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Pharma Analysis

Pharmaceutical Analysis

INTRODUCTION
Pharmaceutical analysis is a branch of practical chemistry that involves a series of process for identification, determination, quantification and purification of a substance, separation of the components of a solution or mixture, or determination of structure of chemical compounds.

APPLICATIONS OF IR SPECTROSCOPY

            APPLICATIONS OF IR SPECTROSCOPY

Infrared spectroscopy is widely used in industry as well as in research. It is a simple and reliable technique for measurement, quality control and dynamic measurement. It is also employed in forensic analysis in civil and criminal analysis.

ISOTOPE effect in IR Spectroscopy

                          ISOTOPE EFFECTS

The different isotopes in a particular species may give fine detail in infrared spectroscopy.
FOURIER TRANSFORM in IR Spectroscopy

               FOURIER TRANSFORM

Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is the technique for measurement of infrared spectra in which the amount of energy absorbed is not recorded but  when the frequency of the infra-red light is varied, the IR light is guided through an 
Sampling Methods for IR Spectroscopy

                                 Sample Preparation

 

IR spectroscopy is used for the characterization of solid, liquid or gas samples. Material containing sample must be transparent to the IR radiation. So, the salts like NaCl, KBr are only used.

Instrumentation of IR Spectrophotometry

 

                           Instrumentation

The main parts of IR spectrometer are as follows:

Vibrations in Infra red Rays

 

                 Types of Vibrations in IR

Applications of Absorption Spectroscopy (UV, Visible)

1. Detection of Impurities
UV absorption spectroscopy is one of the best methods for determination of impurities in organic molecules. Additional peaks can be observed due to impurities in the sample and it can be compared with that of standard raw material. By also measuring the absorbance at specific wavelength, the impurities can be detected.
Benzene appears as a common impurity in cyclohexane. Its presence can be easily detected by its absorption at 255 nm.

admin Tue, 03/02/2010 - 01:06
Beer's and Lambert's Law

When a light passes through absorbing medium at right angle to the plane of surface or the medium or the solution, the rate of decrease in the intensity of the transmitted light decreases exponentially as the thickness of the medium increases arithmetically.

Accordingly, Lambert’s law can be stated as follows:

Elecromagnetic Spectra, EMR

The entire range over which the electromagnetic radiation exists is known as electromagnetic spectrum.

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