THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM LINN. (WHEAT GRASS OR GREEN BLOOD THERAPY) IN THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF CHRONIC AND ACUTE DISEASES: AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Keshari Roshan*, K.S. Rathore, M. Bharkatiya, P.K. Goel, P.S Naruka, S.S Saurabh
Bhupal Nobel’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
roshankeshari220@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
It is the shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. And in Hindi it is called as gehun kanak, and in Sanskrit it is known as gohuma and in English it is known as wheat grass. It is unique therapy. It has got all the nutritional value that is required for the person to keep healthy. As it consist of fat, carbohydrate, sugar, protein, vitamin such that thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, choline, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, amino acid, enzymes, minerals  such that calcium, potassium, zinc, sodium, magnesium, choline, chlorophyll which is most important of the therapeutic activity of wheat grass, and some trace element. Wheat grass juice is close resemblance to haemoglobin in our blood so it is called green blood and known as green blood therapy. As it is recommended for the patient suffering from cancer, ulcer, disease related to joint such as gout, osteoarthritis, thalasemia, skin disease such as eczema, ache, disease related to digestive system, blood and circulatory system, reproductive system, respiratory system, tooth and gum, migraine. As it is easily absorbed in the bloodstream and gives energy. In empty stomach it is easily assimilated in blood in approximately 20 min. And their activity remains throughout the day. This review is concluded that wheat grass have highly curative value by easily available substance.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2390

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 4, Issue 2

Received On: 13/09/2015; Accepted On: 20/09/2015; Published On: 01/02/2016

How to cite this article: Roshan K, Rathore KS, Bharkatiya M, Goel PK, Naruka PS, Saurabh SS; Therapeutic potential of Triticumaestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass or Green Blood Therapy) in the treatment and prevention of Chronic and Acute Diseases: An Overview; PharmaTutor; 2016; 4(2); 19-27

INTRODUCTION
Shoot of TRITICUM AESTIVUM Linn. (Hindi Name- gehun, kanak, Sanskrit name- godhuma) is called as a wheat grass, belonging to family: Gramineae.[1] Wheat grass is a grass which consists of carbohydrates, vitamin, all essential minerals . As wheat grass juice bears a closer resemblance to the “haemoglobin” in our blood, the juice is often called as “green blood” and the therapy using it is called as “green blood therapy” wheat grass juice is complete food. It refers to the young grass of the common wheat plant, which is freshly juiced or dried into powder for consumption. Packed with chlorophyll, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes, it is a powerhouse of nourishment. Wheatgrass or baby wheat juice is an extremely natural food. Since according to Dr. Anne Wigmore rediscovered the nutritional qualities of wheatgrass juice in 1960, the juice has helped hundreds of thousands of people around the world to overcome serious health problems.[2]

However wheatgrass juice is not a panacea. If you continue to consume processed foods, drugs, alcohol, tobacco, burned foods and other toxic substances that can make you ill, a few milliliters of wheatgrass juice each day won’t make much difference. Instead, try consuming a predominately (or entirely) raw food diet with organic wheatgrass juice. You will most likely experience a world of improvement.

The consumption of wheatgrass in the Western world began in the 1930s as a result of experiments conducted by Charles F. Schnabel, a food scientist who experimented with various mixtures of grain and feed and found that chickens fed on mixtures that contained a high proportion of wheat grass had grown better, were more healthy and had 150% better egg production than other hens. Further experimentation on other animals yielded the same results. Animals fed on wheatgrass were undoubtedly healthier than those fed on other grains.[3] Wheat Grass Juice  is an extract squeezed from the mature sprouts of wheat seeds (T. aestivum).

The therapeutic activity of wheat grass is due to the presence of the nutritional content like chlorophyll, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin and iron biflavoinids mineral like calcium and magnesium.

it consist of sixteen amino acid in which eight of which are essential.[4]Although the therapeutic activity of wheat grass has approved for four decades before but it was not use before because of the lack of powerful clinical data to support the therapeutic activity.   But the few experiment has been evaluate the efficacy of wheat grass in the form of powder or juice in the treatment of chronic disease like cancer[5], rheumatoid arthritis [6], and ulcer[7].Etc.

Benefits
It is used in the treatment of various diseases as about approximately 350. Some of them are-
1.  Weakness, anemia, malnutrition, insomnia, headache, joint pains, arthritis, kidney disorders, ear pain, dental pain.
2.
Balancing fat in the body.
3. It has shown to be powerful impact on the treatment of different skin problems like burns Insect bites, wounds, psoriasis and much type cancers. Wheat grass paste is also used as a beautification.
4. It is also used to detoxify the body, strengthens immunity and improves the micro-flora ecology of the digestive tract.
5. It is also used to maintain the brain and all body tissues function at optimal levels only in a highly-oxygenated environment.
6. A one of the study at the University of California showed that wheat grass contains an enzyme P4D1 capable of repairing faulty DNA.
7. The three most important effects of wheat grass on the human body are: blood purification, liver detoxification and colon cleansing.
8. According to Dr Bernard Jensen, it only takes a few minutes to digest wheat grass juice and doing so uses up very little of the body’s energy.

Source

Classification:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Cyperales
Family: Gramineae
Genus: Triticum
Species: aestivum
Sub family: pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae

Wheat (Triticum spp.)[8][9] is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East but now cultivated worldwide. This grain is grown on more land area than any other commercial food. Wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a higher protein content than other major cereals, maize (corn) or rice.[10] Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodle, couscous[11]and for fermentation to make beer,[12] other alcoholic beverages,[13] and biofuel.[14]

NUTRITIONAL VALUE RELATED TO WHEAT GRASS

Nutritional value per 100g (3.5oZ)

1. Energy                         1,368 kJ  (327 Kcal)

2. Carbohydrate                 71.18g
-sugar                              0.41g
-Dietary fiber                     12.2g

3.  Fat                              1.54g

4.  Protein                         12.63g

5.  Vitamin
Thiamine (B1)                    (33%) 0.383mg
Riboflavin (B2)                    (10%) 0.115mg
Niacin (B3)                         (36%) 5.464 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)          (19%) 0.954 mg
Vitamin (B6)                       (23%) 0.3mg
Folate     (B9)                     (10%) 38µg
Choline                               (6.0%)   3.12mg
Vitamin E                            (7%) 1.01mg
Vitamin K                            (2%) 1.9µg

6. Trace element              
Calcium                                 (3%) 29mg
Iron                                      (35%) 126 mg
Magnesium                             (190%) 3.985mg
Phosphorus                             (41%)    288mg
Potassium                               (81%)   363mg
Sodium                                   (0%) 2mg
Zinc                                       (28%)    2.65 mg

7. Other constituent Selenium    70.7µg

Health concern
Several screening studies in Europe, South America, Australasia, and the USA suggest that approximately 0.5–1% of these populations may have undetected coeliac diseases.[15] Coeliac which is also written as celiac disease ,is a condition that is caused by an adverse immune system reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat . Upon exposure to gliadin, the enzyme tissue transglutaminase modifies the protein, and the immune system cross-reacts with the bowel tissue, causing an inflammatory reaction. That leads to flattening of the lining of the small intestine, which interferes with the absorption of nutrients. The only effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet.

Cause of disease due to wheat grass
There are many wheat diseases, mainly caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses.[16] Plant breeding to develop new disease-resistant varieties, and sound crop management practices are important for preventing disease. Fungicides, used to prevent the significant crop losses from fungal disease, can be a significant variable cost in wheat production. Estimates of the amount of wheat production lost owing to plant diseases vary between 10–25% in Missouri.[17] A wide range of organisms infect wheat, of which the most important are viruses and fungi.[18]

The main wheat-disease categories are:
· Seed-borne diseases: these include seed-borne scab, seed - borne stagonospora it was previously known as Septoria, common bunt (stinking smut), and loose smut. These are managed with fungicides.
· Leaf- and head- blight diseases: Powdery mildew, leaf rust, Septoriatritici leaf blotch, Stagonospora (Septoria) nodorum leaf and glume blotch, and Fusarium head scab.[19]
· Crown and root rot diseases: Two of the more important of these are 'take-all and Cephalosporium stripe. Both of these diseases are soil borne.
· Stem rust diseases: Caused by basidiomycete fungi e.g. Ug99.
· Viral diseases: Wheat spindle streak mosaic (yellow mosaic) and barley yellow dwarf are the two most common viral diseases. Control can be achieved by using resistant varieties.

The major chemical constituent present in TRITICUM AESTIVUM which makes the wheat grass valuable in boosting the health as vitality are explained below-

Vitamin A
It enhances the skin luster and provides fair glow to the outer skin and makes it free from disease. It helps to cure the black spots and blemishes below the eyes and improves the eyesight. It is also helpful in checking the eyes, nose, and throat disorders. It nourishes hair and is helpful in fighting the problems of pollution. It is also used for the beautifying material. Vitamin A is essential for normal growth and development, good eyesight, and reproduction.

Vitamin B
It aids digestion. It is responsible for the treatment of, mental, digestive disorders, depression, insomnia, gastric, premature aging, and anorexia.

Vitamin C
Vitamin C is usually associated with citrus fruits, such as lemons, limes and oranges. However, ounce for ounce, wheatgrass contains more vitamin C than an orange. A powerful antioxidant, vitamin C is helpful for recovering from sickness including the common cold and preventing disease such as scurvy it is a vital substance for healthy gums and teeth and maintenance of bones. It is essential for health and vitality and healing of sores and wounds. It is also a natural source for antibiotic elements.

Vitamin E
It dilates the capillaries and help in the free flow of the blood. It is helpful for the women during pregnancy, it prevents abortion and it is a helpful substance in the treatment of sexual impotency, diabetes, cancer, heart disorders and dysmenorrheal etc. Without enough of this fat-soluble vitamin, we would face muscle degeneration, sterility, and slower healing of wounds and infections. Vitamin E, an antioxidant and fertility vitamin is also a protector of the heart.  

Protein and amino acid
Proteins are essential for physical elegance and muscular strength. Plasmas, hormones, and antibodies are obtained through proteins. Amino acids aid digestion, blood formation and provide potency to the heart.

Enzymes
Enzymes are the digestive elements. The substances in the wheat grass juice are helpful for dyspepsia. These are helpful for digestion, building a healthy body and counteract the premature aging.Protease, amylase, lipase, cytochrome oxidase, transhydrogenase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) are the enzyme which is also found in wheat grass therapy.

Mineral
Iron: Iron is an essential element for life. Iron deficiency creates shortage of hemoglobin in blood. It is helpful in pregnancy, for excessive sweating, pale complexion, laziness and lethargy, and insomnia.Inorganic iron is often constipating, but the iron salts in wheatgrass have no side effects. 

Calcium: Calcium is the prime instigator of vital activity. It strengthens the bones, it provides alkaline for the children and vitality for old. It is helpful in treatment of the diseases like hemorrhage, distension of body, slow movements, coldness, varicose veins, etc.Wheatgrass is a good source of calcium, which helps build strong bones and teeth and regulates heartbeat, in addition to acting as a buffer to restore balance to blood pH.

Potassium: Helpful for the radiance and luster of youth, hypertension, dementia, palpitation, tiredness, suicidal instincts, depression, etc.Potassium, called the youth mineral by some nutritionists, helps maintain a smooth mineral balance, and balanced body weight. It also tones the muscles, firms the skin, and promotes overall beauty.

Zinc: It is Helpful in the prostate gland disorders and nourishes hair.

Sodium: Sodium regulates the extracellular fluid volume. It also regulates the acid–base equilibrium and maintains proper water balance in the body.

Magnesium: We will find about as much magnesium in wheatgrass as in broccoli, Brussels’ sprouts, beets, carrots, or celery. Magnesium is important for good muscle function and for bowel health, as it aids eliminative functions. I believe that this mineral is also responsible for drawing fat out of the liver, in cases of fatty infiltration there. 

MSM
MSM is a sulfur bearing molecule found in all living organisms destroyed in processed food. It helps our body use vitamins, helps to reduce allergies, helps detoxify the body and increase oxygen, and takes out inflammation. That also contains in wheat grass juice.

Nutrients and other substances:
These provide nutrition to the tendons. These are the elements which are resistant to the disorders related to jaundice, menstruation, hydrocele, dysentery, mental debility, tooth problems, evacuation of bowels and the cold related problems.

Chlorophyll
It is the chlorophyll, most wheatgrass advocates claim, that detoxifies the body, strengthens immunity and improves the micro-flora ecology of the digestive tract.

The benefits of chlorophyll known till date are as follows:
• Is the basis of all plant life
• Is a blood builder
• Oxygenates the blood
• anti bacterial in nature
• as healing properties
• Neutralizes toxins in the body
• is alkalinizing in nature
• improves blood sugar problems

Chlorophyll also called as ‘concentrated sun power’ positively impacts the function of the heart, the vascular system, the intestines, the uterus and the lungs. According to Dr. Bircher, a research scientist nature uses chlorophyll in wheatgrass as a body cleanser, re-builder and neutralizer of toxins. The pH value of human blood and Wheatgrass both is about 7 (alkaline) and wheat grass is therefore quickly absorbed in the blood and is highly beneficial. Most wonder effects exerted by wheat grass can mainly be attributed to the benefits of chlorophyll.. The lacteal substances found in it are considered to be an effective element and the only remedy for curing cancer. [20]

Internal rejuvenation
Wheat protein, which comprises up to eight % of the grain, has a special benefit as it has eight of the essential amino acids in delicately balanced proportions. A complete internal rejuvenation takes place when Wheat protein is metabolized into health-building amino acids.

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