A REVIEW ON INSTRUMENTATION OF THERMAL ANALYSIS METHOD: DTA, DSC

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About Authors:
Bhupender Kumar*, Assit. Prof. Prasant Beniwal, Monish Sharma, Ramchandra
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education
(Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences And Drug Research),
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan
*bhupendra.nimiwal@gmail.com

Abstract:
Thermoanalytical methods essentially techniques that are based entirely on the concept of heating a sample followed by well-defined modified procedures, such as : gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermogravimetric analysis measured weight change, differential scanning calorimetry measured heats and temperature of transitions and reactions, differential thermal analysis (DTA) measured temperatures of transitions and reactions.


Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1600

1.   INTRODUCTION:
1.1 Thermal Analysis Techniques

Thermal analysis includes a group of techniques in which specific physical properties of a materials are measured as a function of temperature. Current areas of application include environmental measurements, composition analysis, product reliability, stability, chemical reactions, & dynamic properties. Thermal analysis has been used to determine the physical & chemical properties of polymers, electronic circuit boards, geological materials, & coals.[10]

1.2 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC):
In this technique, the sample & references materials are subjected to a precisely programmed temperature change. When a thermal transition (a physical & chemical change that results in the emission or absorption of heat) occurs in the sample, thermal energy is added to either the sample or the reference container in order to maintain both the sample & reference at the temperature. Because the energy transferred is exactly equivalent in magnitude to the energy absorbed or evolved in the transition, the energy yields a direct calorimetric measurement of the transition energy.

1.3 Differential thermal analysis (DTA):
In this technique, the difference in temperature between the sample & a thermally inert reference material is measured as a function of temperature (usually the sample temperature). Any transiton that the sample undergoes results in liberation or absorption of energy by the sample with a corresponding deviation of its temperature from that of reference.[10]


Table:1 Thermal analysis technique

Techniques

Quality measured

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

Weight change

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

Heats and temperature of transitions and reactions

Differential thermal analysis (DTA)

Temperatures of transitions and reactions

Figure:1 Differential thermogram showing types of changes encountered with polymeric materials [8]

2.      INSTRUMENTATIONS:
2.1 
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC):

The technique was developed by E.S. Watson and M.J. O'Neill in 1962, and introduced commercially at the 1963 Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy.[12]

Two basic types of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) must be distinguished:
·         the heat flux DSC and
·         the power compensation DSC

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