Articles

PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE / SCRAP MANAGEMENT

About Authors: Rakesh Verma
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. college ,
sri ganganagar

1. Introduction
The discovery of a variety of pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, and drinking waters around the country is raising concerns about the potentially adverse environmental consequences of these contaminants. Minute concentrations of chemicals known as endocrine disruptors, some of which are pharmaceuticals, are having detrimental effects on aquatic species and possibly on human health and development. The consistent increase in the use of potent pharmaceuticals, driven by both drug development and our aging population, is creating a corresponding increase in the amount of pharmaceutical waste generated. Pharmaceutical waste is not one single waste stream, but many distinct waste streams that reflect the complexity and diversity of the chemicals that comprise pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical waste is potentially generated through a wide variety of activities in a health care facility, including but not limited to intravenous (IV) preparation, general compounding, spills/breakage, partially used vials, syringes, and IVs, discontinued, unused preparations, unused unit dose repacks, patients’ personal medications and outdated pharmaceuticals.

Synthesis & Evalution Of Triazolo Phthalazine Derivatives As Anticonvulsant Agents

About Author:
ANAND GAURAV, SMITA SINGH
M.Pharm,
Assistant Professor

Abstract:
The importance of the phthalazine as a nucleus with medicinal properties is well established, since many decades. This nucleus possess potent anticonvulsant activity with high protection index value that why this property is use for the treatment that are related to mental disorder, like seizures.  Phthalazine and its derivatives possessing triazines nucleus has attracted great attention in recent years due to wide variety of biological activity particularly anticonvulsant activity keeping in view the continuing interest in phthalazine and its derivatives. The present study is aimed at synthesizing safer and effective anticonvulsant triazolo-phthalazine derivatives to evaluate them for anticonvulsant activity.

Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Soft Gel for Oral Administration

About Author: Alka Lohani
M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
department of pharmaceutical sciences bhimtal campus
kumaun university nainital

Abstract:
Inconvenience of administration and patient compliance are gaining significant importance in the design of dosage forms. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) is common among all age groups, especially in elderly and pediatrics. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is an orally administered antibacterial agent. The objective of this study was to develop ciprofloxacin hydrochloride soft gel using sodium alginate as a gelling agent and sodium citrate as a source of cation. Gels are formed by aggregation of polymers with minimum two components; the gelling agent and the fluid component.  Different batches were prepared using three different concentrations of sodium alginate (0.1, 0.4, and 0.8%). The consistency of sodium alginate gel was dependent on the concentration of, sodium alginate, sodium citrate and co-solute. The results of dissolution study of soft gel F3 containing 0.4% sodium alginate and 0.3% sodium citrate revealed that Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was 85% released in 45 min. and possessed acceptable sensory characteristics when evaluated by human volunteers. Short term stability study carried out for four weeks at different temperatures (0°C and room temperature) showed no considerable changes in performance characteristics of developed optimized formulation.

Effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alterations: Possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism

About Authors: Seema Meena, Anil Kumar and Shikha Chauhan
a) Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida,-201301, India.
b) Neuropharmacology division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre for Advance Studies, Panjab University, chandigarh-160014, India.

Abstract:
Neuropathic pain represents a real clinical challenge because of its severity, chronic nature, and inadequate drug therapy. Recently, nitric oxide pathway has been proposed in the pathogenesis neuropathic pain like conditions. Curcumin is a well known for its antioxidant and medicinal values. The objective of the present study was to explore possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of curcumin against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.Sciatic nerve ligation was performed in Wistar rats. Various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia) followed by assessment of biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, and nitrite) both on sciatic nerves and brain. Sciatic nerve ligation significantly caused thermal hyeralgesia, cold allodynia and oxidative damage as compared to sham (Sciatic nerve without ligation) and naïve animals. Chronic administration of curcumin (20 mg/kg, po) significantly reversed behavioral alteration and attenuated oxidative damage in both sciatic nerve and brain as compared to control.  Further, L-NAME (5 mg/kg) pretreatment with curcumin (10 mg/kg, po) potentiated protective effect of curcumin as compared to their effect per se. However, L-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment with curcumin (10 mg/kg, po) significantly reversed the protective effects of curcumin. Result of present study suggests that nitric oxide mechanism could be involved in the protective effect of curcumin against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavior and biochemical alterations in rats.

Overview and Information of BENFOTIAMINE

About Author: Sayani Chakrabarti
M.Pharm in Pharmaceutical Chemistry
SIPS, Jharpokharia
Mayurbhanj-757086
Orissa

ABSTRACT
Benfotiamine (rINN, or S-benzoylthiamine O-monophoshate) is a synthetic S-acyl derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). It has potential anti oxidant effect. A three-armed, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled double-blind study was used to examine the efficacy of benfotiamine vs a combination containing benfotiamine and vitamins B6 and B12 in out-patients with severe symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy (Benfotiamine in treatment of Alcoholic Polyneuropathy. BAP I). The study period was 8 weeks and 84 patients fulfilled all the prerequisite criteria and completed the study as planned. Benfotiamine led to significant improvement of alcoholic polyneuropathy. Vibration perception (measured at the tip of the great toe) significantly improved in the course of the study, as did motor function, and the overall score reflecting the entire range of symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy. A tendency toward improvement was evident for pain and co-ordination, no therapy-specific adverse effects were seen.

RECENT TRENDS IN INSULIN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

About Authors: Ms.Komal  R. Nikam (B.Pharmacy), Mr.Mahendra G. Pawar (B.Pharmacy), Mr. Kishor S. Salunkhe (M.Pharm,PhD), Mr.Devidas G.Bachhav(M.Pharm)
Amrutvahini college of pharmacy,Sangamner.(Pune University)

Abstract:
The demand for novel drug delivery technologies is ever increasing. These drug delivery technologies includes oral, transdermal, inhalation and parenteral. The main goal for the delivery of any drug therapy is oral administration with once or twice daily dosing. However, there are large numbers of therapies, particularly protein-based, gene-based vaccine-based that cannot be delivered by this route for example insulin, growth hormones and other similar biologicals.
The pitfalls of needle-based injections are well known. Psychological resistances to self-injection or needle-phobia have been documented across large demographic groups, such as diabetics. The result of this phobia is that many outpatient injectables are dosed sub-optimally. Furthermore, awareness of serious problems has caused physicians and their patients to either delay therapy initiation or seek out less-invasive alternatives, even at some cost to clinical effectiveness.
For some, especially those suffering from chronic diseases requiring injectable products two or three times a day, this process is an ongoing reality of daily life for example diabetics-accepted, but always with the hope that something new will replace the ritual of needle insertion. To overcome the problems related to needle based injections, there is one technology that has received considerable attention during the past few years and that offers all of the sought after benefits is—Needle Free Injection Technology (NFIT).

Lawsonia inermis - From traditional use to scientific assessment

About Authors: Inder Kumar Makhija
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Manipal University, Manipal-576 104,
Karnataka

ABSTRACT
The world is endowed with a rich heritage of medicinal plants. The use of medicinal agents presumably predates the earliest recorded history. Medicinal plants are widely used by traditional practitioners for various ailments. Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae) commonly known as ‘Henna’is a well-known plant used in the Indian medicine. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional Indian medicine. The plant has wide range of phytochemicals including lawsone, isoplumbagin lawsoniaside, lalioside, lawsoniaside B, syringinoside, daphneside, daphnorin, agrimonolide 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-syringaresinol O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-pinoresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, syringaresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,  isoscutellarin3β, hennadiol, (20S)-3β, 30-dihydroxylupane, lawnermis acid, 3-methyl-nonacosan-1-ol, laxanthones I, II, III and lacoumarin etc. The various in-vitro and in-vivo studies of L. inermis reported the plant to have antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, tuberculostatic, anti-inflammatory, antifertility and wound healing properties. This review discusses on the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacological data of the plant.

Stress Induced Method Development and Validation of Olmesartan in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by UV Spectrometric Method

About Authors: 1Arun Kumar Dash*, 2Amitesh Palo,
1. Royal College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Berhampur.
2. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur

ABSTRACT
A simple method for the estimation of Olmesartan in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. Methanol was chosen as the solvent system. The λmax was found to be 257nm and all absorbance values were carried out at 257nm. The responses were linear in the range of 5-35µg/ml. The regression equation of the calibration graph and correlation coefficient were found to be y = 0.049x + 0.007 and 0.999 respectively. The %RSD values for both intraday and interday precision were less than 1%. The recovery of the drug from the sample was ranged between 99.36 and 100.49%. The proposed method was validated for precision, accuracy, intraday, interday assay, robustness and ruggedness. Commercial tablets containing 20mg and 40mg of Olmesartan were analyzed by the proposed method and the results were well within the claimed limits. Furthermore stability studies of Olmesartan were carried out under acidic, alkaline, hydrolytic and photolytic conditions as per SIAM (Stability Indicating Assay Methods).

Synthesis and biological evaluation of newer analogues of 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole as antioxidant and anticonvulsant agents

About Authors: Arun Dureja*, Kalpana Divekar and M.S.Sandhyavali
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Dayananda Sagar College of Pharmacy,
Kumaraswamy Layout,
Bangalore

Abstract
A series of 3-(4-acetyl-5H-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- 2H-chromen-2-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities. Initially Ethyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate was prepared by reacting Salicylaldehyde with Diethyl malonate in presence of piperidine. This compound was treated with hydrazine hydrate to give aromatic hydrazides. Those hydrazides were refluxed with different aldehydes to form arylidines, which were then treated with acetic anhydride to form 3-(4-acetyl-5H-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- 2H-chromen-2-one derivatives. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized and confirmed by IR and 1HNMR and then screened for antioxidant activity by DPPH reduction method and anticonvulsant activity by MES method. The investigation revealed that out of eight newly synthesized derivatives five were found to possess significant anticonvulsant activity but none of the derivative was found with antioxidant activity.

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