TREATMENT OF XENOBIOTICS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY MIXED CULTURED MICROBES

 

About Authors:
Saptaparna Mukherjee
Emami Limited, Quality Control
West Bengal University of Technology
sapta.muk@gmail.com

Abstract
By polluted water (Industrial waste water) treatment we are trying to reduce the water pollution as well as the recycling of water may reduce the deficiency of water in dry places of earth. Xenobiotics are often synonyms of pollutants if this accumulates in the biots body and cause disease. Industrial waste water contents many pollutants like heavy metals, pesticides, toxic substances, which may affect the plant and animals of a particular geographic area and in taking by humans may cause severe diseases. Unlike to recent available filters our bio filter can remove the heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead), the pesticides and any toxic substances found in industrial waste water (tannery, battery, paper etc) by microbial metabolism (Packed bed of fugue and bacteria) and other simple filtration(charcoal treatment, reverse osmosis etc). Microbes are very helpful in absorbing or chelating or degrading the heavy metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium etc), pesticides, organic and radioactive substances. Like Aspergillus candidus (fugue), Rhodotorula rubra (yeast) and Thiobacillus ferooxidans, Serratia marinorubra (bacteria) can convert arsenic to asenite, which is less harmful than source. Similar microbes can find for other heavy metals and toxic substances.

This filter can be used as domestic and industrial purpose to reduce organic and inorganic load of industrial waste stream, the main importance is that the used bacterial and fungus beds are not pollutant for our environment. So the replacement of any unit of this filter will not cause any more pollution only reduce it. The waste unused water thus can be made to use as domestic and agricultural purpose. The main aims of our project are: waste water treatment, recycling and conserving water, save the animals and plants from xenobiotic effects due to industrial waste.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1948

1. Introduction
Projects of biotechnology are very helpful to lead a healthy life in this polluted earth. Nowadays pollution is a major problem of this green earth, every species of it is badly affected by water, air, land, sound pollution. By polluted water treatment we are trying to reduce the water pollution. Not only that but also the recycling of water may reduce the deficiency of water in dry places of earth.

2. Literature Review
Xenobiotics is a term which means chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. The term xenobiotic is derived from the Greek words
ξ?νος (xenos) = foreigner, stranger and βioς (bios, vios) = life. So these xenobiotics are often synonyms of pollutants if this accumulates in the biots body and cause disease. Industrial waste water contents many pollutants like heavy metals, pesticides, toxic substances, which may affect the plant and animals of a particular geographic area, and in taking by humans may cause severe diseases.

2.1 Effect of Arsenic on human health

  • Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can cause cancer in the skin, lungs, bladder and kidney. It can also cause other skin changes such as thickening and pigmentation. The likelihood of effects is related to the level of exposure to arsenic and in areas where drinking water is heavily contaminated, these effects can be seen in many individuals in the population. Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer and skin changes have been reported in people ingesting arsenic in drinking water at concentrations of 50 |ug/litre, or even lower.
  • Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water in Taiwan has caused blackfoot disease, in which the blood vessels in the lower limbs are severely damaged, resulting eventually in progressive gangrene. Its occurrence in Taiwan may be influenced by factors such as poor nutrition. However, arsenic exposure has caused other forms of blood vessel disease in the limbs in several other countries.

2.2 Effect of Mercury on human health

  • Inorganic mercury is found in batteries and is used in the chemical industry and it is produced from elemental mercury through the process of oxidation. Inorganic mercury is the most common form that is present in drinking water but is not considered to be very harmful to human health, in terms of the levels found in drinking water. However, kidney damage may result from exposure to inorganic mercury through other sources.
  • Organic mercury (primarily methyl mercury) is produced by specific bacterial organisms in acidic surface waters that convert inorganic mercury into organic mercury, which is the form of mercury that poses a significant threat to human health. Methyl mercury is ingested typically by fish and bioaccumulates both in the tissues of fish and the humans that eat these fish.This form is rarely present in drinking water but is a very common contaminant in the tissues of fish and causes damage to the nervous system as well as teratogenesis.

2.3   Effect of Cadmium on human health

  • Cadmium waste streams from the industries mainly end up in soils. The causes of these waste streams are for instance zinc production, phosphate ore implication and bio industrial manure. Another important source of cadmium emission is the production of artificial phosphate fertilizers.
  • Cadmium is first transported to the liver through the blood. There, it is bond to proteins to form complexes that are transported to the kidneys. Cadmium accumulates in kidneys, where it damages filtering mechanisms. This causes the excretion of essential proteins and sugars from the body and further kidney damage. It takes a very long time before cadmium that has accumulated in kidneys is excreted from a human body.
  • Other health effects that can be caused by cadmium are Diarrhea, stomach pains and severe vomiting, bone fracture, reproductive failure and possibly even infertility, damage to the central nervous system, damage to the immune system, psychological disorders, possibly DNA damage or cancer development.

2.4   Effect of lead on human health

  • Lead and lead compounds are generally toxic pollutants. Lead (II) salts and organic lead compounds are most harmful ecotoxicologically.
  • Lead has been demonstrated to be toxic to a wide variety of organs in human. The organ system that have been shown to be most sensitive to low level exposure of lead.
  • Other effects include in nervous system (changes I neurotransmitter levels), metabolism (impairment of vitamin D metabolism), reproductive system (irregular estrus and decreased sexual hormone level), immune system (impaired lymphocyte function and impaired antibody formation).

2.5   Effect of pesticide on human body

  • The amounts and variety of pesticides now used are far greater than in any other time in history. The population is at great risk from the existing allowable levels of pesticide residues.
  • The data strongly suggest that exposure to these neurotoxic compounds at levels believed to be safe for adults could result in permanent loss of brain function when it occurs during prenatal and early childhood periods of brain development.
  • Pesticides may cause acute and delayed health effects in those who are exposed. Pesticide exposure can cause a variety of adverse health effects. These effects can range from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, mimicking hormones causing reproductive problems, and also causing cancer.

2.6 Effect of Toxic Substances on human body

  • The main toxic action includes the production of internal damage. Toxic effects produce liver damage. e.g. Carbon tetrachloride. Toxic effects produce kidney damage e.g. Some halogenated hydrocarbons.
  • The main toxic action is the depressant effect upon the Central Nervous System.
  • Cancer, asthma, chronic fatigue syndrome, allergies and multiple chemical sensitivities can be related to the unprecedented increase of toxic substances in our environment.
  • Microbes are very helpful in absorbing or chelating or degrading the heavy metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium etc), pesticide, organic and radioactive substances. The important tolerance mechanism of xenobiotic by the microorganisms are (a)intracellular accumulation,(b)cell wall associated metal interaction,(c)extracellular immobilization of metals,(d)extracellular polymer metal interactions and (e)transformation and volatilization of metals.


Fig 2.1 : Various metal detoxification pathways in a microbial cell

We are using this technology to remove the pollutants of water to control water pollution, xenobiotic effect on human body, deficiency of water on dry earth.

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