Articles

CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTATION OF PROCESS ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGY (PAT) – A REVIEW

About Author: Amit Surani,
Dept. of Quality Assurance,

M.Pharm, Maliba College of Pharmacy, Surat
Gujarat Technical University

ABSTRACT
According to FDA, Process Analytical Technology (PAT) is a system for designing, analyzing, and controlling manufacturing process through timely measurements of critical quality and performance attributes of raw materials, in-process materials and processes with the goal of ensuring final product quality.
PAT involves the use of different technologies and tools to build quality into the products. Effective PAT implementation is based on detailed, science-based understanding of the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of all elements of the proposed drug product.
Pharmaceutical companies face many challenges while implementing PAT into their new and pre-existing manufacturing processes. This article discusses the challenges encountered by manufacturers and the benefits they can reap by successful implementation of PAT.

Click chemistry - A New Approach for Drug Discovery

About Author: Shekh Yunus1, Nirmal Das Adhikary2 and Partha Chattopadhyay*
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
at IICB, Jadavpur, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, India

Source of Support: NIPER Kolkata and IICB

ABSTRACT:
Click chemistry is a modular approach that uses only the most practical and reliable chemical transformations. Its applications are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery, ranging from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in situ chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research, using bioconjugation reactions. The copper-(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole formation from azides and terminal acetylenes is a particularly powerful linking reaction, due to its high degree of dependability, complete specificity, and the bio-compatibility of the reactants. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions.

PESTICIDES: A SLOW POISON

About Authors: Shanker Swaroop Sharma
B.Pharm
Sagar Institute of Tech. & Management, Barabanki

ABSTRACT:
With enormous increase in the population the demand of pesticides gradually increases throughout the world. the question arises that where the fault begins, whether farmers are spraying overdose of pesticides either to earn money or to save their crop. Movement of pesticides into surface or ground water affected human & wildlife beyond acceptable safety levels where 20000 deaths reported annually.

An Article on Pharmacogenetics

About Authors:Kisananad Vishwakarma,
B.Pharm
SGI Barabanki,
GBTU

ABSTRACT:
Pharmacogenetics is generally regarded as the study or clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs. It refers to genetic differences in metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs. Much of current clinical interest is at the level of pharmacogenetics, involving variation in genes involved in, drug metabolism with a particular emphasis on improving drug safety. The wider use of pharmacogenetic testing is viewed by many as an outstanding opportunity to improve prescribing safety and efficacy.

PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF KSHEERABALA THAILAM

About Authors: T.Venkatesh.Y.Nandini,L.Sai Kishore,V.Satish Kumar, P.Archana, G.malathi
Guided by: Ms.S.Rekha
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY.
Chilkur Balaji College of Pharmacy,Moinabad,Hyderabad.

ABSTRACT:
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity “KSHEERABALA THAILAM” (an ayurvedic preparation of IMCOPS) by topical application against fresh egg white induced inflammation on Swiss albino rats. Using Randall and Baroth methodKsheerabala Thailam was investigated for the anti-inflammatory activity in Swiss albino rats against Diclofenac as standard reference and normal saline as control .  The time taken for reduction of the inflammation in the rat paw was determined. The topical application of Ksheerabala Thailam exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard Diclofenac and normal saline. The topical application of Ksheerabala Thailam has anti-inflammatory effect on Swiss albino rats.

Pharmacognostic Studies of the Stems of Rumex Hastatus

About Author:
Rajput Praveen Kumar*, Gahlot Kavita
College of Pharmacy,
Institute of Foreign Trade and Management (IFTM),
Moradabad (UP)

Abstract:
Rumex hastatus is the bushy shrub or undershrub 30-90 cm,high,occurring chiefly on dry rocks and hillsides on dry rocks and hillsides of western Himalayas from Kumaun to Kashmir,at altitudes between 300 and 2400 m . Rootstock woody; leaves 2.5-6.5 cm.long,hastate, thick and fleshy ; flowers pink or green tinged with pink, polygamous ,on terminal panicles;nut small,trigonous.
Leaves have a pleasant acid tase and can be eaten;they also serve as an ingredienr for chutney and pickles.Root and stem yield 21-23 percent tannin.

Orthomolecular Therapy- A Ray Of Hope In Schizophrenia Treatment

About Author:
Divyasri Damacharla, Shruthi Gobbooru, IV.B.Pharm,
M.S.Ramaiah College Of Pharmacy

Abstract:
The use of prescription drugs in the treatment of diseases causes loss of essential nutrients from the body leading to various side effects. So Linus Pauling discovered the orthomolecular therapy which uses the essential nutrients which are found less in a particular disease condition. Here in Schizophrenia, certain negative and positive symptoms are observed with the use of certain prescription drugs. Besides, they are even ineffective sometimes. So, orthomolecular therapy has been developed and modified by various scientists like Drs Abram Hoffer and Humphrey Osmond in 1965 and treated and cured many hundreds of schizophrenic patients with their “Megavitamin formula”

Niosome: A Magic Targeted Drug Delivery System

About Author: DEVANG V. PATEL*, Manju Misra
M.S.(PHARM.) PHARMACEUTICS
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH (NIPER), AHMEDABAD.

Abstract
Drug targeting is the ability to direct a therapeutic agent specifically to desired site of action with little or no interaction with nontarget tissue. Niosomes are one of the best carriers for drug targeting. Niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles) are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. Niosomes are biodegradable, relatively nontoxic, more stable and inexpensive, an alternative to liposomes. Niosomes can be SUV (Small Unilamellar Vesicles), MLV (Multilamellr Vesicles) or LUV (Large Unilamellar Vesicles). The method of preparation of niosome is the based on liposome technology. The basic process of preparation is the same i.e. hydration of the lipid phase by aqueous phase. After preparing niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated by dialysis, centrifugation or gel filtration. Niosomes are characterized by vesicle size, bilayer formation, number of lamellae, membrane rigidity and entrapment efficiency. A method of in-vitro release rate study includes the use of dialysis tubing. Niosomal drug delivery is potentially applicable to many pharmacological agents for their action against various diseases including cancer and leishmaniasis.

PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE / SCRAP MANAGEMENT

About Authors: Rakesh Verma
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. college ,
sri ganganagar

1. Introduction
The discovery of a variety of pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, and drinking waters around the country is raising concerns about the potentially adverse environmental consequences of these contaminants. Minute concentrations of chemicals known as endocrine disruptors, some of which are pharmaceuticals, are having detrimental effects on aquatic species and possibly on human health and development. The consistent increase in the use of potent pharmaceuticals, driven by both drug development and our aging population, is creating a corresponding increase in the amount of pharmaceutical waste generated. Pharmaceutical waste is not one single waste stream, but many distinct waste streams that reflect the complexity and diversity of the chemicals that comprise pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical waste is potentially generated through a wide variety of activities in a health care facility, including but not limited to intravenous (IV) preparation, general compounding, spills/breakage, partially used vials, syringes, and IVs, discontinued, unused preparations, unused unit dose repacks, patients’ personal medications and outdated pharmaceuticals.

Synthesis & Evalution Of Triazolo Phthalazine Derivatives As Anticonvulsant Agents

About Author:
ANAND GAURAV, SMITA SINGH
M.Pharm,
Assistant Professor

Abstract:
The importance of the phthalazine as a nucleus with medicinal properties is well established, since many decades. This nucleus possess potent anticonvulsant activity with high protection index value that why this property is use for the treatment that are related to mental disorder, like seizures.  Phthalazine and its derivatives possessing triazines nucleus has attracted great attention in recent years due to wide variety of biological activity particularly anticonvulsant activity keeping in view the continuing interest in phthalazine and its derivatives. The present study is aimed at synthesizing safer and effective anticonvulsant triazolo-phthalazine derivatives to evaluate them for anticonvulsant activity.

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