited as per the inclusion criteria. Patients were segregated on the behalf of therapy they were using. 22 patients were on Losartan+HCTZ therapy and 8 patients were on Atenolol therapy.

Result: After six month of antihypertensive therapy Atenolol group showing a significant difference in their blood glucose (0.0014) whereas in Losartan+HCTZ group significant difference was not observed (0.1542). Patients of Atenolol group when compared with patient of Losartan+HCTZ group a significant difference was observed in the serum cholesterol level (0.0290).

Conclusion: We found that the use of β-blocker was independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. So increase in blood glucose in the Atenolol group patient revealed a significant association between use of Atenolol therapy and metabolic dysfunction whereas in Losartan+HCTZ group significant increase in blood glucose was not observed and from these we can conclude therapy with Losartan+HCTZ therapy not associated with metabolic dysfunction.

MICROENCAPSULATION: ADVANCEMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY AND ITS PATENTS

About Authors:
Arsh Chanana*, Mahesh Kumar Kataria, Ajay Bilandi
Department of Pharmaceutics, Seth. G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Sri Ganganagar (Rajasthan) INDIA
*arshchanana806@gmail.com

Abstract-
Microcapsule is a tiny sphere including core material/internal phase or fill, coated with/surrounded by wall know as shell, coating or membrane. The usual size range of the microcapsule lies between 1 to 1000 μm. The technique is usually applied for targeted drug delivery, protection of the molecule and stability if the core material. Microencapsulation system offers potential advantages over conventional drug delivery systems and also established as unique carrier systems for many pharmaceuticals. This article contains the traditional and the recent techniques, including their patents, for the preparation of microcapsules. Solvent exchange method, coacervation, polymerization, hot melts etc are several recent techniques are used for the preparation of the microcapsules. The microencapsulation technique, as Novel drug Delivery System (NDDS), is widely applied for delivery of probiotics, drugs, pesticide, food etc. Although significant advances have been made in the field of microencapsulation, still many challenges need to be rectified during the appropriate selection of core materials, coating materials and process techniques.

VISIBLE RESIDUE LIMIT- SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Arsh Chanana
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education Sri Ganganagar.
arshchanana@ymail.com

ABSTRACT-
Pharmaceutical manufacturers must validate their cleaning process to ensure compliance with cGMP regulations. Minimizing equipment downtime significant impact on efficiency and economics of pharmaceutical production. The main purpose of cleaning validation is to provide effective and consistent cleaning in a given pharmaceutical production which can prevent cross contamination and adulteration of drug products with other active ingredients unintended compounds or microbiological contamination, leading prevention of several serious problems. So it is necessary to validate the cleaning procedures to ensure safety, efficacy and quality of the subsequent batches of drug product or API’s. Cleaning validation is also essential to meet regulatory requirements. The benefits of  “cleaning validation” are compliance of regulatory requirements and potential problems, previously unsuspected. Which could compromise the safety and efficacy of drug products.


Garlic (Allium sativum) : Potential Clinical Benefits & Garlic Preparations

About Authors:
Sharma Monish*, Kumar Bhupender
Seth G.L Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research.
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan (INDIA)

*monish28sharma@gmail.com

Introduction :
The name “Allium sativum” is derived from the Celtic word “all”, meaning burning or stinging, and the Latin “sativum” meaning planted or cultivated. The English word, garlic, is derived from the Anglo-Saxon “gar-leac” or spear plant, referring to its flowering stalk.(Kemper J Kathi.2000)
Garlic (Allium sativum), a member of the Liliaceae family, is a common food for flavour and spice  and it is one of the herbs most commonly used in modernfolkloric medicine. Garlic was an important medicine to theancient Egyptians as listed in the medical text Codex Ebers(ca.1550 BC) especially for the working class involved in heavy labour because it was an effective remedy for many aliments such as heart problems, headache, bites, worms and tumours. In 1858, Pasteur noted garlic’s antibacterial activity, and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II. (Thomson Martha.et.al.2007, Tattelman Ellen.2005)

HERBS AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH ALLOPATHIC DRUGS – A REVIEW

About Authors:
Sharma Monish*, Kumar Bhupender, Bhardwaj Sudeep
Seth G.L Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research.
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan (INDIA)
*monish28sharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT :
During the recent past, a dramatic rise in the use of herbs and herbal remedies has been witnessed in many parts of the world.  While such products had been used with apparent safety in traditional societies for many centuries, when they are being combined with pharmacological agents, posses the possibility of potential interaction between the two groups of substances. In this situation, herb-allopathic drug interaction is an important factor to be measured because there is always a chance to get undesirable therapeutic effect of the prescribed allopathic drug, as like allopathic (prescription) drugs. Herbal medicines also have different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties which ultimately lead to produce therapeutic responses, but sometimes cause adverse actions and/or drug-herbal interactions. Drug interaction refers to the situation where two or more separate drugs have been absorbed into the body and their effects are affected by each other, i.e. the effects are increased or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. The aim of this article is to highlight the interactions between herbal remedies and prescribed drugs.

“QUALITY-CONTROL”WITH “QUALITY PREMISES” IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

About Authors:
Sharma Monish*, Kumar Bhupender
Seth G.L Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research. Sri Ganganagar,
Rajasthan (INDIA)
*monish28sharma@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION1:  GMP emphasis on the Quality Control on environment and facilities, testing of the materials, components and Product in accordance with the standard.

As Per INDIAN GMP2  :  Following Five elements in the schedule M are  inter-related and these are:
i)       
Factory Premises(location& surrounding, building& premises)
ii)     
Warehousing area;
iii)   
Production area;
iv)   
Ancillary area;
v)     
Quality control area.

WHO Provides Guidelines for Quality Premises who fulfill the following Objectives :-
i)      Suitability of premises to carryout intended operations.
ii)     Minimizing risk of errors.
iii)    Permitting effective cleaning & maintenance.
iv)    Minimizing contamination.

QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF PACKAGING MATERIALS

About Author:
Sahil Jasuja1*, Mahesh Kumar Kataria2
1Department of Quality Assurance,
2Assistant Professor
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical education (Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research),
Sri Ganganagar, (Raj.), India.
*sahiljasuja@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Packaging of materials is an integral part of any pharmaceutical industry. Packaging affects the quality stability and identification of drug product. Packaging provide an adequate degree of protection, minimize the loss of constituents and should not interact physically or chemically with the contents in a way that will alter their quality to an extent beyond the limits given in the individual monograph, or present a risk of toxicity. Pharmaceutical packaging is the means of providing protection, presentation, identification, information and convenience to encourage compliance with a course of therapy. The commonly used packaging materials are Container, Closure, Carton or Outer and Box. The containers may be made of glass, plastic, matel or paper. The material for closure may include Cork, Glass, Plastic, Metal or rubber. There are various tests for determination of quality, integrity and compatibility of packaging materials. The specification and requirement of quality testing depends on type of pharmaceutical materials used. Containers are tested by many methods of which commonly used test for glass are Crushed glass test, Whole-Container test, Chemical resistance of test, Water Attack Test etc. Similarly test. Closure materials are tested by Transparency test Penetrability Fragmentation test Self seal ability test, Extractive test etc. The requirement of packaging material testing is set according to specification of regulatory agencies like WHO GMP, USFDA and ICH guidelines.

CROSSOVER DESIGNS AND BIOAVAILABILITY STUDY WITH STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Bhupender Kumar*, Prof. Sudeep Bhardwaj, Monish Sharma, Ramchandra
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education (Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences
And Drug Research), Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, 335001
*bhupendra.nimiwal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In a typical crossover design, each subject takes each of the treatments under investigation on different occasions. Comparative bioavailability or bioequivalence studies, in which two or more formulations of the same drug are compared, are usually designed as crossover studies. Perhaps the greatest appeal of the crossover design is that each patient acts as his or her own control. This feature allows for the direct comparison of treatments, and is particularly efficient in the presence of large inter individual variation. However, caution should be used when considering this design in studies where carryover effects or other interactions are anticipated. Under these circumstances, a parallel design may be more appropriate.

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