Research Articles

DRUG UTILIZATION OF ANTI HYPERTENSIVES IN CKD PATIENTS: A RANDOMIZED PROSPECTIVE STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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ABOUT AUTHORS
ASHIKA RANJANI. M*, SAHITHI GOUD. B, AMATUL WADOOD SUMAYYA, SYEDA NABILA FIRDOUS, AMATUL ALI SAMEERA
Dept. of Pharmacy Practice
Sree Dattha Institute of Pharmacy, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (Hyderabad)
Sheriguda (V), Ibrahimpatnam (M), Ranga Reddy (Dist), Telangana, India

ABSTRACT
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the clinical use of Antihypertensive drugs in patients with chronic Kidney disease at a tertiary care teaching hospital.

METHOD: An observational, prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hyderabad, T.S, India. A total of 184 patients from the inpatient department of nephrology Department at  Gleneagles Global Hospitals, Bairamalguda, LB Nagar, Hyderabad. All information significant to the study was collected from the case records and discussions conducted with the in-patients and bystanders during ward rounds, with the support of a physician, which were analyzed by SPSS software. Moreover, daily follow-ups were conducted to assemble data on amendment in therapy, add-on therapy, and clinical improvement.

RESULTS: The Mean Age was 59.29 years and the standard deviation was 1.116 of the population, 60% were smokers and 40% were alcoholics. The most commonly used Class of anti-hypertensive drugs are Calcium channel blockers with percentage of 64.13%, Diuretics with percentage of 57.60%, β blockers with percentage of 43.47%. Whereas most commonly used Calcium channel blockers are Amlodipine with percentage of 52%, and Cilindipine with percentage of 9.10%.Diuretics are are Furosemide with percentage of 36.90% and Toresemide 11.40%. Most commonly used Adenergic Antagonist are in β Blockers are Metoprolol with percentage of 31.50%, In α blockers are prazosin with percentage of 26%, In α+β blocker are Carvedilol with percentage of 8.60%. Most commonly used ARB’s are Telmisartan with percentage of 6.50%, and ACE’s are Ramipril with percentage of 1%. Most commonly used central sympatholytics are Clonidine with percentage of 18.40%, Vasodilators are Minoxidil with percentage of 1%. Medication adherence have been done, In which patients with High Adherence are with percentage of 16.21%, Medium Adherence are with percentage of 45.94%, Low Adherence are with percentage of 37%. This is done by Morisky medication adherence scale 8.

CONCLUSION: We have concluded that the CCB’s, diuretics and β-blockers are the most commonly used anti-hypertensive classes in hypertensive patients with CKD. Use of anti-hypertensives in CKD patients does not deviate from the guidelines laid down by NKF KDOQI guidelines. The patients should be educated about the rational use of drugs to decrease medication adherence.

ASSESS THE CLINICAL USAGE OF NEBULIZATION THERAPY AND ANTIBIOTICS IN IN-PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED PROSPECTIVE STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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ABOUT AUTHORS
SPANDANA. M*, VAISHNAVI. M, PRAVALIKA. P, SUSMITHA. S, AMATUL ALI SAMEERA
Dept. of Pharmacy Practice
Sree Dattha Institute of Pharmacy,
Sheriguda (V), Ibrahimpatnam (M), Ranga Reddy, Telangana, India

ABSTRACT
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to assess the clinical usage of Nebulization and Antibiotic therapy in COPD.
METHOD: An Observational, Prospective, Cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Telangana State, India. A total of 102 patients from the In-patient department of Pulmonology in Gleneagles Global Hospital, who were prescribed Nebulizers and Antibiotics and those who fulfilled the exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for the study which was conducted for 6 months. All information significant to the study was collected from the case records and discussion conducted with the In-patients and bystanders during ward rounds with the support of a physician which were analyzed by SPSS software. Moreover daily follow-ups were conducted to assemble data on amendment in therapy, add on therapy, and clinical improvement.
RESULTS: The Mean age was 66 years and Standard Deviation was 13 years of the population. 41% were smokers and 27% were alcoholics. The most commonly used Bronchodilator is Duolin with a percentage of 96%. The most commonly used antibiotic is Magnex Forte with a percentage of 41.1%. The most commonly used formulation is Orals with a percentage of 53%. 92% of individuals responded in a positive way after the Nebulization therapy with Oxygen therapy provided to them, as their SpO 2 levels with oxygen therapy changed to normal range.
CONCLUSION: Nebulization therapy had more clinical improvement when compared to Inhalational therapy. The addition of corticosteroids had decreased the patient stay in hospital. Antibiotics added to the treatment decreased the frequency of exacerbations. Antibiotics added to the treatment decreased the frequency of exacerbations. The patient should be educated about the rational use of the drugs and decrease the risk and exacerbations of COPD.

STUDY OF IN-VITRO BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PRODRUGS OF ESTER AND AMIDE LINKAGES OF IBUPROFEN, DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND PARACETAMOL IN ACIDIC AND ALKALINE MEDIUM

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Dhrubo Jyoti Sen
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Shri Sarvajanik Pharmacy College,
Mehsana, Gujarat, India
dhrubosen69@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Our goal is to perform in-vitro biotransformation of Prodrugs of ibuprofen+paracetamol, diclofenac sodium+paracetamol and ibuprofen+diclofenac sodium by acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of both ester (–COO–) and amide (–CONH–) linkages into free drugs and chromatographically separation of their Rt in HPLC. Since both ester (–COO–) and amide (–CONH–) linkages are susceptible for hydrolysis in both acidic pH (gastric pH) and basic pH (intestinal pH) to produce parent drug ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol by biotransformation in in-vivo; so it will be implemented as a Prodrug which can show prolong action on pain and fever after getting release into free parent drug by biotransformation. The HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) study reports the retention time (Rt) and release kinetics of three Prodrugs by taking HPLC degradation datas of three samples of Prodrugs and individual HPLC datas of parent drugs separately to compare the Rt value of release of three drugs from Prodrugs in both acidic and alkaline pH. Prodrug–A (logP=4.56) releases Ibuprofen & Paracetamol, Prodrug–B (logP=4.90) releases Diclofenac & Paracetamol and Prodrug–C (logP=6.13) releases Ibuprofen & Diclofenac. This is a comparison study of drug release in in-vitro gastric as well as intestinal pH focusing on in-vivo biotransformation.  Keywords: Prodrug-A/Prodrug-B/Prodrug-C, Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, Diclofenac sodium, Molecular weight, logP, UV λmax, IR, Mobile phase, TLC-Rf value, HPLC-Rt value, LOD, LOC

MULTI ORGAN DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING CONSUMPTION OF TUBERS OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA : A RARE CASE REPORT

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ABOUT AUTHORS
*K. Vinod1, B, Dr. N. Surendra Reddy1,Dr. K. Chandra Sekhar2, Dr. D. Ranganayakulu1

1Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy,
Tiruchanoor, Tirupati, India.
2 Department of General Medicine,
Sri Venkateswara Medical College,
Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India .

*drvinodkatiboina@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
A 25 years married man was admitted on to emergency acute medical care unit. He had fallen ill after an afternoon meal from 4 days ago which consisted of rice and 3 tubers identified as gloriosa superb. About 3hrs after the ingestion, he developed abdominal pain, vomiting (15-20 episodes), and watery diarrhoea 15-20 episodes. He developed bleeding gums, yellowish discoloration, hematemesis 30-50 ml, 24episodes, haematuria, decreased urine output along with continued diarrhoea and vomiting. He was treated with iv fluids crystalloids and colloids titrated, 1 fresh frozen plasma (FFP), 1fresh platelet transfusion, inj. vit K, supportive treatment with close monitoring of vitals. Therapy as planned for ventilator support, however had ever had bleeding per rectum and hematemesis with aspiration, even with best available resuscitative efforts he succumbed to his illness and declared clinically dead after 36hrs of admission, his cause of death was given as multiorgan dysfunction see to gloriosa superb. Though poisoning with gloriosasuperba is rare it is mostly fatal and requires aggressive and prompt treatment is mandatory from saving the patient from death.

MICROMERITIC STUDY OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA HERBAL TABLET WITH ITS EVALUATION

ABOUT AUTHORS
*Ladi Alik kumar , Dash Priyadarshini , Nayak Chandan , Barri Prasanta kumar   Gayatri Institute of Science and Technology,
Gunupur, Rayagada,765022, Odisha
*alikkumar3@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Neem is a large, dense evergreen tree in India growing 10-105m tall leaves divided into numerous leaflets. It has great healing power, acts as purifier, helps in treatment of eczema, leprosy and epiphoram.

The aim of the present work is to improvise the flow ability of herbal powders and minimized processing problems of herbal drug tablet. Macroscopic character of neem tree bark is thick, rough, brown in colour. leaf is alternate estipulate and are closely clustered towards the ends of the branches.
Micromeritic study is done using bulk density and tapped density, porosity, compressibility index, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio.
Preparation of extract of neem tablet is done by weight granulation method. It can be evaluated by weight variation, hardness test, friability test and disintegration test.
After all the evaluation is done, the prepared neem leaf passes all the Q.C test.

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ETHYL CELLULOSE BASED SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE AND THEOPHYLLINE COMBINATION MICROSPHERE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
*Nayak Chandan1, PadhiPriyanka1
Gayatri Institute of Science and Technology,
Gunupur Odisha, India
*nayakchandan279@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: 
The study is concerned with the development of Ethyl Cellulose microspheres by the o/w emulsification and solvent evaporation method in the presence of tween 80 as an emulsifying agent. The influence of process parameters such as solvent mixture, composition, concentration of the emulsifying agent and speed of stirring has been examined. The microspheres have been analysed for their size, drug loading capacity and drug release study. Spherical and smooth surfaced microspheres with desired encapsulation efficiencies were obtained. Slow drug release from microspheres observed up to6- 8 h. An optimization procedure was employed to investigate and identify the key parameters affecting the properties of the microspheres.

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MECLIZINE AND FOLIC ACID IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Naveen Kumar G.S* 1, U. Srinivas 2, Hanumanthchar Joshi 3,
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Sarada Vilas College of pharmacy,
Mysuru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy,
Srinivas College of pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka India,
3 Department Pharmacognosy,
Sarada Vilas College of pharmacy, Mysuru, Karnataka India
*premukhoja@gmail.com

ABSTRACT  
An UV spectrophotometric method using simultaneous equation was developed for the simultaneous determination of meclizine and folic acid in a binary mixture. In the proposed method, the signals were measured at 390.0 nm and 237.0 nm corresponding to absorbance maxima of and folic acid in methanol respectively. Linearity range was observed in the concentration range of 2-12 µg/ml for both the drugs. Concentration of each drug was obtained by using the absorptivity values calculated for both drugs at two wavelengths, 390.0 nm and 237.0 nm and solving the simultaneous equation. The method was validated and proposed method was fast, accurate and precise so it can be used for regular quality control of the drug.

A STUDY ON ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF DRUG INTERACTIONS IN PHYSCIATRIC WARD IN A TERITARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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ABOUT AUHTORS
M. Manasa Rekha*, T. Mubeena
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya college of Pharmacy,
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.
* manasarekharoyal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: 
Clinical pharmacy is defined as that area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use. The pharmacist, along with the prescriber has a duty to ensure that patients are aware of the risk of side effects and a suitable course of action should they occur. With their detailed knowledge of medicine, pharmacists have the ability to relate unexpected symptoms experienced by patients to possible drug interactions of their drug therapy. The practice in clinical pharmacy also ensures that drug interactions are minimized by avoiding drugs with potential side effects in susceptible patients. Thus, pharmacist has a major role to play in relation to prevention, detection, and reporting drug interactions.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ATOMOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Seema Farheen1*, Shaik Zubair1 , Alwala Arpini1, Govindapuram Kalpana  Goud2,  Saidulu Soppari3, Mangulal Kethavath4
1Department  of pharmaceutics,
Vijaya College Of Pharmacy, Ranga Reddy, Telangana, India.
2Department  of pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance,
SLC’S College Of Pharmacy, Nalgonda, Telangana, India.
3Department  of pharmacology,
SLC’S College Of Pharmacy, Nalgonda, Telangana, India.
4Department  of pharmaceutics,
SLC’S College Of Pharmacy, Nalgonda, Telangana, India
*seemafarheen75@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Atomoxetine hydrochloride (atomoxetine) increased the risk of suicidal ideation in short-term studies in children or adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Tablets of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride were formulated as sustained release tablet employing tamarind seed polysaccharide, guar gum, PVP, Mg. stearate, MCC  the sustained release tablets was investigated. Sustained release matrix tablets contain Atomoxetine Hydrochloride were developed using different drug polymer concentration of tamarind seed polysaccharide, guar gum,. Tablets were prepared by directly using MCC. Formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable tablet properties and in-vitro drug release. The resulting formulation produced robust tablets with optimum hardness, thickness consistent weight uniformity and low friability. All tablets but one exhibited gradual and near completion sustained release for Atomoxetine Hydrochloride, and 98.6% and 97.5 released at the end of 12 hrs. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation F8, the most successful of the study. An increase in release kinetics of the drug was observed on decreasing polymer concentration

COMPARATIVE DIURETIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN IDIVIDUAL AND COMBINATION FORM

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Babar Vishal Bharat.*

Dattakala College of Pharmacy (D. Pharmacy),
Pune,Maharashtra, India
*vishalbabar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis Linn. (Parijatha) and Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Kokila) and combination of these extracts were compared for their diuretic activity using Lipschitz test. Standard drug used was furosemide (100mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. All the extracts significantly increased urine elimination and Na+, K+, and Cl- excretion as compared to normal saline treated groups. The combination of hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis and Hygrophila spinosa in 1:1 ratio showed better diuretic activity. Comparatively the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis showed more significant activity than Hygrophila spinosa extracts. The result revealed that Nycatanthes arbortristis is having better diuretic activity than Hygrophila spinosa which supports the traditional use of the plant.

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